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Articles 1 - 30 of 44
Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences
Curbing Noncontractual Absences In A Mental Health Setting Through The Application Of Contingent Rewards, Crawford
In this study, the effects of contingent rewards on attendance behavior of direct care staff in a psychiatric institution were investigated. The intervention consisted of a letter of commendation and an opportunity to win a lottery for the staff exhibiting perfect attendance for a two week pay period. A multiple baseline analysis of three units failed to show significant declines in absenteeism although there were areas of significant improvement.
Peyote And Peyotism, Akers
Peyote And Peyotism, Akers
The purpose of this study is to provide a general comparative discussion of the native use of peyote, past and present.
Historic sources and ethnographic accounts are reviewed in light of relevant botanical, pharmacological, and ethnological considerations.
A Time-Management Procedure For Helping Graduate Students Accomplish Academic Tasks, Abuhmaidan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of time-management and a task checklist on task completion, the amount of study time and students' grade point average (GPA). A package consisting of a time-management calendar and a task checklist was provided to five Jordanian students. A multiple-baseline across subjects design was used. Individual weekly meetings were conducted to assess the progress of the students on the use of the time-management calendar and task checklist. Students were asked to bring proof of accomplishments for the completed tasks. During the study the completion of tasks went from 64.6% to ...
Effects Of Cued Intertrial Intervals On Response Latency In Pigeons, Whitley
Six White Carneaux pigeons were exposed to fixed-ratio schedule components in a systematic replication of a study by Michael et al. (1981). Separation between median latencies for the two schedule components was demonstrated consistently, reproducing the general features of that research. In a subsequent manipulation, differential stimulus conditions were introduced into the intertrial intervals preceding onset of schedule components in an effort to enhance the likelihood that differential "waiting behaviors" would develop. Two subjects demonstrated a clear decrease in the magnitude of the latency splits following introduction of the cued ITI condition, while other subjects evidenced a similar but less ...
Increasing The Participation Rate For International Behaviorists At The Convention Of The Association For Behavior Analysis, Benz
This is a descriptive study that reviewed past participation of International behaviorists at the Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA) convention, to provide sore help to these presenters to improve the experience, and to disseminate behavioral information outside of the United States by trying to Increase International participation at the ABA convention.
These methods were used to Invite the behavioristsi (a) call for papers, (b) personalized invitations, and (c) poster invitations. Procedures used to improve the convention experience weret (a) an interest questionnaire, and (b) pre- and post-convention surveys.
Comparisons were made between the number of International presenters from years 1981 ...
Performance Contracting As A Support System For Minority Graduate Students: A Feasibility Study, Porter
This study analyzed the feasibility of implementing a performance- contracting program for black graduate students so they could achieve or maintain a grade-point average of a 3.0 or above. Students attended weekly contracting meetings where academic tasks and deadlines were identified and task completion was monitored. The total number of tasks assigned per student for the entire study ranged from 12 to 44, with a mean of 32.6. Task completion ranged from 42% to 100%, with a mean of 68.4%. Nine of the ten students achieved a semester grade point average of 3.0 or above, although ...
An Ethnographic Study Of Punk Rock In Western Michigan: Identity In A Youth Subculture, Pomeroy
This thesis presents an ethnosemantic analysis of the punk rock subculture of western Michigan. Assertion of personal identity is demonstrated to be the underlying principle which organizes punk terminology for their music, cultural environment, and members of the subcultures. An analysis of punk song lyrics, visual style, and verbal style demonstrates that this assertion of identity is accomplished through opposition to the dominant American culture. Punk rock can then be understood as a subculture of cultural rebellion which allows its members to assert their individuality through violation of culturally accepted aesthetic values.
The Kalamazoo County Juvenile Home's Foster Shelter Care Unit: Toward An Evaluation, Underwood
A formative evaluation of the Foster Shelter Care Unit was conducted in order to analyze the success/failure of the program during its firs t year of operation. Data on 77 cases were analyzed, and nine Independent variables and one dependent variable were bivariately tested 1n order to provide a theoretical explanation of the success/failure rate.
The evaluation was conducted 1n order to supply the Foster Shelter Care Unit with recommendations to enhance its success/ failure rate and to modify its existing policies.
The success rate for the unit was 48.1%, and it was found that the only ...
