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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Stress, Anxiety, And Somatic Symptoms: A Comparison Of Biomarkers In A Clinical Sample, David J. Finitsis Mar 2013

Stress, Anxiety, And Somatic Symptoms: A Comparison Of Biomarkers In A Clinical Sample, David J. Finitsis

Master's Theses

Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent class of mental disorders, often characterized by a chronic course and comorbid psychopathology. The anxiety-stress literature utilizing cortisol as a biomarker of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has been inconsistent. The establishment of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) as a biomarker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation allows researchers an opportunity to examine the stress response more fully. This study sought to explore relationships between trait anxiety and salivary stress biomarkers in an outpatient sample attending a specialized anxiety treatment center. Multiple regression and moderator analyses were conducted to examine associations between psychosocial and physiological ...


Measurement Invariance Of Assessment Center Ratings: Consistency Of Dimensional Constructs Across Exercises, Jin Lee Jan 2013

Measurement Invariance Of Assessment Center Ratings: Consistency Of Dimensional Constructs Across Exercises, Jin Lee

Master's Theses

The criterion-related validity of assessment centers (ACs) has been consistently supported. However, there has been an ongoing debate about AC construct validity in regard to low dimension variance and overriding exercise variance. Many studies that showed weak dimension effects in ACs have been based on the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) framework which posits cross-situational variance as error and all capability dimensions can be equally represented from different exercises. The goal of this study is to introduce a measurement invariance (MI) framework for evaluating the construct validity of AC dimensions. Specifically, MI analysis was used to test whether the construct meaning of AC ...


Effects Of Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury On Spatial Working Memory, Amanda L. Smith Dec 2012

Effects Of Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury On Spatial Working Memory, Amanda L. Smith

Master's Theses

Children born prematurely or at very low birth weight (VLBW) have an increased risk for hypoxic ischemic brain injury (HI). HI refers to a lack of adequate blood and oxygen flow in the brain. HI can also occur in the term infant due to birth complications such as prolonged labor, placental dysfunction, or cord prolapse. In both populations (though exact patterns of neuropathology vary) brain damage is likely to occur in the form of decreased hippocampal and cortical volume, and enlargement of the ventricles (Kesler et al., 2004, Nagy et al., 2009). Resulting neuropathology can in turn lead to cognitive ...


Statistical Analysis Of The National Basketball Association's Age Minimum: Financial And Cultural Outcomes Associated With Collectively Bargained Draft Eligibility Rules, Joshua A. Larosa Dec 2012

Statistical Analysis Of The National Basketball Association's Age Minimum: Financial And Cultural Outcomes Associated With Collectively Bargained Draft Eligibility Rules, Joshua A. Larosa

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


A Practical Scale For Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment, Zandra M. Zweber Dec 2012

A Practical Scale For Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment, Zandra M. Zweber

Master's Theses

The current study sought to develop a practical scale to measure workplace health climate in a way that has not previously been conceptualized – as a three-faceted approach from the employee perspective serving as an indicator of a healthy organization. The goal was to create a short, useable yet comprehensive scale that could translate into practical use by organizations and occupational health professionals planning workplace interventions. To accomplish this, the proposed multi-faceted organizational health climate scale (MOHCA) assesses three-facets which match up with three organizational levels: 1) organization 2) supervisor and 3) workgroup. Ten items were developed and tested on two ...


Effects Of Practice With Imposed Communication Delay On The Coordination And Effectiveness Of Distributed Teams, Megan L. Dove-Steinkamp Dec 2012

Effects Of Practice With Imposed Communication Delay On The Coordination And Effectiveness Of Distributed Teams, Megan L. Dove-Steinkamp

Master's Theses

The current study tested whether introduction of audio transmission delays during skill acquisition would benefit the performance effectiveness of distributed teams in a novel transfer context. Two-person university student teams (N=40) performed a simulated firefighting task in 4 practice trials and a novel transfer condition. Intra-team communications were systematically perturbed with closed-loop transmission delays ranging from 2 to 6 seconds. On average, teams were able to improve performance over time despite transmission delay, with significant differences in performance observed between certain groups both over the course and at the end of the experiment: Short (2s blocked) practice delay was ...


