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Master's Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Quiet Classroom Game With An Indiscriminable Contingency In A High School, Stefanie Schrieber Oct 2019

The Quiet Classroom Game With An Indiscriminable Contingency In A High School, Stefanie Schrieber

Master's Theses

The Quiet Classroom Game (QCG) is an interdependent group contingency utilized to decrease classroom noise levels, increase student engagement, and decrease disruptive behaviors in the classroom setting. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of the QCG in three high school classrooms in the Southeastern United States. Classrooms were recruited based on teacher reports of excessive noise and high rates of disruptive behavior. A multiple baseline design with two intervention phases was utilized to examine the effects of the intervention. The first phase was the QCG alone, and the second phase was the QCG with an ...


Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber Oct 2019

Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber

Master's Theses

Previous research suggests that the processing of affordances may require more perceptually relevant information than words can provide (Surber et al., 2018; Chainay & Humphreys, 2002). The present study investigates this hypothesis with the shoebox task used in Bowers and Turner (2003). A list of 81 object nouns (targets) and associated features (primes: affordance, semantic, and non-associates) was compiled from the McRae, Cree, Seidenberg, and McNorgan (2005) norms. Affordances denote possibilities for action in relation to the object (e.g. chair – sit), whereas semantic features indicate definitional characteristics (e.g. chair – has legs). Affordances and semantic features served as primes in ...


Emotion Reactivity, Emotion Dysregulation, And Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among At-Risk Adolescents: A Multiple Mediation Analysis, Paula N. Floyd Jul 2019

Emotion Reactivity, Emotion Dysregulation, And Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among At-Risk Adolescents: A Multiple Mediation Analysis, Paula N. Floyd

Master's Theses

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is defined as deliberate self-inflicted damage to bodily tissue without the intent to die. NSSI has been identified as a major health concern, as it is related to both poor psychosocial outcomes and increased suicide risk. NSSI is especially important to understand among adolescents, as age of onset is typically during adolescence and prevalence rates are highest among this age group. One of the most well-established correlates of NSSI is emotion dysregulation. While many studies have examined emotion dysregulation and its subcomponents in relation to self-injury, there has been far less work devoted to factors that may ...


Discrepant Self-Perceptions As Predictors Of Rule Violating Behavior Among Juvenile Offenders, Kimberly Barajas Jul 2019

Discrepant Self-Perceptions As Predictors Of Rule Violating Behavior Among Juvenile Offenders, Kimberly Barajas

Master's Theses

Numerous studies have examined discrepancies between youths’ self-perceptions and others’ ratings across different domains of competence (i.e. academic, behavior, social) (e.g., Jia, Jiang, & Mikami, 2016; Kistner, 2006; Owens et al., 2007) and it is well-established that discrepant self-perceptions are risk factors for maladaptive outcomes (e.g., aggression, depression) in children and adolescents (David & Kistner, 2000; Jia et al., 2016; Kistner et al., 2006). Only one study has examined discrepant self-perceptions (e.g., perceptual bias) in a sample of male juvenile offenders (JOs) (Smith, Lynch, Stephens, & Kistner, 2015). This study sought to extend the literature examining discrepant self-perceptions within juvenile offenders in two important ways: first, by examining whether two separate facets of discrepant self-perceptions (i.e., perceptual bias and inaccurate self-perceptions) in the behavioral domain were predictive of JOs’ rule violations following their incarceration; second, by examining if race moderated the relationship between discrepant self-perceptions and rule violating behaviors. A series ...


What's Cookin'?: An Analysis Of Food As A Method Of Control In The Penal System, Zoe Livengood Jul 2019

What's Cookin'?: An Analysis Of Food As A Method Of Control In The Penal System, Zoe Livengood

Master's Theses

According to Garland (2001), the U.S. correctional system is a reflection of the culture of control that exists in American society. One way the correctional system exerts control is through food. This concept partnered with Foucault’s ideas about the evolution of punishment and the criminal justice system as an institution creates the theoretical foundation for food as a method of control in the correctional system.

Through quantitative and qualitative analysis, this study examined food as a method of control in three southern Mississippi jails in order to understand how food is a contested space for control between jail ...


Acting Black: An Analysis Of Blackness And Criminality In Film, Blake Edwards Jul 2019

Acting Black: An Analysis Of Blackness And Criminality In Film, Blake Edwards

Master's Theses

This thesis will attempt to answer how films deal with blackness and crime, specifically when intersecting with the concepts of exploitation, appropriation, whiteness and the criminality of the black body. While not entirely the root of the negative perceptions of African-Americans in the United States, the manner in which African-Americans are portrayed in motion picture media influences how their presence is seen in society. This thesis will examine specific films that include elements dealing with the listed factors and what effects they may or may not have.