Detection Of Deception In The Laboratory As A Function Of Motivation And Set Size, Tuckett
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the polygraph in a controlled laboratory setting. The Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) was the procedure employed in conjunction with the galvanic skin subjects over the two trial each. Overall the polygrapher was correct 44 times, out of 80 trials. This number of detections exceeded chance (p<.001) levels. The manipulation of subject motivation with a monetary reward increased detection rates significantly (p<.05) in comparison to those offered money. With each subject being tested over two trials, there appears to be a habituation effect as indicated by a decrease in detection from trial one to trial two. The relationship fell slightly short of significance at the (p< .05) level. In general the level of the subject motivation may play a major role in the detection of subjects who attempt deceit.
An Investigation Of The Effects Of An Applied Behavior Management Program On Selected Measures Of Worker Performance In A Financial Institution, Schroeder
Twenty CRT operators from an operations department at a financial institution were used to evaluate whether a behavior management program utilizing feedback and incentives would improve their work performance on real job tasks. In accordance with predictions, results revealed that the group performed significantly better (p<.05) under the behavior management program than they did during a baseline period. Behavior management was significantly effective for most, but not all, work areas. The program also produced some unexpected, but positive, side-effects.
Analysis Of The Effects Of Goal And Feedback Specificity On Subsequent Task Performance, Van Dahm
The effects of goal and feedback specifically on subsequent task performance were examined to text the hypothesis that specific goals and feedback facilitate performance to a greater degree than general goals and feedback (Ilgen, Fisher, & Taylor, 1979). Ten subjects, in each of the four conditions, were assigned one of two levels of goal specificity and feedback specificity and were then required to perform a simple assembly and sorting task utilizing multiple size and color fasteners. No significance was discovered between correctly assembled and sorted products of the four groups although there was a general trend in the hypothesized direction. Possible ...
Use Of A Changeover Key To Train Serial Learning In The Pigeon, Yutzy-Ryan
Three pigeons were presented with a serial learning task involving a sequence of three colors: yellow, green and red. The colors appeared on a lit key one at a time in random order. The pigeons were required to peck the colors in the correct order and to use a second lit key (the changeover key) to change the color when it was incorrect. The data show that the pigeons were able to learn the task and generalize to novel arrays at a high level of accuracy. This extends the findings on serial learning with pigeons to a type of sequence ...
United States Military Special Operations Forces: Why They Are Our Best Military Assets For Low-Intensity Conflicts, Stephen Leslie Robinson
This thesis addresses the development of United States military assets for dealing with revolutionary warfare, terrorism, and other threats which could be identified under the rubric, "low-· intensity conflict." Elite military units, collectively identified as Special Operations Forces (SOF), are examined for the character- !sties and attributes which promote misunderstanding and mistrust about their capabilities. Some analytical distinctions are developed which may be useful in defining roles and missions for SOF elements. Cultural impediments which may inhibit SOF activities are considered as well. Research efforts included interviews and discussion with twenty Special Operations soldiers, both active and retired, a number ...
The Effects Of Levels Of Processing On Retention Of Word Meaning, Dorothy A. Flannagan
The Effects Of Levels Of Processing On Retention Of Word Meaning, Dorothy A. Flannagan
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the three encoding techniques of rote memory, semantic, and self-reference, on short-term and long-term retention levels of unfamiliar vocabulary words and their meanings. Seventy-two college students participated in the experiment, with 24 students in each encoding group. All participants viewed 20 target words and their definitions, and were exposed to each word for 30 seconds. Each group was given instructions designed to promote a type of encoding specific to their group. After a five-minute distractor task, subjects were given a list of the target words and were tested on ...
The Effects Of Instructions And Cue Controlled Relaxation Training On Cardiovascular Reactivity To Social Stressors, Fettes
Cue controlled relaxation (CCR) training was compared to simple instructions to relax and control blood pressure on the basis of their effects on cardiovascular reactivity to role played social stressors. The CCR intervention consisted of training subjects to say a cue word ("calm") that had been previously paired with muscular relaxation responses, during presentation of stressors. The instructions intervention was associated with significant reductions in blood pressure reactivity, regardless of whether this condition preceded or followed the CCR condition. Factors that may relate to the relative ineffectiveness of CCR are discussed, as well as those that may have been responsible ...
An Analysis Of Potential Adjunctive Behavior In Two Developmentally Disabled Subjects, Brhely
Past research on adjunctive behavior in humans has generally not employed methods which are comparable to those included in studies of adjunctive behavior in nonhumans. Consequently, the results of these studies of adjunctive behavior in nonhumans. Consequently, the results of these studies are often difficult to interpret. The present study examined locomotor movement and salient self-stimulatory behaviors in two developmentally disabled students exposed to four fixed-interval (FI) schedules of food delivery (FI 16-, 60-, 120-, and 240-sec). Results of this study were analyzed according to whether the seven defining characteristics of the prototype of adjunctive behavior, polydipsia, were present. Locomotor ...
