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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Relationship Between The Mbti And A Values Conflict Resolution, Marti B. George Dec 1990

The Relationship Between The Mbti And A Values Conflict Resolution, Marti B. George

Master's Theses

This study investigated the relationship between Jungian type personality dimensions and an intrapersonal values conflict resolution. Seventy subjects filled out the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) which assesses the sixteen Jungian personality types. Subjects returned in approximately two weeks to complete the Values Conflict Resolution Assessment (VCRA) which assesses the degree of their resolution about a particular values conflict. It was hypothesized that the thinking-feeling function of mind would positively correlate with scores on the Ethical-Emotional subscale and negatively correlate with scores on the Rational-Behavioral subscale of the VCRA. The result did not confirm our hypotheses. Reliablilty and a principal components ...


A Comparison Of A Topography-Based Language System And A Selection-Based Language System, Sundberg Dec 1990

A Comparison Of A Topography-Based Language System And A Selection-Based Language System, Sundberg

Master's Theses

This study examined whether it was easier for developmentally disabled individuals to acquire a topography-based or a selection-based language system. Four moderately and mildly mentally retarded adults served as subjects. Each of the subjects was taught to tact an object by either pointing to its corresponding symbol (with the selection-based paradigm) or making the corresponding sign (with the topography-based system). They were then taught an intraverbal relation by either selecting the symbol, or making the sign which corresponded to an auditory stimulus. Finally, the subjects were tested for the emergence of stimulus equivalence classes. Each subject was trained and tested ...


An Examination Of The Irrelevance Of The Term Neoconservative As Used In American Ideological Debates, Stanczak Dec 1990

An Examination Of The Irrelevance Of The Term Neoconservative As Used In American Ideological Debates, Stanczak

Master's Theses

This study compared, by analysis of their publications, various people who are considered to be part of the neoconservative movement in the United States. A definition was developed, and a sample of neoconservatives was examined to see if they adhered to the definition. The examination centered around these people's individual views, as published, on economics and the Welfare State; the scope of government in a society; the Cold War and its effect on community; religion; and stability, the state and social justice.

The analysis of their publications leads to the conclusion that there is no cohesive movement that can ...


Applying The Matching Law In A Sheltered Workshop, Skousgard Dec 1990

Applying The Matching Law In A Sheltered Workshop, Skousgard

Master's Theses

This study assessed the validity of the matching law in an applied setting. It manipulated extraneous reinforcement and measured the rate of rocking in a 24-year-old developmentally disabled man. The resulting data were compared to that predicted by the matching law.

The results were important in three ways: (1) extraneous reinforcement systematically affected rocking in an applied setting in the manner predicted by the matching law, (2) a clinically undesirable behavior decreased in frequency, and (3) this decrease occurred in the absence of direct intervention on the target behavior. Thus, to a slight degree, scientific, practical and humanitarian goals were ...


Effect Of Therapist-Initiated Versus Self-Initiated Vestibular Stimulation On Vocalization In Children With Autism, Maddox Dec 1990

Effect Of Therapist-Initiated Versus Self-Initiated Vestibular Stimulation On Vocalization In Children With Autism, Maddox

Master's Theses

Therapist-initiated vestibular stimulation was compared to self-initiated stimulation to determine their relative effects on vocalization in children with autism. Vocalizations produced during table-top activities were also compared to those produced during vestibular stimulation. Two children with autism participated in the study. Vestibular stimulation was provided by a hammock swing. All vocalizations were recorded during a total of thirteen 15-minute test sessions.

Results indicated that in this study: (a) There was no significant difference in quantity of vocalizations produced during self-initiated versus therapist-initiated vestibular stimulation, and (b) there was a significant increase in vocalizations during vestibular stimulation as compared to during ...


Generalization Of Promise-Do Correspondence Training With Respect To The Individual To Whom The Promise Is Made, Latka Dec 1990

Generalization Of Promise-Do Correspondence Training With Respect To The Individual To Whom The Promise Is Made, Latka

Master's Theses

This study used 3 subjects of normal (non-impaired) intelligence, 1 female and 2 males, between the ages of 10 and 13 years to study generalization of promise-do correspondence training effects. In a replicated AE design, contingent monetary reinforcers were used to establish promise-do correspondence in playing nonpreferred computer games. This study demonstrated that the effects of correspondence training procedures could be generalized to an alternative listener or individual to whom the promise was made. Generalization was less evident when there was no listener present. This study also provided some evidence that effects of promise-do correspondence training may not generalize to ...