Negative Event Appraisals, Cognitive Processing, And Adjustment, Kristen E. Riley Nov 2012

Negative Event Appraisals, Cognitive Processing, And Adjustment, Kristen E. Riley

Master's Theses

Appraisals of stressful events are linked to their adjustment to those stressful events. Appraisals can include perceptions of an event as threatening, uncontrollable, controllable, central, or challenging (Peacock & Wong, 1990). Many studies have examined effects of these appraisals on adjustment and cognitive processing (Aldwin, 2007; Lazarus, 1993; Tan, Jensen, Thornby, & Anderson, 2005), and a few have suggested that cognitive processing mediates relationships between appraisals and adjustment (Peacock & Wong, 1996). We tested cognitive processing in mediation models between appraisals and adjustment, and compared to active coping, in the context of ongoing stressors. Active coping appears to be particularly useful for ongoing academic stressors.


Reducing Knowledge Overconfidence By Reducing The Threat Of Knowledge Cue Utilization, Christopher Neil Burrows Aug 2012

Reducing Knowledge Overconfidence By Reducing The Threat Of Knowledge Cue Utilization, Christopher Neil Burrows

Master's Theses

Overconfident judgments are common. We are often more confident about things than we should be, and this may lead us to make maladaptive decisions. Debiasing confidence by cuing people in to how confident they should be could help people make better choices. However, people may be unwilling to accept debiasing information if doing so implies their own ignorance. This study examined whether self-affirmation can buffer people against threats to self-image, helping people to accept debiasing cues. I hypothesized that combining a cue with self-affirmation would lead to enhanced debiasing over cues or self-affirmation alone. In order to investigate this hypothesis ...


Identifying Barriers To Adherence For Hiv+ Patients Placed On Renal Dosing, Richard S. Colon Jr Aug 2012

Identifying Barriers To Adherence For Hiv+ Patients Placed On Renal Dosing, Richard S. Colon Jr

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


"We've Got Something More To Prove Here": Racial-Ethnic And Social Class Identities And The Challenges Facing Latina/O College Students, Gretchen Marin Jul 2012

"We've Got Something More To Prove Here": Racial-Ethnic And Social Class Identities And The Challenges Facing Latina/O College Students, Gretchen Marin

Master's Theses

Latinas/os are one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. In fact, the United States Census Bureau projects that by the year 2050, the numbers of Hispanics will more than double, increasing from the current figure of 50.5 million to 102.6 million. Despite such rapid population growth, the numbers of Latinas/os with at least a Bachelor’s degree remain low. In this study, I explore the intersection of racial-ethnic and social class identities in relation to academic identities. Specifically, I examine the challenges facing Latina/o college students of various socioeconomic backgrounds as ...


Repetitive And Stereotyped Behaviors From Age 2 To Age 4: A Look At The Development Of High- And Low-Level Repetitive Behaviors In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Kelley Knoch Jul 2012

Repetitive And Stereotyped Behaviors From Age 2 To Age 4: A Look At The Development Of High- And Low-Level Repetitive Behaviors In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Kelley Knoch

Master's Theses

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are core features in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous literature has subdivided RRBs into low and high levels. Low-level behavior is characterized by a repetition of movement, such as stereotyped movements, whereas high-level behavior includes insistence on sameness and rigid adherence to a routine. There is conflicting evidence frequency and severity of RRBs in early development in children with ASD. In the current study, we examined developmental differences in the frequency and severity of RRBs in children with ASD (n = 109) compared to children with developmental delays (DD) (n= 34). Participants were evaluated at age ...


