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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Investigating The Economic Impact Of Increasing Agricultural Production In A Peri-Urban Environment, Ronald L. Marbeiter Dec 1985

Investigating The Economic Impact Of Increasing Agricultural Production In A Peri-Urban Environment, Ronald L. Marbeiter

Master's Theses

The intention of this study is to investigate the economic impact of increasing agricultural production in a peri-urban environment. The Rural Development Area Program (RDAP) in Swaziland is aimed at increasing rural income through improved agricultural practices. The mathematical technique of linear programming is applied to two distinct farmer categories, i.e., cattle owners and non-cattle owners, in order to ascertain information pertaining to the inability of expanding crop production in an area which offers higher renumeration in the urban sector.

Both farm categories have ample labor to expand agricultural production, but the non-cattle owners have limited access to land ...


One County's Experience With Community Corrections: An Assessment Of The Harm, Charles C. Crider Jr. Dec 1985

One County's Experience With Community Corrections: An Assessment Of The Harm, Charles C. Crider Jr.

Master's Theses

Most correctional systems include pre-parole community placements. This study followed 114 inmates released to halfway house placement in one Michigan county over six years to determine the harm these inmates inflicted on the host community through new crime during halfway house placement and for three years following parole. Their criminal behavior was compared to statistical expectancies of criminal behavior for similar risk parolees. In a second analysis, the volume and seriousness of their criminal behavior was compared with non-comparable parolee controls. In both analyses, the extent and seriousness of crime by experimentals were comparable to that of controls. Criminal activity ...


The Depo-Provera Controversy: A Sociological Analysis, Pamela A. Hayman Dec 1985

The Depo-Provera Controversy: A Sociological Analysis, Pamela A. Hayman

Master's Theses

This study is a sociological analysis of the Depo- Provera Controversy. The strong programme in the sociology of science was the method employed for examining the social and political dimensions of the decision-making process underlying science and technology as it relates to the approval of Depo-Provera as a contraceptive in the United States. The data were consistent with the social constructionist perspective, rather than the positivistic view of science. In almost every instance, scientific conclusions followed alignment rather than arising from objective, universalistic analysis. Upjohn scientists and family planners concluded that Depo-Provera was safe and advocated its use; feminists and ...


Instructional Control Of Leniency In Self-Appraisals, Maria Barnum Nelson Dec 1985

Instructional Control Of Leniency In Self-Appraisals, Maria Barnum Nelson

Master's Theses

Self- and supervisor ratings were obtained on four classifications of non-teaching public school employees across two instructional conditions. Self-ratings showed more leniency in the condition where employees were instructed not to meet with the supervisor to discuss the ratings; self-ratings showed less leniency in the condition where employees were instructed to meet with the supervisor to discuss the ratings. Despite foreknowledge of the research question and instructional conditions, supervisors showed a tendency to rate employees differentially according to the instructional conditions. The results of the analyses demonstrate the potency of instructional control on rating behavior by employees and supervisors. Questions ...


Rule-Governed Behavior In Preschool Children, Cassandra Ann Braam Dec 1985

Rule-Governed Behavior In Preschool Children, Cassandra Ann Braam

Master's Theses

The control exerted by different types of rules on the behavior of preschool children was determined. Using a variation of a multielement design, four topographically similar rules were presented to seven four-year-old children. The rules varied in the deadlines and delay of consequences (rewards) specified. The results showed that: (a) requests or mands specifying only response requirements generally exerted poor control; (b) rules specifying an immediate deadline and an immediate reward exerted strong control; (c) rules specifying deadlines and a one-week delay of the reward exerted good control; and (d) rules specifying no deadlines for completion and a one-week delay ...


