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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Estimating Predictors Of Mental Well-Being Through Analysis Of Children’S Drawings: The Case Of Syrian Refugees, Stephanie Smith May 2020

Estimating Predictors Of Mental Well-Being Through Analysis Of Children’S Drawings: The Case Of Syrian Refugees, Stephanie Smith

Master's Theses

There are currently over 65 million individuals that have been forcibly displaced globally. The cumulative trauma that comes from the refugee experience and exposure to violence has proven to have long-term negative psychological outcomes and thus negative impacts on human capital in the long run. Given that over 50% percent of the global refugee population are children, the ability to efficiently and accurately assess their mental well-being is of critical importance. Using data from over 2000 refugee children in Jordan, I use machine learning techniques to find key predictors of psychological distress, PTSD, and exposure to violence found in children ...


First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith May 2019

First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith

Master's Theses

Cetacean development is important for general comparative understanding and the implementation of informed husbandry policies. Due to the inaccessibility of many of these species in the wild, researchers can study managed care populations to better understand basic developmental patterns of cetaceans, as well as to improve husbandry policies for facility animals. However, no previous studies have attempted to observe the behavioral development of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens). Eight beluga whale calves and four Pacific white-sided dolphin calves were observed for the first 30 days of life to determine the developmental trajectory of several typically monitored behaviors. The first occurrence ...


Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor Aug 2018

Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor

Master's Theses

The ability for humans to communicate with another species has been an aspiration and well documented. One example is through training animals to make associations between a designated cue and conditioned response (Pryor, 1986). Two-way communication, however, in which both species can express wants/needs has been predominantly pursued with apes and dolphins. Studies conducted by Louis Herman demonstrated the capabilities of dolphins to comprehend complex semantic and syntactic commands in an artificial language system (Herman, Richards, & Wolz, 1984). Researchers working with primates have used American Sign Language, a computer keyboard system with discrete lexigrams, and a portable lexigram keyboard (Gardner & Gardner, 1969; Rumbaugh, 1977; Savage-Rumbaugh, 1986). Savage-Rumbaugh decided to take a different approach to learning after one individual demonstrated the ability to use the keyboard ...


Developmental Assets And Outcomes: An Analysis Of Male Serious Juvenile Offenders To Promote Evidence Based Approaches For Rehabilitation, Danielle Jordan Nesi Jan 2017

Developmental Assets And Outcomes: An Analysis Of Male Serious Juvenile Offenders To Promote Evidence Based Approaches For Rehabilitation, Danielle Jordan Nesi

Master's Theses

Positive youth development is an approach that seeks to enhance and promote young people's developmental progress. Although there has been a shift toward asset building in rehabilitation of delinquent youth, research on positive youth development has historically focused on children at risk of adverse outcomes, rather than those who are already engaged in criminal behavior. Without knowledge about the distribution of assets among delinquent youth and the relations of these assets to outcomes later in life, it is unclear if interventions based on research of developmental assets among at-risk youth are appropriate for justice-involved youth. The 40 Developmental Assets ...


Descriptive Analysis Of Activity Transition Data In An Intensive Autism Treatment Center, Ashley Marie Kotsiris Jun 2016

Descriptive Analysis Of Activity Transition Data In An Intensive Autism Treatment Center, Ashley Marie Kotsiris

Master's Theses

Children with autism often display challenging behaviors (e.g., tantrums, aggression, etc.) when transitioning between activities. Most of the current literature focuses on antecedent interventions for increasing compliance during transitions (e.g., visual schedules, two minute transition warnings, etc.). There is a minimal number of studies examining how environmental variables may affect transitions. This study was a descriptive analysis that examined different environmental variables and their effects on transitions. Observations were conducted with four children diagnosed with autism. A transition-tracking sheet was used to gather specific descriptive data during transitions. Results suggest that two-minute warnings were not correlated with more ...


Pre- And Post-Partum Whistle Production Of A Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Mother-Calf Dyad, Audra Elizabeth Ames May 2016

Pre- And Post-Partum Whistle Production Of A Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Mother-Calf Dyad, Audra Elizabeth Ames

Master's Theses

Whistle use pre- and post-partum in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) mother-calf dyad has rarely been studied. The current study is the first to investigate signature whistle production by the mother pre- and post-partum, as well as whistle use by other members of the social group during calf development, and how exposure to these whistles may affect the calf’s vocal repertoire. Findings showed that the mother increased her rates both pre- and post-delivery, while other group members produced their whistles at decreased rates until the calf’s second week of life. After the calf’s second week, whistle ...