Effects Of Seating Arrangement On Affective Meanings And Group Interaction In Healthy Senior Citizens, Boughton
Occupational therapists state that environmental factors (seating arrangements) influence behavior. This ex post facto study examined the effect of peripheral versus central seating arrangement on interaction (verbalizing and looking), affect, and group climate in 41 healthy senior citizens. Nine men and 32 women aged 62 to 83 participated in two collage activities (creative and imitative) in either a parallel/nonsharing group or a project/ sharing group. Seating arrangement was added to an earlier study's independent variables (creative and imitative activities, and sharing and nonsharing groups). Dependent variables consisted of three factors of affective meaning from the Osgood Semantic Differential ...
Auditory Stimulation-Induced Analgesia In Rats: Its Irreversibility By Naloxone, White
After receiving intermittent exposure to a tone (3000 Hz, 100 db, SPL), rats were tested on a hot plate for analgesia. Rats that received tone alone showed a higher average paw-lick latency than rats that received either naloxone or saline alone. This result indicates that the auditory stimulus used in this study can be considered a neurogenic stressor and may be added to the list of various noxious stimuli that prouces analgesic effects. Naloxone given to tone-treated subjects produced mean paw-lick latencies were comparable to control group latencies for the first two treatment sessions and to tone group latencies for ...
Instructional Leadership: The Role Of The Director Of Library Services For The Grand Rapids, Michigan, Public School District, Deruyter
The purpose of this project was to familiarize the intern with the position of director of library services. A review of the district's media program enabled the intern to assist in the district's media program and work on the curriculum development changes that would be occurring during the duration of the internship.
The major results of the internship were a district handbook detailing policies and procedures for the media specialists and, using Appleworks (Lissner, 1983), a computer program was written for library management and utilization.
Important aspects of the project were curriculum work sessions and the resulting plans ...
Effectiveness Of Computer-Based, Modified Computer-Based And Workshop Training In The Learning/Application Of Leadership Skills, Karen E. Chappell
This study examined the effectiveness of training methods in effective leadership principles. Forty-two male and female Introductory Psychology students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: computer-based training (CBT), computer-based training with videotaped vignettes (CBTV), or group-based workshop training with videotaped vignettes (GBW). Training effectiveness was assessed on two dependent variables, pretest/posttest scores in conceptual knowledge and pretest/posttest scores in applied knowledge. Only partial support was found for the hypothesis that there would be significant differences in mean pretest and mean posttest scores on both conceptual and applied knowledge as a result of training method. Method of ...
Endurance And Affiliation : Traits As A Priori Self Schemata In Memory, Nancy Mackay Bruckner
Endurance And Affiliation : Traits As A Priori Self Schemata In Memory, Nancy Mackay Bruckner
This study investigated the hypotheses that subjects' scores on the trait of endurance would have s. positive, significant correlation with their recall of endurance-related adjectives, and that subjects' scores on the trait of affiliation would have a positive, significant correlation with their recall of affiliation-related words. One hundred forty-five male and female undergraduates from the University of Richmond answered questions from the Affiliation and Endurance scales of the Personality Research Form (Jackson, 1967). As a separate task subjects decided whether or not each of fortyeight adjectives described themselves. Sixteen of these adjectives referred to endurance, sixteen to affiliation, and sixteen ...
Becoming A Nurse: A Study Of Aspects Of Professional Socialization, Christian
This study examined aspects of the professional socialization of student nurses into the role of the professional nurse. Comparisons were made between senior and freshmen nursing students, between those 25 years of age and over with those under 25, between those who had two or more years of college with those who had less than two, and between those who were nursing externs with those who were not.
The results of the data analysis offered mixed support for the hypotheses proposed. Senior nursing students exhibited higher levels of professionalism in two aspects, while the older students, those with more college ...
New Directions Within Applied Anthropology, Dominek
This study explores the relationship between applied anthropological research and traditional anthropological research in terms of structural and methodological differences. The methods and techniques of Social Impact Assessment, as practiced in North America, and of international development anthropology are also compared. It is found that different kinds of applied anthropology modify methods and techniques (a) to meet the specific needs of supporting research institutions, (b) in response to the unique nature of individual applied problems, and (c) in order to create a type of research product which is very different from that of basic research.