Tamoxifen Effects Upon Body Weight, Water Intake, And Several Behaviors, And Tamoxifen’S Unconditioned Stimulus Properties In The Conditioned Taste Aversion Paradigm, Steven J. Anderson Dec 1985

Tamoxifen Effects Upon Body Weight, Water Intake, And Several Behaviors, And Tamoxifen’S Unconditioned Stimulus Properties In The Conditioned Taste Aversion Paradigm, Steven J. Anderson

Master's Theses

The antiestrogen tamoxifen citrate (Stuart Pharmaceuticals) is indicated for treatment of breast cancer. Tamoxifen (TMX) is frequently employed because of demonstrated effectiveness in tumor reduction and a low incidence of debilitating side effects compared to similar agents. Even though side effects are uncommon with use of TMX, medical and behavioral sequalae have been noted. The present , . study investigated several behaviors in female rats administered TMX in two separate studies. In the first investigation, the effects of 25 daily treatments of TMX upon body weight, water intake, and several behaviors were assayed. In the second study, aversion to a saccharin solution ...


A Bormannean Fantasy Theme Analysis Of “The Big Book" Of Alcoholics Anonymous, Leigh Arden Ford Dec 1985

A Bormannean Fantasy Theme Analysis Of “The Big Book" Of Alcoholics Anonymous, Leigh Arden Ford

Master's Theses

Utilizing Bormannean fantasy theme analysis, this study examined the rhetoric of "The Big Book", the basic text of Alcoholics Anonymous. Three dominant rhetorical visions were found corresponding to Cragan and Shield's conception of rhetorical visions as social, pragmatic and righteous at the metalevel. These rhetorical visions were labeled The Rich Man, Poor Man Vision (social), The Greater Power Vision (righteous), and The Solution Vision (pragmatic). The accompanying fantasy themes of dramatis personae, setting, plotline and sanctioning agent were delineated. The implications of this study for substance abuse therapists and AA members were examined and further research was suggested.


An Exploratory Study Of The Relationship Between Moral Development And Communication In Small Groups, Beth Hartman Ellis Dec 1985

An Exploratory Study Of The Relationship Between Moral Development And Communication In Small Groups, Beth Hartman Ellis

Master's Theses

This study explored the differences in communication between groups comprised of persons in different stages of moral development. Hypotheses were developed related to the task dimension and the process dimension of group discussions. These hypotheses were based on the appropriateness of the content of the communication in the groups to stages with in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Trends in the direction of the hypotheses were found in analyses of utterances of the individuals in the group.


A Comparison Of Similar Versus Dissimilar Competing Response Practice In The Treatment Of Muscle Tics, Ellen L. Sharenow Dec 1985

A Comparison Of Similar Versus Dissimilar Competing Response Practice In The Treatment Of Muscle Tics, Ellen L. Sharenow

Master's Theses

Miltenberger, Fuqua, and McKinley (1985) reported that the competing response component of the habit reversal treatment package (Azrin & Nunn, 1973) when presented alone was as effective as the entire habit reversal procedure in suppressing muscle tics. In a related study, Miltenberger and Fuqua (1 9 8 5 , in press) reported that the performance of the competing response contingent on the occurrence of a variety of nervous habits resulted in greater response suppression than the non-contingent performance of the competing response. In an effort to determine whether the topography of the competing response was important to the reported effects, this study ...


Traits As Self-Schemata And Their Effect On Recall Of Content-Specific Adjectives, Victor Lee Barrow Nov 1985

Traits As Self-Schemata And Their Effect On Recall Of Content-Specific Adjectives, Victor Lee Barrow

Master's Theses

The concept that personality traits serve as a priori self schemata cognitive structures in memory was investigated. College students from University of Richmond were tested on recall of 160 content-specific adjectives and then administered the Personality Research Form. After being shown the list of adjectives, subjects were given a five-minute distractor task and then given fifteen minutes to recall as many adjectives as possible. A correlational analysis was performed on the scores on the personality traits of achievement, affiliation, autonomy, dominance, endurance, nurturance, order, play, sentience, and understanding and with the recall of content-specific adjectives. The correlation between the trait ...