Becoming Adults: Trajectories Of Adult Identity Development Among Undergraduate Students With Implications For Mental Health, Jenna Shapiro Jan 2016

Becoming Adults: Trajectories Of Adult Identity Development Among Undergraduate Students With Implications For Mental Health, Jenna Shapiro

Master's Theses

One of the defining developmental processes that occur during the unique stage of emerging adulthood is the emergence of adult identity, or the subjective sense of adulthood. Adult identity has been hypothesized to grow gradually, linearly, and at different rates for subgroups of individuals over the course of this stage (Arnett, 2006; Côté, 2006). Differences have also been suggested to predict wellbeing and distress (Côté, 2006; Kroger, 1996; Kroger, Martinussen, & Marcia, 2010). The goals of the current study were to examine heterogeneity in adult identity development over four years in college and to examine differences in self-esteem and negative emotional ...


Examination Of Script And Non-Script Based Narrative Retellings In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Elizabeth Ann Hilvert Jan 2015

Examination Of Script And Non-Script Based Narrative Retellings In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Elizabeth Ann Hilvert

Master's Theses

This study compared the narrative abilities of 19 children with Autism Spectrum

Disorder (ASD) and 26 neurotypical children (NT), between 6 and 12 years of age, on two story retelling tasks: a script-based story and a non-script based story. The script- based story contained the structural aspects of a narrative, but also had the internal framework of a script (Hayward et al., 2007). Given the reduced cognitive and linguistic demands of the script-based story, it was expected that the script-based narrative measure would minimize narrative differences between children with and without ASD. Additionally, the relation between narrative production, theory of ...


The Influence Of Community-Based Summer Programs On Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Chicago Youth, Amy Governale Jan 2015

The Influence Of Community-Based Summer Programs On Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Chicago Youth, Amy Governale

Master's Theses

How youth spend their time has become an increasingly important factor in studying adolescent development. During the summer months, longer periods of unsupervised time have been associated with a loss of academic skills and lower social-emotional skills. One support for at-risk youth and adolescents might be summer programs housed in community-based organizations. Using a pre-post test design over an 11-week period, the present study examines the linkages among participation in summer programs, individual characteristics, and youth outcomes among ethnically diverse, low-income Chicago youth. Analyses revealed ethnicity was related to math skills at the end of the summer, although the strongest ...


The Gender Of Participants In Published Research Involving People With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Erin Watkins Apr 2014

The Gender Of Participants In Published Research Involving People With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Erin Watkins

Master's Theses

Research articles involving participants with an autism spectrum disorder and published from 2010-2012 in Autism, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Journal of Child Psychology and Child Psychiatry, and Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders were examined to determine the reported gender of participants. The overall male:female ratio was 4.62, which is similar to that reported in epidemiological studies, but the ratio was 6.07 in intervention studies. These findings suggesting that males were in a statistical sense over-represented in intervention studies, but not in other kinds of research. Most (82.21%) of these studies included both male and ...


Effects Of Instruction And Parent-Child Conversation On Children's Stem Learning And Transfer, Maria Marcus Jan 2014

Effects Of Instruction And Parent-Child Conversation On Children's Stem Learning And Transfer, Maria Marcus

Master's Theses

This study examined the effects of direct instruction and parent-child conversation on children's STEM learning, transfer abilities, and remembering. A total of forty mothers and their 5- to 6-year-old children (M = 5.87) participated in this study. Mother-child dyads were randomly assigned to one of two conditions that differed in the amount of engineering information they received prior to engaging in a building activity in a museum exhibit. The provision of engineering information fostered dyads building activities and their long-term recall of the museum visit. Implications for museum research and practice are discussed.


Learning To Tell Coherent Personal Narratives: Linkages To Mother-Child Reminiscing Over Time, Philip C. Hoffman Jan 2014

Learning To Tell Coherent Personal Narratives: Linkages To Mother-Child Reminiscing Over Time, Philip C. Hoffman

Master's Theses

Longitudinal and concurrent predictors of children's narrative coherence are identified and used to model pathways to coherence. Narrative coherence in children's independent narratives was measured at 72-months using a multidimensional (context, chronology, and theme) coding system. Fifty-three potential predictors of children's narrative coherence were considered, including children's vocabulary scores, metamemory knowledge, and measures derived from observations of mothers' and children's talk during reminiscing conversations recorded when the children were 54 and 72 months old. Optimal Data Analysis was used to generate three classification tree models to identify variables associated with whether children were low or ...