Prehistoric Firewood Exploitation: A Case Study From The Carolinian Biotic Province, De Fant
A case study approach is applied to the problem of prehistoric firewood selection and utilization within a heterogeneous woodland environment. Prefaced by an indepth survey of theoretical and methodological approaches relevant to understanding resource exploitation, a wood charcoal analysis of the Schwerdt site (20AE127) is presented. This analysis is then discussed in regard to environmental, preservational, and functional contexts. It is suggested that this wood charcoal assemblage represents a subtle yet pervasive pattern of firewood selectivity operating within the overt bounds of expedient procurement.
An Analysis Of The Lithic Raw Materials And Diagnostic Projectile Points From The Settlement Pattern Survey Project In The Lower Kalamazoo River Valley, Campbell
This analysis was carried out on lithic materials collected during the three years of the Settlement Pattern Survey in the Lower Kalamazoo River valley, 1978-1980. The objectives of the study were to provide a firm temporal sequence for the prehistory of the area based on diagnostic projectile point styles, and to assess the dynamics of interregional contact via the identification of chert types from distant source areas. The sample of projectile points provided evidence of human occupation of the Lower Kalamazoo River valley from Paleoindian through Late Woodland times, most notably new evidence for significant occupation in the Early Archaic ...
Gender-Related Language Usage As Related To Psychological Sex Role Orientation, Parker
The relationship between gender-related language and psychological sex role orientation is explored. Research findings are cited that support the existence of sexist language and the influence of language on thought. Evidence of the behavioral expectations re la tin g to psychological sex role orientation is presented. A relationship between psychological sex role orientation and gender-related speech usage is hypothesized. An instrument for measuring gender-related speech was developed and subsequently administered to a group of community college students along with the Bern Sex Role Inventory. The hypothesis is only supported for psychologically feminine participants who report significantly high use of feminine ...
Increasing Key “Sales Related” Behaviors Through The Use Of A Self-Monitoring Checklist, O'Brien
The present study investigated the effects of self-monitoring alone to increase targeted key sales related behaviors with an outside sales representative. The data collected over a five-month period of time revealed a temporary increase in the overall percent of targeted behaviors performed on each sales call when self-monitoring was implemented. Performance dropped to baseline levels near the end of the first treatment phase prior to the reversal phase. The data were inconsistent across behaviors as to whether implementing self-monitoring caused them to change in the desired direction or not. Additional measures which were not directly influenced by the self-monitoring technique ...
A Statistical Analysis Of The Lithic Material From The Zemaitis Site (200t68), Ottawa County, Michigan, Murphy
An analysis of the lith ic tools and a representative sample of debitage from the Zemaitis site is presented. The methodology employed in lith ic analysis is described with the goal of comparab ility with other studies. Based upon this comparison i t is suggested that the major occupation of the site was during the Middle Woodland Period and the site appears to have been occupied year-round. Because the Zemaitis site was undisturbed by modern agricultural techniques, special attention is given to the artifact distributions both vertically and horizontally across the site.
With the aid of various statistical models the ...
Dual-Purpose Activity Versus Single-Purpose Activity In An Institutionalized Geriatric Population, Yoder
The use of purposeful, goal-directed activity has traditionally been a central theme for occupational therapy. In dual-purpose activity the participant has two goals: successful task completion and the making of adaptive responses in the activity process. This study compares the extent to which a dual-purpose activity (stirring for the purpose of exercise and baking cookies) enhances performance in contrast to a single-purpose activity (stirring for the purpose of exercise alone) in an institutionalized geriatric population.
Thirty women between 70 and 92 years of age were randomly assigned to either the single- or dual-purpose activity. Duration, exertion, and discontinuities were measured ...
The Use Of Repeated Acquisition As A Technique For Establishing A Behavioral Baseline With Victims Of Alzheimer's Disease, Stone
Three subjects suspected as Alzheimer's Disease (AD) victims were trained on a behavioral chain of three sets of three poker chips, each set differing in color and position, to investigate subtle changes in learning and performance behaviors over time. For each session the subjects learned a new three-response sequence with a marked poker chip serving as the correct response for each set. A within-session learning curve resulted for all three subjects with the errors in the learning trial (LT) exceeding the errors for the performance trials (PT1 and PT2). Only Subject III demonstrated a stable pattern of learning, with ...