Werewolves: A Three-Dimensional Content Analysis Of Films From 1980-2014, Jennifer Lewis Jul 2019

Werewolves: A Three-Dimensional Content Analysis Of Films From 1980-2014, Jennifer Lewis

Master's Theses

WEREWOLVES: A THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONTENT ANALYSIS OF FILMS FROM 1980 – 2014 revolves around how monsters function in stories. Monsters represent fears and teach social norms. They are often portrayed as “other”, but more recently the werewolf has appeared in media as more sympathetic (Brannon 2016, 21; Gilmore 2008, 362; Hughes 2009, 97). Limited research has systematically studied how werewolves are represented in the media. This content analysis focuses on how major werewolf characters are represented in 20 films.

The analysis showcases werewolf characters in today’s culture and what it means to be a monster by analyzing hybridity. This study presents ...


Vocal Response Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) To A Novel Stimulus, Lindsey Johnson Jul 2019

Vocal Response Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) To A Novel Stimulus, Lindsey Johnson

Master's Theses

Bottlenose dolphins utilize acoustic signals as their primary mode of communication. Although some aspects of dolphin vocal behavior are well understood, less is known about vocalizations in different behavioral contexts and how these vocal behaviors may indicate habituation and sensitization. The focus of this study was to investigate how bottlenose dolphins respond vocally to a novel stimulus. Archival data from three populations of bottlenose dolphins (N = 20) living in a human-care facility were exposed to a novel apparatus (a mirror) for 10 trials, each lasting 20 minutes. Five of the trials presented the mirror covered with an opaque cloth whereas ...


Multiple Species Of Distinctiveness In Memory: Separating Task Distinctiveness From Statistical Distinctiveness, Matthew Robert Gretz Jul 2019

Multiple Species Of Distinctiveness In Memory: Separating Task Distinctiveness From Statistical Distinctiveness, Matthew Robert Gretz

Master's Theses

Distinctiveness refers to the memorial benefit of processing unique or item-specific features of a memory set relative to a non-distinctive control. Traditional distinctiveness effects are accounted for based on qualitative differences in how distinctive items are encoded at the time of study. This thesis project aims to evaluate whether a different species of distinctiveness—statistical distinctiveness—may provide a separate contribution to memory beyond traditional encoding-based processes. Statistical distinctiveness refers to the relative frequency with which a specific memory item or set is processed. The current study evaluated statistical distinctiveness through a series of mixed groups in which DRM lists ...


Spatial Variation Of Low Birth Weight And Its Association With Socioeconomic Status, Housing Types, And Accessibility In Kalamazoo County, Eugene Kojo Opare Ahwireng Jun 2019

Spatial Variation Of Low Birth Weight And Its Association With Socioeconomic Status, Housing Types, And Accessibility In Kalamazoo County, Eugene Kojo Opare Ahwireng

Master's Theses

Infants with low birth weight due to early delivery or fetal growth restriction face an increased risk of health conditions and deaths. These risk factors and the cost associated with healthcare for infants makes low birth weight a major public health problem. Understanding early precursor challenges expectant mothers face before delivery would help in planning interventions to reduce low birth weight among infants.

This study investigated and evaluated the spatial variation of low birth weight incidence with respect to socioeconomic status, housing types and accessibility in Kalamazoo County. In a broader scope, this research study examined the geographic patterns of ...


Planning For A Sustainable Future: Rethinking The Role Of Bicycle Parking At Western Michigan University, Gregory J. Carlton Jun 2019

Planning For A Sustainable Future: Rethinking The Role Of Bicycle Parking At Western Michigan University, Gregory J. Carlton

Master's Theses

Sustainable transportation planning focuses on addressing the needs of current users, without jeopardizing the needs of future users (Black 1997, Richardson 1999, Balsas 2003). A popular mode of sustainable transportation is the bicycle, which is frequently used by college students. One aspect of bicycle transportation that remains underexplored within the United States and on university campuses, is bicycle parking. By using rack conditioning assessments, bicycle theft density analysis, bicycle parking counts and a formative stakeholder survey of the bicycle parking at Western Michigan University’s campus, recommendations were able to be created for campus officials for use in their planning ...