Mothers Do Not Drive The Development Of Adult Homesign Systems: Evidence From Comprehension, Emily Carrigan May 2012

Mothers Do Not Drive The Development Of Adult Homesign Systems: Evidence From Comprehension, Emily Carrigan

Master's Theses

Studying the communication systems that arise in spontaneously occurring cases of degraded linguistic input can help clarify human predispositions for language. Some deaf individuals born into hearing families, who do not receive conventional linguistic input, develop gestures, called “homesign,” to communicate. We examined homesign systems used by four deaf Nicaraguan adults (ages 15-27), and evaluated whether homesigners’ hearing mothers are potential sources for these systems. Study One measured mothers’ comprehension of descriptions of events (e.g., “A man taps a woman”) produced in homesign and spoken Spanish. Mothers comprehended spoken Spanish descriptions (produced by one of their hearing children) better ...


The Multi-Scale Dynamics Of Executive Function, Jason Anastas Jan 2012

The Multi-Scale Dynamics Of Executive Function, Jason Anastas

Master's Theses

Cognitive control is a central issue in developmental psychology. Traditional theories of psychology solve this problem by positing a top-down central executive, which coordinates cognitive resources in pursuit of goals. We propose an alternative explanation: cognitive control arises from physical interactions across many different timescales within the system. College and preschool aged participants were asked to complete a simple executive function task, card sorting. We found that multi-scale physical interactions differed depending on experimental constraints, and that executive function in these cases was driven primarily by flexibility in multi-scale interactions, rather than the dominance of one scale. This suggests that ...


The Influence Of Adult- Versus Child-Directed Television Programs On Distractibility In Preschoolers, Kathryn Joyce O'Toole Jan 2012

The Influence Of Adult- Versus Child-Directed Television Programs On Distractibility In Preschoolers, Kathryn Joyce O'Toole

Master's Theses

Research in the field on children's attention to television has suggested that discerning between two different types of programming is crucial for understanding how children attend to TV. Child-directed television consists of programs designed with the purpose that children are the intended viewers. In contrast, adult-directed television is not designed for children; these programs are directed toward an older audience. The current study investigated how children divided their attention between cognitive tasks and a distractor. The distractor was either an adult-directed TV program, a child-directed TV program, or there was no distractor. The results revealed that the both distractors ...


The Effects Of Check In/Check Out On Levels Of Problem Behavior And Academic Engagement In Elementary School Students, Leila Mullooly Miller Dec 2011

The Effects Of Check In/Check Out On Levels Of Problem Behavior And Academic Engagement In Elementary School Students, Leila Mullooly Miller

Master's Theses

Previous studies have largely evaluated the effects of check in/ check out (CICO) using office discipline referrals (ODRs). However, ODRs are not always reliable measures of student behavior, and direct observation is known to be an accurate tool for behavioral measurement. Due to this, the current study used direct observations to evaluate the effects of CICO on levels of problem behavior and academic engagement for a group of elementary school students. One second, one fourth, and one sixth grade student served as participants. Results indicate CICO is effective in decreasing problem behavior and increasing academic engagement. Data from teacher ratings ...


Rejection Sensitivity And Early Relationships: Explaining Differential Outcomes In Early Dating, Heather Holly Nov 2011

Rejection Sensitivity And Early Relationships: Explaining Differential Outcomes In Early Dating, Heather Holly

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Intact Statistical Word Learning In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Jessica Mayo Aug 2011

Intact Statistical Word Learning In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Jessica Mayo

Master's Theses

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have impairments in language acquisition, but the underlying mechanism of these deficits is poorly understood. Implicit learning appears potentially relevant to language development, particularly in speech segmentation, which relies on sensitivity to the transitional probabilities between speech sounds. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between implicit learning and current language abilities in school-aged children with autism (n = 17) and typical development (n = 24) using a well-studied artificial language learning task. Results suggest that the ASD and TD groups were equally able to implicitly learn transitional probabilities from a lengthy stimulus stream. Furthermore, task ...


Language Typology And Sentence Frame Effects On Motion Verb Interpretation In Grade Schoolers, Emma C. Kelty Aug 2011

Language Typology And Sentence Frame Effects On Motion Verb Interpretation In Grade Schoolers, Emma C. Kelty

Master's Theses

Most English descriptions of motion events express manner in the main verb and path in a prepositional phrase, as in “She skips out of the house”. However, the same event can be described differently if a different syntactic frame is used: “She exits the house”. While young children have been found to interpret novel motion verbs according to the syntactic frame information, adults have been found to rely somewhat more on the overall language pattern, or typology (Hohenstein et al., 2004; Naigles & Terrazas, 1998). Grade schoolers have not been examined in this paradigm, and their linguistic abilities suggest that they may show an important part of a developmental trajectory regarding the acquisition of motion verbs.

