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Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Political Advantage, Disadvantage, And The Demand For Partisan News, Allison M.N. Archer Jul 2018

Political Advantage, Disadvantage, And The Demand For Partisan News, Allison M.N. Archer

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this article, I argue that the national political environment can meaningfully affect variation in aggregate demand for partisan media. I focus on the relationship between the political context—namely, political advantage and disadvantage derived from elections—and media demand in the form of partisan newspaper circulations. Using a data set that characterizes the partisan slant of local newspapers and their circulation levels between 1932 and 2004, I find that when parties are electorally advantaged in presidential contests, demand for their affiliated newspapers decreases relative to demand for papers affiliated with disadvantaged parties. I uncover evidence of similar patterns in ...


Limits On The Application Of Motivational Homogeneity In The Work Of Buchanan And The Virginia School, David M. Levy, Sandra J. Peart Jan 2018

Limits On The Application Of Motivational Homogeneity In The Work Of Buchanan And The Virginia School, David M. Levy, Sandra J. Peart

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

At its founding, the set of ideas that came to be known as Virginia Political Economy originated from the work of Rutledge Vining, James Buchanan, Warren Nutter, Ronald Coase, and Gordon Tullock. In terms of scholarly stature, that short list comprises two Nobel Prize winners (Buchanan and Coase) and a recipient of the American Economic Association Distinguished Fellow award (Tullock). It also includes an economist (Nutter) who, in the midst of the Cold War, described the Soviet economy more accurately than any of the major experts in that field. Virginia Political Economy was characterized by four foundational principles: the endogeneity ...


The Almost Inevitable Failure Of Justice, Thad Williamson Jan 2018

The Almost Inevitable Failure Of Justice, Thad Williamson

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In his final book, Where Do We Go From Here (1967), Martin Luther King, Jr., warned that the struggle for black equality had moved into a more difficult phase that would test the moral commitments of white America to democracy. King commented that, for most whites, the battles over school desegregation and the Civil Rights Act had merely "been a struggle to treat the Negro with a degree of decency, not of equality." King's warning about the thinness of the country's commitment to democracy was combined with a profound optimism that ending poverty and creating a truly free ...


Theorizing About Human Capacity: A View From The Nineteenth Century, Sandra J. Peart, David M. Levy Jan 2018

Theorizing About Human Capacity: A View From The Nineteenth Century, Sandra J. Peart, David M. Levy

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Discussions of eugenic policy of the nineteenth century are too often isolated from the larger debates in political economy over human capacity. These debates centered on two questions. First, do all people have roughly the same capabilities, or do some groups have a lower capacity than others? Second, capacity for what? In the nineteenth century political economists in the tradition of Adam Smith through John Stuart Mill argued that, as Gordon Tullock would later put it, “people are people” and there are no racial or other distinctions to be made about our capabilities for labor market, family formation, or other ...


Weight Beliefs And Messages: Mindsets Predict Body-Shame And Anti-Fat Attitudes Via Attributions, Jeni L. Burnette, Crystal L. Hoyt, Carol S. Dweck, Lisa Auster-Gussman Nov 2017

Weight Beliefs And Messages: Mindsets Predict Body-Shame And Anti-Fat Attitudes Via Attributions, Jeni L. Burnette, Crystal L. Hoyt, Carol S. Dweck, Lisa Auster-Gussman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In two samples (N=247, N= 291), we examined the link between beliefs and messages about the changeable (incremental theory) vs. fixed (entity theory) nature of weight, attributions for weight, and body shame. We recruited participants using online sampling, employing a correlational design in Study 1 and an experimental design in Study 2. Across both studies, we found evidence for the stigma-asymmetry effect—incremental, relative to entity beliefs/messages of weight predicted both (a) stronger onset responsibility attributions, indirectly increasing body shame and (b) stronger offset efficacy attributions, indirectly decreasing body shame. Study 2 replicated the stigma-asymmetry effect with anti-fat ...