Murder And Machismo: Behind The Motivations Of Salvadoran Women Asylum Seekers, Victoria Colbert May 2019

Murder And Machismo: Behind The Motivations Of Salvadoran Women Asylum Seekers, Victoria Colbert

Master's Theses

This thesis aims to draw connections between a culture of machismo, an ideological gender belief distinct to Latin America with heavy traces of patriarchy and misogyny, and the motivations of Salvadoran women seeking asylum in the United States. I develop these connections by first reviewing the literature on structural violence, the form of violence wherein the structure or social institution prevents certain demographics of people from meeting their basic needs and living their optimal lives (Galtung, 1969). I repeatedly use structural violence and its functions to parallel the operations of patriarchy and machismo to suggest that violence against women (VAW ...


Competition And Cooperation In Polygynous & Monogamous Households: Experimental Evidence From Sierra Leone, Bethany Gerdemann May 2019

Competition And Cooperation In Polygynous & Monogamous Households: Experimental Evidence From Sierra Leone, Bethany Gerdemann

Master's Theses

Competition and cooperation in polygynous households have both been widely documented across various disciplines. There is contradictory evidence as to whether these interpersonal dynamics produce better or worse outcomes for the household. This study uses a competitiveness game and a series of dictator games to measure competition and cooperation within households and between marriage types. Results show that there are key differences between monogamy and polygyny. Monogamous women compete less with their husbands than stranger and less in comparison to polygynous women. Monogamous spouses are more likely to forgo economic opportunities than polygynous spouses and have a greater preference for ...


Temperature And Tempers: Heats Impact On Mood And Language, John Sutton May 2019

Temperature And Tempers: Heats Impact On Mood And Language, John Sutton

Master's Theses

Abstract: Temperatures above 20° Celsius have shown to adversely impact human behavior, leading to increased aggression and violence. Climate change will contribute to both the magnitude and severity of this pattern as temperatures continue their rise. Contributions to this field of research have only recently begun to analyze online behavior and language as a proxy for hedonic state, or well-being. From a development perspective this study is relevant since the poor tend to live in some of the warmest regions on earth, and would thus be disproportionately impacted by increased temperatures. We use several sources of data; U.S. based ...


Empowering Female Entrepreneurs Through Mentorship In Medellin, Colombia: Results From The Field, Theresa Solenski May 2019

Empowering Female Entrepreneurs Through Mentorship In Medellin, Colombia: Results From The Field, Theresa Solenski

Master's Theses

Utilizing the power of local knowledge and peer networking, this study attempts to quantify the impacts of mentorship among female micro-entrepreneurs in Medellin, Colombia on empowerment. Developing countries such as Colombia have disproportionately high rates of unprofitable micro-businesses, many of which are managed by women. Internal constraints, such as disempowerment, play a central role in perpetuating poverty. We implement a 6-month mentoring intervention by pairing 18 successful entrepreneurs with 52 disadvantaged female, micro-entrepreneurs in Medellin, Colombia to measure the additional benefit of localized knowledge to micro-borrowers. Using a process of random assignment, I measure the change in female empowerment, measured ...


The Effect Of Disability Status On Parental Input: A Study From India, Susann Skjoldhorne May 2019

The Effect Of Disability Status On Parental Input: A Study From India, Susann Skjoldhorne

Master's Theses

Human capital has for a long time been an important factor in economic growth theory. Previous literature shows a strong connection between parental input and the level of human capital attained by a child. The investment in child health and education has a positive effect on building human capital. When resources are scarce the allocation of resources will affect the opportunities that a child is given to achieve their potential. Gender preferences, birth order, and disabilities could all be factors that explain how parents chose to allocate their resources. Previous studies show that the distribution of parental input based on ...


The Impact Of Cleft Lip/Palate And Clp Surgical Intervention On The Social Integration Of Adolescents In India, Mustafa Zahid May 2019

The Impact Of Cleft Lip/Palate And Clp Surgical Intervention On The Social Integration Of Adolescents In India, Mustafa Zahid

Master's Theses

Cleft Lip/Palate, a congenital orofacial anomaly, carries an incidence rate of approximately 1 in every 1000 births. In addition to the stigma associated with the condition, the varying levels of cleft severity might result in lower life outcomes which could include lower cognitive ability, physical and psychological well-being, social and behavioral outcomes of adolescents. This paper focuses on the social integration element of life outcomes, which is composed of the social inclusion and prosocial behavior of the adolescent. Despite the affordability of restorative surgeries, patients in rural areas of Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) such as India face accessibility ...


The Long-Run Effects Of Tropical Cyclones On Infant Mortality, Isabel Miranda May 2019

The Long-Run Effects Of Tropical Cyclones On Infant Mortality, Isabel Miranda

Master's Theses

In the United States alone, each tropical cyclone causes an average of $14.6 billion worth of damages. In addition to the destruction of physical infrastructure, natural disasters also negatively impact human capital formation. These losses are often more difficult to observe, and therefore, are over looked when quantifying the true costs of natural disasters. One particular effect is an increase in infant mortality rates, an important indicator of a country’s general socioeconomic level. This paper utilizes a model created by Anttila-Hughes and Hsiang, that takes advantage of annual variation in tropical cyclones using annual spatial average maximum wind ...