The Self-Concept Of Pregnant And Nonpregnant Adolescents And Changes That Occur Between Trimesters, Linda Aileen Furlani Aug 1985

The Self-Concept Of Pregnant And Nonpregnant Adolescents And Changes That Occur Between Trimesters, Linda Aileen Furlani

Master's Theses

Twenty-two nonpregnant adolescents and 14 pregnant adolescents selected from Chesterfield Health Department's clinic population participated in a study to determine if the self-concept of a nonpregnant adolescent is higher than that of a pregnant adolescent. Each group was further subdivided into a middle adolescent and a late adolescent category to determine if there is any difference in the self-concept of a pregnant adolescent in the middle adolescent stage versus that of a pregnant adolescent in the late adolescent stage. Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI), School Form, was administered to test the subject's perception of herself and to measure ...


Effect Of Fixed-Ratio Size On Response-Latencies Produced By Other Variables, Albert Edward Neal Aug 1985

Effect Of Fixed-Ratio Size On Response-Latencies Produced By Other Variables, Albert Edward Neal

Master's Theses

Using a discrete-trial, two-component multiple schedule, pigeons were required to complete a fixed-ratio in the presence of stimuli correlated with different probabilities of reinforcement (Experiment 1), or different amounts of reinforcement (Experiment 2). The amount of separation of graphed median latencies to the onset of the two stimulus conditions as a function of the different reinforcement conditions was investigated in relation to various fixed-ratio values. It was found that previous researchers had chosen an optimal fixedratio size; larger ratios produced greater separation between median latencies, but at the expense of increased session-to-session variability, while smaller ratios failed to produce median ...


The Prehistory Of The Birch Run Road Site, Saginaw County, Michigan, Caven P. Clark Aug 1985

The Prehistory Of The Birch Run Road Site, Saginaw County, Michigan, Caven P. Clark

Master's Theses

The Birch Run Road site (20SA393), located in the archaeologic ally complex Saginaw Valley, was partially impacted by the extension of Birch Run Road across the Flint River. In many respects typical of Saginaw Valley sites as a whole, the Birch Run Road site produced artifacts attributable to the Early Archaic, Late Archaic, Late Woodland and historic periods. The prehistoric occupations are evaluated with special attention to the context and form of lithic raw materials, and use of projectile points in determining temporal placement. The Late Woodland component, ca. A.D. 800-1100, represents the most intensive occupation of the site ...


Use Of A Supervisory Safety Checklist And Safety Meetings To Reduce And Prevent Hazardous Safety Conditions In An Automotive Plant, Todd Alan Brighton Aug 1985

Use Of A Supervisory Safety Checklist And Safety Meetings To Reduce And Prevent Hazardous Safety Conditions In An Automotive Plant, Todd Alan Brighton

Master's Theses

Hazardous safety conditions and incidents were operationally defined for an assembly division at an automotive plant. The conditions were observed and recorded on two different employee shifts for an 11 week period. The experimental design used had three distinct phases. In the first phase baseline data were recorded on the number of hazardous safety conditions by two safety observers. In the second phase two shift supervisors used the safety checklist to record hazardous safety conditions. In the last phase data were taken but the supervisory safety checklist was not used. The data from all observations were discussed in safety meetings ...


The Effects Of Self-Evaluation Procedures On The Numbers And Accuracy Of Alphabet Letter Writing Behavior Of Preschool Children, Kevin R. Coleman Aug 1985

The Effects Of Self-Evaluation Procedures On The Numbers And Accuracy Of Alphabet Letter Writing Behavior Of Preschool Children, Kevin R. Coleman

Master's Theses

This study assessed the effects of self-evaluation procedures on the rate and accuracy of alphabet letter writing. Three preschoolers served as subjects. During Phase I, students were given instructions, and the experimenter modeled accurate letter writing. During Phase II, instructions and modeling were again presented. Additionally, the students were given a rule statement that instructed them to use a stamper and a stamp pad to stamp their paper after first writing each of a row of four letters. The results indicated that the introduction of self-evaluation procedures was associated with immediate increases in frequency of attempts, but a decrease in ...