Punishment And Reconciliation: Augustine, Peter Iver Kaufman Feb 2017

Punishment And Reconciliation: Augustine, Peter Iver Kaufman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Punish the sin, not the sinner; easier said than done. Preaching on the second Psalm and purporting to address 'all who judge the earth,' Augustine wrestled with the problems attending punishment and reconciliation. The results recorded in his sermons and correspondence as well as in a few treatises perplex yet are worth considering before we investigate Augustine's more explicit remarks on the punishment of Donatist dissidents resisting reconciliation with the African church from which, he insisted, their predecessors had seceded in the early fourth century. At stake during Augustine's tenure as bishop, toward the end of that century ...


Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Jan 2017

Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this chapter, we take a social psychological approach to understanding gender and leadership. In doing so, we explain how both the social context and people’s perceptions influence leadership processes involving gender. The theoretical approaches taken by social psychologists are often focused on one of these two questions: (1) Are there gender differences in leadership style and effectiveness? and, (2) What barriers do women face in the leadership domain? We begin our chapter by reviewing the literature surrounding these two questions. We then discuss in detail one of the greatest barriers to women in leadership: the prejudice and discrimination ...


"Everybody's Got To Wonder What's The Matter With This Cruel World Today": Social Consciousness And Political Commentary In "Love And Theft" And Modern Times, Thad Williamson Jan 2017

"Everybody's Got To Wonder What's The Matter With This Cruel World Today": Social Consciousness And Political Commentary In "Love And Theft" And Modern Times, Thad Williamson

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Bob Dylan has spent much of the past fifty years trying to escape the label of "protest singer.” Over the past decade, there have been plenty of serious topics for the topically minded song writer to address: the Iraq War, threats to civil liberties, rising economic inequality, the financial collapse of 2008 and "Great Recession" that followed. Unlike his musical peers Neil Young (Living with War [2006]) and Bruce Springsteen (Wrecking Ball [2012]), Dylan to date has not addressed those events in any direct way, through new topical songs, in the last stage of his career.


Wealth Inequality And Activism: Perceiving Injustice Galvanizes Social Change But Perceptions Depend On Political Ideologies, Crystal L. Hoyt, Aaron J. Moss, Jeni L. Burnette, Annette Schieffelin, Abigail Goethals Jan 2017

Wealth Inequality And Activism: Perceiving Injustice Galvanizes Social Change But Perceptions Depend On Political Ideologies, Crystal L. Hoyt, Aaron J. Moss, Jeni L. Burnette, Annette Schieffelin, Abigail Goethals

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

What motivates people to engage in activism against wealth inequality? The simple answer is, perceiving injustice. However, the current work demonstrates that these perceptions depend on political ideologies. More specifically, for political liberals who frequently question the fairness of the economic system, messages simply describing the extent of the inequality (distributive injustice) are enough to motivate activism (Study 1). For political conservatives, who are inclined to believe that inequality results from fair procedures, messages must also detail how the system of economic forces is unjust (procedural injustice; Studies 2 and 3). Together, these studies suggest perceiving injustice can galvanize social ...


Marlowe’S Radical Reformation: Christopher Marlowe And The Radical Christianity Of The Polish Brethren, Kristin M.S. Bezio Jan 2017

Marlowe’S Radical Reformation: Christopher Marlowe And The Radical Christianity Of The Polish Brethren, Kristin M.S. Bezio

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Although scholars of both literature and history have made arguments for Christopher Marlowe’s religious belief in Catholicism, the Church of England, and even atheism (which could have been conflated with both by different parties during his lifetime), few consider the belief system of the Polish Brethren, a precursor to Unitarianism established by one Faustus Socinus. This essay uses historical and social network analyses to suggest a close tie between Marlowe’s acquaintances and believers in Socinianism. Clues in Doctor Faustus and Massacre at Paris suggest Marlowe’s skepticism concerning the doctrines of Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism. Furthermore, repeated references ...


Changing Owners, Changing Content: Does Who Owns The News Matter For The News?, Allison M.N. Archer, Joshua D. Clinton Jan 2017

Changing Owners, Changing Content: Does Who Owns The News Matter For The News?, Allison M.N. Archer, Joshua D. Clinton

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The press is essential for creating an informed citizenry, but its existence depends on attracting and maintaining an audience. It is unclear whether supply-side effects – including those dictated by the owners of the media – influence how the media cover politics, yet this question is essential given their abilities to set the agenda and frame issues that are covered. We examine how ownership influences media behavior by investigating the impact of Rupert Murdoch’s purchase of the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) in August 2007. We collect data on every front-page story and editorial for 27 months, and we compare the difference ...