Captive Nations: Measuring Economic Growth On Native American Reservations In California, Mahsa Ashabi May 2019

Captive Nations: Measuring Economic Growth On Native American Reservations In California, Mahsa Ashabi

Master's Theses

A history of institutional oppression and genocide has shaped Native American communities across the United States today, reflected in large disparities of socioeconomic outcomes and infrastructure. Due to a lack of comprehensive data and macroeconomic research, alternative forms of spatial data and theories regarding human settlement are needed to develop an understanding ofthis stagnation. In our efforts to better understand growth on Native American reservations, we utilize nighttime lights data to proxy for economic output in these geographic areas, measuring the settlement characteristics ofreservations themselves and against surrounding U.S. regions. Through a series of log-log regressions that focus on ...


The Behavioral Determinants Of Well-Being In Sierra Leone, Madison Levine May 2019

The Behavioral Determinants Of Well-Being In Sierra Leone, Madison Levine

Master's Theses

Ensuring the needs of individuals are met leads to a more prosperous economy. Healthy economic activity is dependent on a supported community of people. These people express different levels of happiness depending on where they come from and make behavioral choices every day influenced by their association with their community. Currently most subjective data have come from western educated industrialized rich and democratic (WEIRD) areas. These results are placed as generalizations across all other countries and are not giving an adequate representation of well-being for the population in non-WEIRD areas. Our study outlines an in-depth survey covering subjective well-being measurements ...


Are Menstrual Cycles A Biological Determinant Of Well-Being Amongst Sierra Leonean Schoolchildren?, Ashwini Shridhar May 2019

Are Menstrual Cycles A Biological Determinant Of Well-Being Amongst Sierra Leonean Schoolchildren?, Ashwini Shridhar

Master's Theses

The influence of hormones and biology on behavior is a topic that is rife with controversy, especially when it comes to sexual hormones. There is even more murkiness when it comes to the topic of menstruation and knowledge about women’s menstrual cycles. Recent research on this topic have seen a link between the hormonal fluctuations during menstrual cycles and various behavioral implications on competition, cooperation, and risk behavior. This study tries to expand existing knowledge by examining whether there is a link between hormonal fluctuations during menstrual cycles and risk preferential behavior using economic experiments in the largely understudied ...


Measuring Cocoa Agricultural Productivity: A Spatio-Temporal Econometric Approach, Yurlady Chaverra-Palacios May 2019

Measuring Cocoa Agricultural Productivity: A Spatio-Temporal Econometric Approach, Yurlady Chaverra-Palacios

Master's Theses

A significant increase of 50.5 percent in the national production of cocoa was registered between 2011 and 2015 in Colombia. Nevertheless, 5,890 tons were imported in 2015 to supply domestic demand. Unlike other crops, the production of cocoa has made a significant contribution to the income of approximately 38,000 families of which 90 percent are small farm-producers with very little capital. Facilitating credit for investment is one of the main strategies of the national government to increase cocoa productivity. Correspondingly, the impact of the credit for investment on the cocoa agricultural productivity and if those investments have ...


Shifting Views: How Experiential Learning Shapes University Students’ Sense Of Civic Engagement And Solidarity On Migration, Karen Larke May 2019

Shifting Views: How Experiential Learning Shapes University Students’ Sense Of Civic Engagement And Solidarity On Migration, Karen Larke

Master's Theses

Higher education institutions have put more weight on the use of experiential learning to provide students with opportunities to grow intellectually and develop as engaged citizens. Many recent studies have looked at the quality and educational impacts of a variety of experiential and service learning experiences, yet few have explored what other ideological impacts may result from specific non-curricular experiential learning experiences. This study measured the impact of experiential learning, in the form of week-long migration-themed trips, on undergraduate student’s self-reported levels of solidarity, and related measures of civic engagement and political engagement and activism around migration issues. This ...


Financial Red Flags: Empirical Mapping Of Firm Political Preferences By Sector In Mexico, Ian Connors May 2019

Financial Red Flags: Empirical Mapping Of Firm Political Preferences By Sector In Mexico, Ian Connors

Master's Theses

Can the stock market be used to determine the political preferences of individual economic sectors? This paper explores the conceptual relationship between electoral outcomes and financial markets in Mexico. Specifically, it analyzes how financial markets predict the expected effects of a given political platform on the performance of firms within specific sectors. To do this, the study used event-study methodology to calculate abnormal returns on stock prices across the nine sectors listed on the Bolsa Mexicana de Valores stock exchange following the historic election of leftist candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO), On July 1, 2018. However, despite the uncertainty ...