Globalization, Labor Market Transformation, And Union Decline In U.S. Metropolitan Areas, Todd Vachon Jun 2012

Globalization, Labor Market Transformation, And Union Decline In U.S. Metropolitan Areas, Todd Vachon

Master's Theses

In this study, I analyze the determinants of total, private, and public sector union density among 191 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas in the year 2000. In particular, I examine the effects of five measures of globalization (global capital, foreign direct investment, exports, foreign-born citizens, and foreign-born non-citizens) and four measures of labor market transformation (deindustrialization, corporate restructuring, bureaucratic burden, and casualization) on metropolitan union density while controlling for labor market structure, the business cycle, and the political climate. My analysis demonstrates that: 1) globalization and labor market transformation have moderately negative, but cross-cutting effects on union density; 2) globalization ...


Physiological Politics: Stress And Dominance Responses To Political News, Erin Strauts May 2012

Physiological Politics: Stress And Dominance Responses To Political News, Erin Strauts

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


The United States Military Realignment On Okinawa, Kevin M. Evringham May 2012

The United States Military Realignment On Okinawa, Kevin M. Evringham

Master's Theses

The United States maintains military bases in foreign countries in efforts to protect American overseas interests, whether they are economic, diplomatic or for geostrategic purposes. In Japan, where the United States has maintained military installations since the end of World War II, debate over the realignment of forces on Okinawa has caused minor, yet growing, rifts in the stable United States-Japanese alliance. Current plans to shift American military forces from Okinawa to locations throughout the Pacific do not take into account the historical or geostrategic factors for their stationing in Japan. This thesis identifies the geostrategic challenges to the current ...


Creating A Pedestrian Level-Of-Service Index For Transit Stops: Evidence From Denver’S Light Rail System, Patrick Gallagher May 2012

Creating A Pedestrian Level-Of-Service Index For Transit Stops: Evidence From Denver’S Light Rail System, Patrick Gallagher

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Mothers Do Not Drive The Development Of Adult Homesign Systems: Evidence From Comprehension, Emily Carrigan May 2012

Mothers Do Not Drive The Development Of Adult Homesign Systems: Evidence From Comprehension, Emily Carrigan

Master's Theses

Studying the communication systems that arise in spontaneously occurring cases of degraded linguistic input can help clarify human predispositions for language. Some deaf individuals born into hearing families, who do not receive conventional linguistic input, develop gestures, called “homesign,” to communicate. We examined homesign systems used by four deaf Nicaraguan adults (ages 15-27), and evaluated whether homesigners’ hearing mothers are potential sources for these systems. Study One measured mothers’ comprehension of descriptions of events (e.g., “A man taps a woman”) produced in homesign and spoken Spanish. Mothers comprehended spoken Spanish descriptions (produced by one of their hearing children) better ...


Eurotech Students In Germany: Preparation, Experience And Outcome, Daisy A. Michaels May 2012

Eurotech Students In Germany: Preparation, Experience And Outcome, Daisy A. Michaels

Master's Theses

Higher education study abroad programs for U.S. students are on the rise. A variety of undergraduate disciplines are being coupled with international components to bring U.S. students to a higher level of global awareness to meet the demands of today’s economy. The University of Connecticut’s Eurotech Program is an example of this trend. Its students earn degrees in both German and engineering in a five year program. They are given practical training through study and internships in Germany under the auspices of the Baden-Württemberg Exchange Program. One of the Eurotech Program’s major goals is to ...


An Integrated Approach For Developing Adaptation Strategies In Climate Planning: A Case Study Of Vulnerability In Dukes County, Massachusetts, Jonathan Pollak May 2012

An Integrated Approach For Developing Adaptation Strategies In Climate Planning: A Case Study Of Vulnerability In Dukes County, Massachusetts, Jonathan Pollak

Master's Theses

Climate Action Plans (CAP’s) are recent innovations in policy that have been catalyzed by a need to adjust the relationship between human activity and the Earth’s climate system. CAP’s often are composed of methods to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in addition to adaptation strategies. Research indicates, however, that many plans focus on mitigation strategies while adaptation policies related to predicted changes caused by climate change are often overlooked. This thesis presents an integrative framework for locating areas that are in need of adaptation strategies through a GIS based decision support system that visualizes vulnerability. It is operationalized ...