Applied Undergraduate Training In Psychology And Career Choice, Nancy S. Hinga-Wright Aug 1985

Applied Undergraduate Training In Psychology And Career Choice, Nancy S. Hinga-Wright

Master's Theses

The present investigation evaluated the relation between additional undergraduate practical training in psychology (other than standard course credit) and the graduate school or career choice of graduates with a bachelor's degree in psychology. Based on data from questionnaires and university student records, the results indicated a positive, significant relation between graduate school choice and subsequent career choice, although there was no significant relation between additional applied training and career choice. The results also showed no significant relation between grade point average and career choice, and sex and career choice. The conclusions suggested several outside variables that may influence students ...


The Nature Of The British Fairies Of Medieval And Folk Literature An Annotated Bibliography 1900-1983, Constance Reik Aug 1985

The Nature Of The British Fairies Of Medieval And Folk Literature An Annotated Bibliography 1900-1983, Constance Reik

Master's Theses

This thesis fills the need for a bibliography of works on the British fairies.

It is essentially an annotated bibliography with an introduction which will help illuminate the fairies of the ancient and medieval literature (through Shakespeare) and the folk literature of Britain. The annotations are extensive are both descriptive and evaluative.

The bibliography includes publications written in English, from 1900 to 1983, which describe and discuss the characteristics and origins of the British fairies. It is divided into seven chapters: Literary Fairies, British Fairies, English Fairies, Welsh and Manx Fairies, Scottish Fairies, Irish Fairies, and Origins of Fairies.

The ...


The Use Of Job Aids As An Alternative To Training New Employees, William D. Powers Aug 1985

The Use Of Job Aids As An Alternative To Training New Employees, William D. Powers

Master's Theses

Lack of knowledge required to perform a job, has often been dealt with by implementing some sort of training program. However, some businesses cannot afford to implement training. This study tested the effectiveness of using job aides as an alternative to training two new employees at a small business which had no training program. Step-by-step instructional aids were developed for rebuilding Series 40 MT Delco starters and Series 10 SI Delco alternators. A multiple-base-line between subjects design, with an ABABAB reversal, was used.

The data showed the average time required by the new employees to rebuild Series 40 MT Delco ...


The Effect Of Word Abbreviation On Decoding Speed And Accuracy, Frances Piccione Aug 1985

The Effect Of Word Abbreviation On Decoding Speed And Accuracy, Frances Piccione

Master's Theses

An experiment was conducted to verify the existence and determine the magnitude of the human response latency differential between words and their abbreviations in a decoding task. Forty-eight Naval Officer Candidates learned a set of abbreviations obtained from operational aircraft cockpits. Abbreviations and corresponding words were divided into easy and hard difficulty levels. Subjects responded by saying the correct whole-word for both stimulus types. Response times measured by a voice key revealed a mean of 0.534 seconds for words and 0.662 seconds for abbreviations. An analysis of variance produced significant main effects (p < .05) for stimulus types and difficulty levels; the interaction effect was not significant. Also, t-tests for correlated scores revealed significant differences (p < .05) between difficulty levels within stimulus types.


Validation And Validity Generalization Of Placement Exercises Used In The Selection Of Clerical Employees, Keith Edward Mitchell Aug 1985

Validation And Validity Generalization Of Placement Exercises Used In The Selection Of Clerical Employees, Keith Edward Mitchell

Master's Theses

A follow-up study was conducted to determine the predictive validity of a group of job-related Placement Exercises used in the selection of clerical employees for a northeastern utility company. The present study was also to determine if the obtained validities could be generalized to similar organizational settings.

The subjects included in this study were 98 clerical employees working in the job classifications of Junior Clerk, Clerk, Intermediate Clerk, and Secretary-Stenographer. The obtained results supported the hypothesis that a positive and significant relationship existed between performance on the Placement Exercises and supervisory ratings of employee job performance. After applying the results ...