Sixty-four children grade schoolers and 12 adults viewed live-action events showing spontaneous motion events and heard 8 novel verbs in manner frames (“He’s daxing up the stairs”), and 8 in path frames (“He’s kradding the garage”). Side-by-side videos then showed the actor performing the same manner but a different path, or performing a different manner along the same path. The accompanying audio asked the participant to find the action matching the verb screen (e.g. “Choose kradding”).

Children of all ages chose more manner than path interpretations in both conditions, while adults showed fewer manner interpretations in the path frame condition. As the path frame condition progressed, children chose gradually more path interpretations; moreover, eye movement data show that children looked towards the path screen more during the path frame condition ...


Antecedents And Continuity Of Compliance In Preschoolers, Lauren Gindin Jul 2011

Antecedents And Continuity Of Compliance In Preschoolers, Lauren Gindin

Master's Theses

Self-regulation, and compliance behavior specifically, has been implicated in the development of successful socialization. Difficulty self-regulating has led to negative outcomes in areas such as academic success and mental health, and a number of possible contributors, such as temperament, maternal sensitivity and attachment, have been identified. In this study, we examined these possible predictors of preschool compliance behavior through causal modeling utilizing a large and diverse longitudinal dataset from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. We aimed to predict compliance and delay of gratification performance in children across 2, 3 and 4.5 years of age ...


Effects Of Embodiment On Perceptual And Affective Responses To Infant Crying, Jennifer B. Bisson Dec 2010

Effects Of Embodiment On Perceptual And Affective Responses To Infant Crying, Jennifer B. Bisson

Master's Theses

Three experiments were conducted to investigate how changes in bodily states might be related to perceptions of infant vocalizations. In Study 1, participants were asked to hold a pencil between their lips, mimicking a smile, while listening to infant crying. Although there were no embodied effects for perceptual ratings, results indicated that this manipulation decreased participants’ self-reported, negative affect. In Study 2, participants were played both infant crying and birdsong while exposed to similar embodied manipulations, including activation of muscles related to approach and withdrawal behavior. There were no embodied effects for ratings of crying or for affect. Comparing Study ...


Effects Of Delayed Auditory Feedback On Young Infants’ Crying, Sarah M. Sanborn Dec 2010

Effects Of Delayed Auditory Feedback On Young Infants’ Crying, Sarah M. Sanborn

Master's Theses

Neural control of newborn crying has typically been considered to originate primarily in the lower brain centers, although support for this assumption is limited. To address this, the present study manipulated newborn infants’ perceptual experience during a cry bout through use of delayed auditory feedback (DAF). Atypical cry productions during DAF would suggest that newborn crying is under higher levels of cortical control than previously assumed. Infants’ spontaneous crying was recorded for 2 minutes at 4 weeks of age (n=16) and again at 8 weeks of age (n=17) using an ABA design, alternating synchronous feedback with DAF. Standard ...


Stretched Too Thin: Low-Income Mothers' Work-Family Conflict And Preschoolers' Socioemotional Adjustment, Kelly Haas Jan 2010

Stretched Too Thin: Low-Income Mothers' Work-Family Conflict And Preschoolers' Socioemotional Adjustment, Kelly Haas

Master's Theses

The purpose of the current study was to further our understanding of the association between low-income mothers' work-family conflict and their children's socioemotional adjustment, with a particular focus on externalizing and internalizing symptoms. To do so, the present study tested the mediating roles of mothers' psychological distress and positive parenting practices in the relation between work-family conflict and children's adjustment over time. Contrary to hypotheses, the linkage between low-income mothers' experience of conflict between their work and family roles and preschoolers' adjustment was not explained by mothers' symptoms of psychological distress or their use of positive parenting practices ...


Children's Use Of The Shape Bias In The Presence Of Different Instructions, Object Types, And Emotion Cues, Vanessa Raschke Jan 2009

Children's Use Of The Shape Bias In The Presence Of Different Instructions, Object Types, And Emotion Cues, Vanessa Raschke

Master's Theses

This study explored the prevalence of the shape bias in children when faced with multiple perceptual cues. Three-to six-year-olds were shown three-dimensional objects and two-dimensional representations of these objects, half of which had emotional faces depicted on them. Of interest was whether attention to emotion would alter children's bias towards the shape of the object and how dimensionality and instruction type would affect the children's choices. The older children were equally likely to use emotion matches as shape matches, but this was not the case for the younger children, who were almost exclusively focused on shape. The non-lexical ...