Real, Intended Change: Business Movements?, Gill Robinson Hickman Oct 2016

Real, Intended Change: Business Movements?, Gill Robinson Hickman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

We are well aware that the economy, environment and organizations in today’s global context are highly interdependent and interconnected. This interdependence contributes to the blurring of lines among business, nonprofit and government entities to the extent that new forms of organization are emerging to tackle socioeconomic and sociopolitical issues that only the political system and social movements confronted in the past.

James MacGregor Burns proclaimed in his groundbreaking book, Leadership, that the effectiveness of leaders “will be tested by the achievement of purpose in the form of real and intended [emphasis added] social change.”1 Burns explained that social ...


Augustine's Punishments, Peter Iver Kaufman Oct 2016

Augustine's Punishments, Peter Iver Kaufman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

During Augustine's life, government authorities were generally friendly to the Christianity he came to adopt and defend. His correspondence mentions one imperial magistrate in Africa, Virius Nicomachus Flavianus, a pagan vicar of Africa who seemed partial to Donatist Christians whom Augustine considered secessionists. Otherwise, from the 390s to 430, assorted proconsuls, vicars, and tribunes sent from the imperial chancery and asked to maintain order in North Africa were willing to enforce government edicts against Donatists and pagans. To an extent, Augustine endorsed enforcement. He was troubled by punitive measures that looked excessive to him, yet scholars generally agree with ...


Group Analytics In Adam Smith's Work, David M. Levy, Sandra J. Peart Apr 2016

Group Analytics In Adam Smith's Work, David M. Levy, Sandra J. Peart

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The link between occupation and character began with David Hume and extended by Adam Smith in service to their attack on the doctrine of innate national character. Worker's awareness of the relative approbative rewards to occupation is central to Smith's competitive labor market equilibrium. When the division of labor is extended by growth, the variance of character increases. With this insight Smith was able to offer a race-blind theory of civilization, something that escaped even Hume. 19th century anthropological focus on the variance of character can be seen as a racialization of Smith's work.


The Ethics Problem: Toward A Second-Best Solution To The Problem Of Economic Expertise, David M. Levy, Sandra J. Peart Apr 2016

The Ethics Problem: Toward A Second-Best Solution To The Problem Of Economic Expertise, David M. Levy, Sandra J. Peart

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The collective action problem of economic experts was diagnosed acutely by Knight and Pigou in the 1930s. The interest of economists as a group is in pursuing the public good of truth; the interest of an individual economist is in pursuing the private good of happiness. Pigou’s example is the pursuit of political influence. Deviation from truth-seeking devastates the theory of governance as objective inquiry laid out by Knight and John Rawls, as we saw in the eugenic era. We reformulate the Knight–Rawls position as truth-seeking contingent on a presupposed system. The best case for the Knight–Rawls ...


Ha Muerto Leslie Matchbox, Ernesto Seman Jan 2016

Ha Muerto Leslie Matchbox, Ernesto Seman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

La primera creacíon de Leslie Smith y sus socios fue un par de patines para la hija de uno de ellos. No tuvo mas trascendencia que la envidia de sus amigas de colegio. Fue su segunda obra la que vendió más de un millón de copias en poco menos de un año: una versión en miniatura del carruaje que transportó a la Reina Elizabeth II de Inglaterra el día de su coronación. Eso fue en 1953, y para el mismo año, Smith, Smithy Odell ya habian formado Lesney Products y sacaban a la venta uno de los productos más exitosos ...


Nudlerías, Ernesto Seman Jan 2016

Nudlerías, Ernesto Seman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

"Nudlerías, Nudlerías", diría José María Aznar si fuera argentino y hubiera tratado de desestimar el mangrullo de boludeces derivadas de la difusión de la censura ejercida sobre una nota suya.