The Effects Of Teacher Directed Small Group Instruction On Quality And Control Of Behavioral Contracts In A Large Study Section Of High School Students, Laurie A. Thompson-Montgomery Aug 1985

The Effects Of Teacher Directed Small Group Instruction On Quality And Control Of Behavioral Contracts In A Large Study Section Of High School Students, Laurie A. Thompson-Montgomery

Master's Theses

Individualized education has been described as the ideal teaching methodology. The purpose of the present study was to individualize teaching procedure through the use of behavioral contracts in a high school guided study class. The goal of the teacher-directed, small group instruction was to teach students the components of a specific contract task. Following this instruction, all students' contracts improved in the percent meeting content criteria. In addition to improvement in contract content, student on-task behavior also increased. Further, the number of student assignments completed on contract which were received by teachers increased after training. It appears that the use ...


A Cinematographical Analysis Of The Execution Of Three Types Of Pitches Using The Windmill Style Softball Delivery, Bonni L. Kinne Aug 1985

A Cinematographical Analysis Of The Execution Of Three Types Of Pitches Using The Windmill Style Softball Delivery, Bonni L. Kinne

Master's Theses

The purpose of the study was to identify the specific kinematic and kinetic variables associated with a successful fast ball, drop ball, and rise ball using the windmill style softball delivery. The subjects chosen for the investigation were female pitchers who participated in the Women's National Fast-Pitch Softball Tournament held in Buffalo, New York from August 17, 1984 to August 24, 1984.

After analyzing the data obtained from these subjects, the investigator concluded that: (a) there is a great deal of variability between the fast ball pitching mechanics of elite windmill style softball pitchers; (b) the success of a ...


Robbery: Toward A Multidimensional Approach, Dick Taver'shima Andzenge Aug 1985

Robbery: Toward A Multidimensional Approach, Dick Taver'shima Andzenge

Master's Theses

This study identifies some major factors related to robbery, categorizes them, and attempts to assess their interrelatedness. The major purpose of the study is to explore how these factors can be studied more effectively in an attempt to explain the crime. Data on randomly selected convicted robbery cases in the Kalamazoo County during 1979-1983 were compiled and analyzed.

The study shows that factors related to robbery fall into four categories. These are: (a) social factors, (b) Individual offender characteristics, (c) situational factors, and (d) push factors (or motivational factors). The results of the analyses showed that these factors are closely ...


Interpersonal Consequences Of Expressing Concern About Nuclear War, Ann Angell Dew May 1985

Interpersonal Consequences Of Expressing Concern About Nuclear War, Ann Angell Dew

Master's Theses

The effects of sex role expectations within the context of the nuclear war issue were examined in this study. Sixty males and sixty females, ranging in age from 18 to 22 years, participated in this study. They were obtained from the introductory psychology courses at the University of Richmond. Each subject read a questionnaire, supposedly completed by another University of Richmond undergraduate, and answered two Likert-type questions measuring the degree to which the subject would like to meet and become friends with the target. The independent variables were sex of the target, sex of subject, and expression of concern about ...


Personality Variables That Discriminate Pseudoseizures Patients And Epileptic Patients Used In The 16 Pf, Patricia L. Marshall May 1985

Personality Variables That Discriminate Pseudoseizures Patients And Epileptic Patients Used In The 16 Pf, Patricia L. Marshall

Master's Theses

This project was designed to study the effect of certain personality factors on pseudoseizure patients. It was hypothesized that Factors C and 0 in the 16 Personality Questionnaire could serve as predictor variables for the criterion variable, positive diagnosis of pseudoseizure versus true epileptic seizures. It was also hypothesized that these two groups, pseudoseizure versus epileptic seizure, would differ significantly on a test titled the Sickness Impact Profile. The two scales in this test, psychosocial and physical, were examined. Two discriminant analyses were performed with these two tests being the predictor variables and group membership being the criterion variable. Non-significant ...