Breaking The Chains: Reversing The School-To-Prison Pipeline Through The Academic Experiences Of Formerly Incarcerated Black Males, Folasade Ogunbanwo May 2019

Breaking The Chains: Reversing The School-To-Prison Pipeline Through The Academic Experiences Of Formerly Incarcerated Black Males, Folasade Ogunbanwo

Master's Theses

This case study explores the academic experiences of formerly incarcerated Black males. The goal of the case study is to inform policymakers and critical race scholars who take interest in the prison-to-school pipeline and ultimately dismantle the school-to-prison pipeline. The historical impact of slavery has manifested into this vicious pipeline and the overrepresentation of Black males in the prison industrial complex. This case study is to demonstrate how the net is casted on those affected by the incarceration system and that break the cycle for themselves by pursuing an education to create an upward academic trajectory.


First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith May 2019

First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith

Master's Theses

Cetacean development is important for general comparative understanding and the implementation of informed husbandry policies. Due to the inaccessibility of many of these species in the wild, researchers can study managed care populations to better understand basic developmental patterns of cetaceans, as well as to improve husbandry policies for facility animals. However, no previous studies have attempted to observe the behavioral development of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens). Eight beluga whale calves and four Pacific white-sided dolphin calves were observed for the first 30 days of life to determine the developmental trajectory of several typically monitored behaviors. The first occurrence ...


Detection Of Larval Aggregations Using A Drone Mounted Thermal Imaging Camera, Megan Descalzi May 2019

Detection Of Larval Aggregations Using A Drone Mounted Thermal Imaging Camera, Megan Descalzi

Master's Theses

When a body’s temperature reaches ambient temperature after death, remote detection of the body can become difficult. At this point, useful search tactics include the use of cadaver dogs, search parties and aerial imaging devices, all of which can be costly and time-consuming for every day law enforcement use. This study investigated the potential of a novel search technique in which a small, unmanned aerial system (drone) mounted with a forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR) was utilized to detect decomposing animal carcasses via the heat generated by associated Diptera larval aggregations. Hot water baths were utilized as analogs for larval ...


Mapping Sex Offenders And Treatment Centers In Relation To Social Disorganization, Amber Amin May 2019

Mapping Sex Offenders And Treatment Centers In Relation To Social Disorganization, Amber Amin

Master's Theses

Research shows that the clustering of Registered Sex Offenders (RSOs) is connected to social disorganization. Residential patterns disrupt the reintegration of the RSO population. Utilizing data from Queens and the Bronx, NYC, this study examines RSO clustering in the two boroughs and explores the proximity of community resources to RSO addresses that may assist reintegration. Using data from the New York Megan’s Law and census data for Queens and Bronx Counties, maps were created to study the residential patterns of RSOs. The results show clustering of RSOs in areas with variables pertaining to high social disorganization and a lack ...


Investigating The Masking Effects Of Blood On Organic Gunshot Residue Using Gc/Ms, Raman, And Atr-Ftir, Tyler Willits May 2019

Investigating The Masking Effects Of Blood On Organic Gunshot Residue Using Gc/Ms, Raman, And Atr-Ftir, Tyler Willits

Master's Theses

Gunshot residue (GSR) can be an indicator for determining the distance of a firearm discharge and linking potential suspects and witnesses to a shooting event. However, the evidentiary value of inorganic gunshot residue (IGSR), commonly used to detect GSR, has been called into question due to the potential for false negatives and false positives. Organic gunshot residue (OGSR) acts as supporting evidence; this increases the overall confidence of the examiner, as well as the value of gunshot residue evidence as a whole.

Current research has focused on three main areas for OGSR. The first is what compounds we should identify ...


Dna Methylation Methods For Donor Age Prediction Using Touch Dna, Emily Neverett May 2019

Dna Methylation Methods For Donor Age Prediction Using Touch Dna, Emily Neverett

Master's Theses

The International Labor Organization (ILO) estimated over 30 million individuals fall victim to human trafficking each year, of which, 50% are children below the age of 16. In 2012, the ILO reported there to be 168 million child laborers worldwide, with many trafficked into hazardous conditions to manufacture consumer products that are sold in developed countries. This is a modern form of slavery with poor working conditions, no access to education, and low wages. The hidden nature of this crime, however, makes it extremely difficult to identify and locate victims of forced child labor, and thus making it challenging to ...