The Effects Of A Reinforcer On Behavior Maintained By A Second External Reinforcer, Lamere Dec 1990

The Effects Of A Reinforcer On Behavior Maintained By A Second External Reinforcer, Lamere

Master's Theses

A number of studies has shown that providing extrinsic rewards for performing an "intrinsically interesting" task decreases an individual's subsequent interest in that task when the rewards are no longer available (e.g., Deci, 1971, 1972; Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973). Based on these results, many have argued that extrinsic rewards decrease an individual's "intrinsic motivation." A fundamental premise of this argument is that "extrinsic" and "intrinsic motivation" are functionally different, a distinction that is not supported by a behavioral analysis. This study examined whether similar subsequent decrements in task performance would be observed when a behavior is maintained by one type of external reinforcer and a second type of reinforcer is provided for a period o f time and then made unavailable; thereby examining the effects of extrinsic reward on "extrinsic motivation."

Two subjects completed all critical phases of this study. One subject showed a performance decrement following the termination of the second reinforcer. These results indicate that the interference in performance is not limited to situations where extrinsic rewards are provided for performing an "intrinsically interesting" task. Rather, this interference can occur ...


How Work Experience Affects Personnel Selection, Klein Dec 1990

How Work Experience Affects Personnel Selection, Klein

Master's Theses

The literature concerning how work experience affects personnel selection for recent college graduates is reviewed and found to be unimpressive. This present study was designed to analyze employers' perceptions of work experience when considering recent college graduates for employment. A survey consisting of three resumes was reviewed by 56 small businesses (employing 100 or fewer people). The three resumes differed with respect to one of the part-time jobs: an internship, work related to field of study, or non-related work experience. The results showed that an internship was consistently rated better at the 0.05 level over related/nonintern and non-related ...


The Effect Of Family Environment And Medication On Peer Relations Of Adhd Children, Kay D. Congdon Aug 1990

The Effect Of Family Environment And Medication On Peer Relations Of Adhd Children, Kay D. Congdon

Master's Theses

This study examined the influence of family functioning and medication on the peer relations of ADHD children. Experiment 1 focused on parental functioning -- patterns of parenting, stress and conflict, and parental psychopathology -- and how these variables affected ADHD children's peer relations. Experiment 2 examined the effects of Ritalin on peer relations in ADHD children. In Experiment 1, pervasive ADHD (PADHD) and situational ADHD (SADHD) children were assessed for peer relations, family management, family stress, and parental psychopathology. Significant differences were found between mothers of PADHD children and mothers of SADHD children in the Stress Analysis System (Accountability and Anger-In ...


Research And Theory On The Housing And Care Of Laboratory Pigeons And Rats, Schmorrow Aug 1990

Research And Theory On The Housing And Care Of Laboratory Pigeons And Rats, Schmorrow

Master's Theses

This study was an experimental analysis of: (a) housing preference of laboratory pigeons and, (b) the effects of housing on laboratory rat health. Pigeon preference between containment cages and fly cages was determined on the basis of exit time from the containment cage to the fly cage. Rat health was determined by the departmental veterinarian. The rats were exposed to traditional and alternative methods of housing.

The findings from this study indicate that (a) on the basis of pigeons' preferences concerning size, it may be more appropriate to house pigeons in fly cages; and (b) alternative methods of care and ...


Of Berry Pickers, Shanty Boys, And The Jack Pine Bird: Patterns Of Settlement And Subsistence In Nineteenth Century Oscoda County, Moore Aug 1990

Of Berry Pickers, Shanty Boys, And The Jack Pine Bird: Patterns Of Settlement And Subsistence In Nineteenth Century Oscoda County, Moore

Master's Theses

The provisions of the Homestead Act of 1863 (U.S. Congress 1862a) required a settlement pattern of dispersed single families on small tracts of land, which, in turn, affected the subsistence strategies available to the homesteaders. The interaction of federal land legislation with the ecosystem of southern Oscoda County resulted in marked spatial and temporal differences between the tracts that were homesteaded as opposed to those acquired for their timber. A sample population of quarter sections was analyzed in terms of the physical and biotic environments, date of entry, and use. The analysis confirmed that the timber lands were located ...