The Antecedents, Process, And Consequences Of Female Sterilization For Low-Income Women In Mumbai, Marie A. Brault May 2012

The Antecedents, Process, And Consequences Of Female Sterilization For Low-Income Women In Mumbai, Marie A. Brault

Master's Theses

Surgical sterilization is the primary method of family planning among low-income women in India; the result of limited knowledge and poor access to family planning alternatives. To understand the dynamics of sterilization, 37 in-depth interviews were conducted with sterilized women from the study community, as well as key informant interviews with community men, providers and government officials. The results indicate that sterilization decisions are made after exceeding ideal family size, that the procedures for sterilization frequently do not follow official protocol, but that for the most part women are highly positive about being free of the risk of unwanted conception.


Agency Through Ambiguity: Women Ngo Workers In Jalalabad, Afghanistan, Melissa S. Kerr Chiovenda Feb 2012

Agency Through Ambiguity: Women Ngo Workers In Jalalabad, Afghanistan, Melissa S. Kerr Chiovenda

Master's Theses

Pashtun women working for international NGOs and development organizations in Jalalabad Afghanistan balance the requirements of their employment with a set values, known as doing pashto, that guide their behavior as Pashtuns. These two influences on their lives are often contradictory. Based on fieldwork in Jalalabad, this study suggests that Pashtun women working for such organizations do not overtly resist Pashtun norms that often enforce a strict segregation of women. Rather, they use strategic ambiguity, maintaining that they are performing pashto well while at the same time taking part in some work activities that on the surface appear contrary to ...


The Multi-Scale Dynamics Of Executive Function, Jason Anastas Jan 2012

The Multi-Scale Dynamics Of Executive Function, Jason Anastas

Master's Theses

Cognitive control is a central issue in developmental psychology. Traditional theories of psychology solve this problem by positing a top-down central executive, which coordinates cognitive resources in pursuit of goals. We propose an alternative explanation: cognitive control arises from physical interactions across many different timescales within the system. College and preschool aged participants were asked to complete a simple executive function task, card sorting. We found that multi-scale physical interactions differed depending on experimental constraints, and that executive function in these cases was driven primarily by flexibility in multi-scale interactions, rather than the dominance of one scale. This suggests that ...


Injury Risk At Work, Safety Motivation, And The Role Of Masculinity: A Moderated Mediation, Timothy J. Bauerle Jan 2012

Injury Risk At Work, Safety Motivation, And The Role Of Masculinity: A Moderated Mediation, Timothy J. Bauerle

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Breast Cancer Screening On Sleep, Affect, And Immune Functioning, Caitlin Burbridge Dec 2011

The Impact Of Breast Cancer Screening On Sleep, Affect, And Immune Functioning, Caitlin Burbridge

Master's Theses

Despite great strides that have been made over the past several decades in terms of diagnosis and treatment, breast cancer remains the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality for women in the United States. Although the benefits of early detection of breast cancer have been clearly established, the advantages of screening must also be weighed against a potential corresponding negative psychological impact of screening procedures. The purpose of the present study was to further investigate the impact of breast cancer screening on previously unstudied or understudied aspects of psychological and physiological ...


Racial/Ethnic Differences In Possible Selves Of Diverse Adolescents: Implications For Higher Education And Mental Health, Viana Y. Turcios-Cotto Dec 2011

Racial/Ethnic Differences In Possible Selves Of Diverse Adolescents: Implications For Higher Education And Mental Health, Viana Y. Turcios-Cotto

Master's Theses

There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino and Black adolescents attaining higher education at vastly lower rates than White adolescents. Though numerous reasons exist for these educational disparities this study examines possible selves as they may relate to educational achievement among Latinos. Specifically, this study investigates: a) racial/ethnic differences in the content and themes of expected possible selves held by young adolescents; b) within group differences among Latino students and their expected possible selves; c) racial/ethnic differences in the relation between higher education possible selves and current mental health adjustment. Written responses ...