The Acquisition Of Spelling By Developmentally Disabled Adults: An Examination Of Some Variations Of The Look-Cover-Write-Check Cycle, Mark Stafford Jun 1990

The Acquisition Of Spelling By Developmentally Disabled Adults: An Examination Of Some Variations Of The Look-Cover-Write-Check Cycle, Mark Stafford

Master's Theses

Five developmentally disabled adults were taught to spell groups of five words using the look-over-write-check cycle, in which the subject looks at the word, covers it, writes the word, then looks at the word again to check the accuracy of spelling. Four variations of this procedure were used with each of the subjects including requiring the subjects to spell the words out loud in the "look" component. The results showed that the subjects required fewer sessions and fewer trials to spell the five words when the out loud requirement was in effect. Approximations generated as the subjects learned to spell ...


Repeated Acquisition With The Developmentally Disabled, Jeannie Madsen Jun 1988

Repeated Acquisition With The Developmentally Disabled, Jeannie Madsen

Master's Theses

Repeated-acquisition data were obtained from four developmentally disabled adults. The task was selecting the poker chip with the sticker on its underside in a sequence of sets of chips. When a sequence was mastered (four consecutive errorless runs) the subjects were given a new sequence to learn. Money was reinforcement for correct sequence completion. Total errors before mastery was the dependent variable.

In Phase 1 the subjects completed as many sequences as possible during each 15-minute session. Errors per sequence was a reasonably stable dependent variable within subjects, and between-subject differences were what would be expected on the basis of ...


Utilizing Daily Repertoire Behavior To Facilitate The Acquisition Of Generalized Imitation In Profoundly Mentally Retarded Adults, Scott A. Kremser Jun 1988

Utilizing Daily Repertoire Behavior To Facilitate The Acquisition Of Generalized Imitation In Profoundly Mentally Retarded Adults, Scott A. Kremser

Master's Theses

Two procedures were compared in teaching the skill of generalized imitation. One procedure incorporated some of the subject's daily behavior repertoire into the imitation training paradigm. Another similar procedure utilized non-repertoire responses during training. Two male profoundly mentally retarded adults were trained with each procedure. Overall, the acquisition of generalized imitation was facilitated by incorporating daily repertoire behaviors into the imitation training packages. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in levels of generalized imitation as a function of training condition. Results were variable across subjects however, and it is questionable whether the difference is clinically significant. Further and more ...


Training Mildly Retarded Adults To Generate Effective Solutions To Daily Living Problems, Dennis Munk Apr 1988

Training Mildly Retarded Adults To Generate Effective Solutions To Daily Living Problems, Dennis Munk

Master's Theses

Two mildly mentally retarded adults, living in a semi-independent residential program received training in solving common social problems. The subjects were trained to perform five problem-solving component skills: (1) identifying the problem, (2) defining a goal, (3) evaluating a solution, (4) evaluating alternative solutions, and (5) selecting a best solution. The five component skills were trained in sequence, as a multiple-baseline across skill behaviors design. It was hypothesized that the training program would successfully improve the subjects' ability to perform the component skills when solving trained and unfamiliar problems. The unfamiliar problems were included to test generalization of skill. The ...


An Evaluation Of The Effects Of An Infant-Care Skills Training Program On Fathering Behaviors, G. Joseph Vrazo Dec 1987

An Evaluation Of The Effects Of An Infant-Care Skills Training Program On Fathering Behaviors, G. Joseph Vrazo

Master's Theses

This study replicated the findings and expanded the assessment procedures of a previous study that had established the effectiveness of a multi-component infant-care skills training program for first-time fathers. A multiple probe design was used in this study to demonstrate that the training program produced criterion performance of the infant-care skills by four experimental fathers; also, an increase in the frequency of infant stimulation activities initiated by these fathers was observed. A pre/post training evaluation of the effects of the training program on the fathers' performance of play and affectional behaviors and daily infant-care activities yielded negative results. Four ...


A Study-Support Program For High-Risk, Black College Freshman Enrolled In A General Psychology Course, Angela Michelle Williams Apr 1987

A Study-Support Program For High-Risk, Black College Freshman Enrolled In A General Psychology Course, Angela Michelle Williams

Master's Theses

As a replication of Jackson's (1984) work, this research compared the performance of three groups of college freshmen. The groups consisted of black, high-risk students who voluntarily enrolled in a study-support group because of their initial quiz scores. The support program required the students to study each week's psychology objectives in four smaller segments, rather than studying all the week's material at once. The assumption was that this would increase the students' contact with the study material and improve their performances. An ABA design was used. The participants in the support program received higher quiz scores and ...