Resource Allocation As A Function Of Leadership Titles And Myers-Briggs Typology, David C. Leonard Jul 1990

Resource Allocation As A Function Of Leadership Titles And Myers-Briggs Typology, David C. Leonard

Master's Theses

In recent years, research efforts have attempted to identify variables that may moderate leaders' decision making styles. Variables that have been identified include divisibility of the resource, social scripts, and type of resource being divided. This study attempted to replicate these findings and examine the influence of personality variables as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Scale. The influence of the thinking-judging and feeling-judging typologies are examined in light of a resource allocation task, as well as their relationship to Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid of leadership styles. Results were generally nonsignificant. However, the thinking and feeling typologies were ...


The Acquisition Of Spelling By Developmentally Disabled Adults: An Examination Of Some Variations Of The Look-Cover-Write-Check Cycle, Stafford Jun 1990

The Acquisition Of Spelling By Developmentally Disabled Adults: An Examination Of Some Variations Of The Look-Cover-Write-Check Cycle, Stafford

Master's Theses

Five developmentally disabled adults were taught to spell groups of five words using the look-over-write-check cycle, in which the subject looks at the word, covers it, writes the word, then looks at the word again to check the accuracy of spelling. Four variations of this procedure were used with each of the subjects including requiring the subjects to spell the words out loud in the "look" component. The results showed that the subjects required fewer sessions and fewer trials to spell the five words when the out loud requirement was in effect. Approximations generated as the subjects learned to spell ...


Political Influences On The National Park Service : Past And Present, Bonnie Sachatello May 1990

Political Influences On The National Park Service : Past And Present, Bonnie Sachatello

Master's Theses

Since the beginning of the Reagan Administration in 1981, there has been a dramatic change in policies affecting the national parks and the National Park service. The Department of the Interior's goals combined with the economic strategies of this Administration have brought about new park policies that have departed sharply from those of the last two decades. This thesis is designed to distill some of the changes evidenced in park policy and the Park service under the Reagan Administration.


Predicting Attrition For Women At West Point : Is It A Function Of Adopting The Male Dominant Culture?, Jane P. Mckeon Apr 1990

Predicting Attrition For Women At West Point : Is It A Function Of Adopting The Male Dominant Culture?, Jane P. Mckeon

Master's Theses

This study examined 40 selected items from the Student Information Form that had been identified as representing cultural differences between men and women at the United States Military Academy. A principal components analysis of the data collected from 3005 male and 314 female cadets yielded 7 factors for men and 6 factors for women suitable for interpretation. As hypothesized, men and women were found to have similar cultual values, attitudes and experiences based on their similar factor structures. Next, item responses from 58 women attriters were compared to responses from the nonattriters. Using all the factors identified for the women ...


Ethnography Of A Lesbian Community In Michigan, Burton Apr 1990

Ethnography Of A Lesbian Community In Michigan, Burton

Master's Theses

The purpose of this master's thesis is to describe the structure and workings of a community of women in a major western Michigan metropolitan area, who identify themselves as lesbians, and to describe how this subcommunity relates to the dominant American culture in the area. This study examines the ways in which these lesbians define themselves and their subculture.

To facilitate this research, the researcher participated in the group's meetings, both formal and informal, and spoke with individual members about the history of the group, organizational principles, problems and concerns, formal and Informal rules of conduct, values, and ...


Analysis Of Guatemalan Textiles, Tomita Apr 1990

Analysis Of Guatemalan Textiles, Tomita

Master's Theses

This study applies John L. Fischer's (1961) hypothesis that design elements reflect certain social variables to 50 Guatemalan textiles from the collection of the Field Museum of Chicago, to test its applicability. The results of the analysis were consistent with expectations, but some modifications to the original hypothesis are suggested to minimize ambiguities. The modified analysis can be applied in areas such as archaeology, art history and museum work to expand the interpretative potential of material objects, including works of art.


Impact Of Group Process Techniques On Group Cohesiveness, Meola Apr 1990

Impact Of Group Process Techniques On Group Cohesiveness, Meola

Master's Theses

Thirty-three students at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo participated in the study and were divided into seven groups. The results of the Gross Cohesiveness Scale (Gross, 1957) showed two of the seven groups scored within the accepted range of cohesiveness. No significant differences in cohesiveness were found between the groups. Data were also collected on a 3 Factor Cohesiveness Questionnaire. The factors of compatibility and leadership related to group cohesiveness for groups exposed to group process techniques, but no factors related to group cohesiveness for groups who were not exposed to group process techniques. It is suggested that component analysis research ...