Differences In Body Image: Comparing Asian American Ethnic Groups And White Americans, Alefiyah Z. Pishori Dec 2011

Differences In Body Image: Comparing Asian American Ethnic Groups And White Americans, Alefiyah Z. Pishori

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Rejection Sensitivity And Early Relationships: Explaining Differential Outcomes In Early Dating, Heather Holly Nov 2011

Rejection Sensitivity And Early Relationships: Explaining Differential Outcomes In Early Dating, Heather Holly

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Supporting School Wellness Policices Through Game On! Implementation In 13 High-Need Connecticut Schools, Sarah M. Bourque Aug 2011

Supporting School Wellness Policices Through Game On! Implementation In 13 High-Need Connecticut Schools, Sarah M. Bourque

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Intact Statistical Word Learning In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Jessica Mayo Aug 2011

Intact Statistical Word Learning In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Jessica Mayo

Master's Theses

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have impairments in language acquisition, but the underlying mechanism of these deficits is poorly understood. Implicit learning appears potentially relevant to language development, particularly in speech segmentation, which relies on sensitivity to the transitional probabilities between speech sounds. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between implicit learning and current language abilities in school-aged children with autism (n = 17) and typical development (n = 24) using a well-studied artificial language learning task. Results suggest that the ASD and TD groups were equally able to implicitly learn transitional probabilities from a lengthy stimulus stream. Furthermore, task ...


Testing For A Descriptive And Injunctive Norm Interaction In Promoting Health Behavior, Robert E. Low Aug 2011

Testing For A Descriptive And Injunctive Norm Interaction In Promoting Health Behavior, Robert E. Low

Master's Theses

Social norms-based interventions have demonstrated efficacy as tools for behavior change interventions. Nonetheless, there is some theoretical and empirical evidence that the efficacy of injunctive norms-based appeals can be undermined by their tendency to 1) arouse psychological reactance among participants, and 2) inadvertently imply that few others are completing the target behavior. The author hypothesizes that supplementing an injunctive appeal with evidence of a supporting descriptive norm will counteract these problematic tendencies. The present research describes a test of of this hypothesis in the context of an intervention to fight H1N1 on campus. Boxes of sanitizing keyboard wipes were placed ...


Language Typology And Sentence Frame Effects On Motion Verb Interpretation In Grade Schoolers, Emma C. Kelty Aug 2011

Language Typology And Sentence Frame Effects On Motion Verb Interpretation In Grade Schoolers, Emma C. Kelty

Master's Theses

Most English descriptions of motion events express manner in the main verb and path in a prepositional phrase, as in “She skips out of the house”. However, the same event can be described differently if a different syntactic frame is used: “She exits the house”. While young children have been found to interpret novel motion verbs according to the syntactic frame information, adults have been found to rely somewhat more on the overall language pattern, or typology (Hohenstein et al., 2004; Naigles & Terrazas, 1998). Grade schoolers have not been examined in this paradigm, and their linguistic abilities suggest that they may show an important part of a developmental trajectory regarding the acquisition of motion verbs.

Sixty-four children grade schoolers and 12 adults viewed live-action events showing spontaneous motion events and heard 8 novel verbs in manner frames (“He’s daxing up the stairs”), and 8 in path frames (“He’s kradding the garage”). Side-by-side videos then showed the actor performing the same manner but a different path, or performing a different manner along the same path. The accompanying audio asked the participant to find the action matching the verb screen (e.g. “Choose kradding”).

Children of all ages chose more manner than path interpretations in both conditions, while adults showed fewer manner interpretations in the path frame condition. As the path frame condition progressed, children chose gradually more path interpretations; moreover, eye movement data show that children looked towards the path screen more during the path frame condition ...