Personality Variables That Discriminate Pseudoseizures Patients And Epileptic Patients Used In The 16 Pf, Patricia Lane Marshall May 1985

Personality Variables That Discriminate Pseudoseizures Patients And Epileptic Patients Used In The 16 Pf, Patricia Lane Marshall

Master's Theses

This project was designed to study the effect of certain personality factors on pseudoseizure patients. It was hypothesized that Factors C and O in the 16 Personality Questionnaire could serve as predictor variables for the criterion variable, positive diagnosis of pseudoseizure versus true epileptic seizures. It was also hypothesized that these two groups, pseudoseizure versus epileptic seizure, would differ significantly on a test titled the Sickness Impact Profile. The two scales in this test, psychosocial and physical, were examined. Two discriminant analyses were performed with these two tests being the predictor variables and group membership being the criterion variable. Non-significant ...


Factors Affecting The Political Stability Of Certain Latin American Countries, Sue Fulghum May 1985

Factors Affecting The Political Stability Of Certain Latin American Countries, Sue Fulghum

Master's Theses

The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that the factors that have produced political stability in Mexico have been largely absent from the political development experience of other Latin American countries that have experi~nced instability. Based on the literature on political development theory and on an historical survey of political development in Mexico, the factors of consensus, legitimacy and institutionalization are identified as having been primarily responsible for political stability. These factors have allowed the Mexican political system to respond successfully to the destabilizing pressures of modernization, economic development, social mobilization and urbanization, as well as ...


Cholesteatoma In A Pre-Columbian American Aborigine From The Gyftakis Site, St. Ignace, Michigan, Robert William Hull Apr 1985

Cholesteatoma In A Pre-Columbian American Aborigine From The Gyftakis Site, St. Ignace, Michigan, Robert William Hull

Master's Theses

A 25 to 30 year old American aborigine male dating from A.D. 170 + 80 years exhibits bilateral osteolytic lesions of the temporal bones. A differential diagnosis was set up to determine the cause of the pathology. It was determined that the individual had probably been subject to chronic suppurative otitis media complicated by mastoiditis, cholesteatoma, and probable lateral sinus thrombosis of the right temporal bone. Otitis media then developed within the left temporal bone causing some bone destruction, although not to the extent seen in the right temporal. It is likely that a small cholesteatoma had developed or would ...


The Effects Of Intermittent Photic Stimulation Upon Respiration Rate And Anxiety, Patricia Moulton Guilford Apr 1985

The Effects Of Intermittent Photic Stimulation Upon Respiration Rate And Anxiety, Patricia Moulton Guilford

Master's Theses

An experiment was performed to examine the effects of the visual stimulus property of flicker on respiration rate and state-anxiety level. Forty undergraduate college student volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups which received intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and a control group which did not receive IPS. Each IPS group received and the range of flicker frequencies, 4 cycles per second to 14 cycles per second, in a different pattern. All subjects were administered measures for trait-anxiety and changes in state-anxiety.

Results suggest that respiration rate positively covaries with the frequency of the intermittent visual stimulus within this range of ...


The Effects Of Aspartame On Locomotion And Body Weight In Rats, Linda Dianne Dykema Larsen Apr 1985

The Effects Of Aspartame On Locomotion And Body Weight In Rats, Linda Dianne Dykema Larsen

Master's Theses

Nutrients, when ingested in isolation from other food stuffs or in excess, may produce drug-like action on neurotransmitter activity in the CNS. Administration of aspartame exclusively or in combination with d-amphetamine was found to produce weight loss and display of emotionality in rats as measured in an open field apparatus. The possible neurochemical action of aspartame was discussed relative to the well documented stimulatory effects on catecholamines of d-amphetamine and three putative mechanisms were explored: 1) formation of minor amines from the increased precursor pool, 2) increased synthesis of catecholamines in response to the increased precursor pool, and 3) decrease ...