Witches Every Month? The Social Construction Of Premenstrual Syndrome, Latham Apr 1990

Witches Every Month? The Social Construction Of Premenstrual Syndrome, Latham

Master's Theses

Premenstrual syndrome was first reported in 1931, but it was not until the early 1980s that it received widespread attention in the medical literature and the popular press. This thesis is a sociological analysis of how physicians and others were able to define premenstrual problems as an illness. The thesis uses a phenomenological approach, referred to as social constructionism, to explore how medical researchers, physicians, pharmaceutical companies, feminists, various entrepreneurs, and others have attempted to define premenstrual problems to promote their own interests. The analytic method is documentary analysis. The thesis argues that physicians were able to make powerful claims ...


The Effects Of Performance Feedback On The Implementation Of A Statistically-Based Quality Control Program, Henry Apr 1990

The Effects Of Performance Feedback On The Implementation Of A Statistically-Based Quality Control Program, Henry

Master's Theses

Although various types of performance feedback have been shown to be effective in maintaining work-related behaviors in numerous settings, most of these behaviors have consisted of fairly simple tasks. More specifically, it has not been conclusively shown that such feedback procedures can be used to maintain the worker behaviors required in the implementation o f a statistically-based quality control program. The present study attempted to show that such complex behaviors could be maintained using effective feedback procedures.

The results showed that the subjects (machine operators) performed at a high level in completing required tasks associated with a statistically-based quality control ...


Blessed Be The Ties That Bind: A Critical Analysis Of The Changing Language In The Organizational Mission Statement As A Form Of Downward Communication, De Haan Apr 1990

Blessed Be The Ties That Bind: A Critical Analysis Of The Changing Language In The Organizational Mission Statement As A Form Of Downward Communication, De Haan

Master's Theses

In this study, the differences in language between an historical and new organizational mission statement were examined. The critical interpretive perspective was utilized; grounded theory was the method used to analyze changes in values and organizational identity.

The findings from this study indicated that the changed mission statement was different from the historical mission statement in three ways: in values and identity, in structure, and in use of voice. The findings were discussed and implications for organizational members considered.


Multidimensional Assessment Of Children's Coping With Daily Stressful Events, Linda Elizabeth Pattee Jan 1990

Multidimensional Assessment Of Children's Coping With Daily Stressful Events, Linda Elizabeth Pattee

Master's Theses

The purpose of the present study was to complete a multi-dimensional assessment of children's coping. Parents of 78 thirdand fifth-grade children completed a 60-item questionnaire that described children's reactions to everyday difficulties. Children completed a class play, peer nomination assessment. Coefficient alpha and test-retest correlations were evaluated. Children also described their coping strategies to seven common situations. The children's responses were coded (kappa = .82) and combined into a priori clusters. Internal consistency for clusters was not obtained, however, the codes also represented either problem-focused or emotion-focused coping strategies. The Harter's Perceived Competence Scale, Family Adaptability . , and ...


Adult Perceptions Of Infant Attractiveness As A Function Of Infant Characteristics, Christine Gesell Anderson Jan 1990

Adult Perceptions Of Infant Attractiveness As A Function Of Infant Characteristics, Christine Gesell Anderson

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Infant Temperament And Maternal Responsiveness As Predictors Of Attachment At 1 Year, Belinda E. Sims Jan 1990

Infant Temperament And Maternal Responsiveness As Predictors Of Attachment At 1 Year, Belinda E. Sims

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Perceptions Of Procedural Justice Of Bargaining Styles, Elizabeth Sanders Jan 1990

Perceptions Of Procedural Justice Of Bargaining Styles, Elizabeth Sanders

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


The Combination Of Interaural Information Across Frequencies: The Effects Of Number Of Components, Component Spacing, And Onset Asynchrony, Mark A. Stellmack Jan 1990

The Combination Of Interaural Information Across Frequencies: The Effects Of Number Of Components, Component Spacing, And Onset Asynchrony, Mark A. Stellmack

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Perceptions Of Juvenile Abuse Victims, Maryjane Thiel Jan 1990

Perceptions Of Juvenile Abuse Victims, Maryjane Thiel

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Zion City, Illinois: A Case Study Of Commitment Within A Religious Utopian Community, Carol Sonnenschein Jan 1990

Zion City, Illinois: A Case Study Of Commitment Within A Religious Utopian Community, Carol Sonnenschein

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Separation Individuation In Adolescence, Glenn M. Mcclanahan Jan 1990

Separation Individuation In Adolescence, Glenn M. Mcclanahan

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Educating Helping Professionals: Public Attitudes And Rape Myths, Linda Breedlove Jan 1990

Educating Helping Professionals: Public Attitudes And Rape Myths, Linda Breedlove

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.