Los motivos para no empezar esta discusión son variados. Hemos dicho hasta el hartazgo que Nudler y Wainfeld son de los pocos tipos que nos interesa leer cuando leemos sobre la Argentina, supongo que, como siempre, porque sí El hecho de que se hayan trenzado a tortazos en público no me parece en absoluto relevante, ni que merezca una nota, ni que afecte el buen momento de nadie; lo atribuiría ...


The Obesity Stigma Asymmetry Model: The Indirect And Divergent Effects Of Blame And Changeability Beliefs On Anti-Fat Prejudice, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette, Lisa Auster-Gussman, Brenda Major Jan 2016

The Obesity Stigma Asymmetry Model: The Indirect And Divergent Effects Of Blame And Changeability Beliefs On Anti-Fat Prejudice, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette, Lisa Auster-Gussman, Brenda Major

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The American Medical Association (AMA) hoped that labeling obesity a disease would not only highlight the seriousness of the epidemic and elicit resources but also reduce stigma against obese individuals. In the current work, we tested the consequences of this decision for prejudice against obese individuals. In doing so, we highlighted the complicated link between messages stressing different etiologies of obesity and prejudice. More specifically, we conducted three experimental studies (nStudy1= 188; nStudy2=111; nStudy3=391), randomly assigning participants to either an obesity is a disease message or a weight is changeable message. Our results indicated that ...


Managing To Clear The Air: Stereotype Threat, Women, And Leadership, Crystal L. Hoyt, Susan E. Murphy Jan 2016

Managing To Clear The Air: Stereotype Threat, Women, And Leadership, Crystal L. Hoyt, Susan E. Murphy

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this article, we explore the process and implications of stereotype threat for women in leadership, broadly construed. First, we provide a brief background on the phenomenon of stereotype threat generally. Next, we explore stereotype threat for women in leadership by reviewing a model of stereotype threat in leadership contexts that includes cues to stereotype threat, consequences of stereotype threat, and moderators of stereotype threat appraisals and responses. In this review, in addition to considering research focused squarely on leadership, we include the broader categories of research examining stereotype threat effects in the workplace and in tasks and domains relevant ...


Clerical Leadership In Late Antiquity: Augustine On Bishops’ Polemical And Pastoral Burdens, Peter Iver Kaufman Jan 2016

Clerical Leadership In Late Antiquity: Augustine On Bishops’ Polemical And Pastoral Burdens, Peter Iver Kaufman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Augustine returned from Italy to North Africa in 388, apparently elated to have found his calling. The cities he had known, Thagaste and Carthage, and would soon come to know, Hippo Regius, were relatively prosperous, despite taxes collected for the central government which had been making increasing demands since the time of Emperor Constantine. The funds available for municipal improvements were depleted (gravement amputés), Claude Lepelley calculated, siting the African cities in “a history of inexorable decline” from the 380s into the 430s. In the coastal city of Hippo, however, Augustine, as bishop was busy from the late 390s, exchanging ...


Antebrazo, Ernesto Seman Jan 2016

Antebrazo, Ernesto Seman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

nada puede ser más parecido a un campo de concentración que el útero, con sus paraedes húmedas y rugasas, los ruidos de aguera asordinados, la luz que apenas llega. Carecemos de voluntad propia y de su ejercicio. Nuestro destino sujeto a fuerzas que imaginamos, sin saber cuándo ni porqué. Para los que vengan, en el muro oscuro con la punta del mango de una cuchara tallaría hasta hacerlas chillar: «Acá estuvo durante nueve meses Heraldo Dornou. No sabemos adónde nos lleban ni qué será de nosotros desde hoy. Marzo 1976 ¡Hasta siempre¡».


Ernesto Semán New York 2011, Ernesto Seman Jan 2016

Ernesto Semán New York 2011, Ernesto Seman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Según el relato noticioso, Ronald Reagan estaba mirando par la ventana del Salón Oval de la Casa Blanca cuando entró Elliot Abrams, su subsecretario de Estado para America Latina. Era en el 84, Estados Unidos se enfervorizaba por borrar del mapa al gobierno sandinista de Nicaragua, financiando cuanto sátrapa le propusiera una incursión militar. Una pasión por la desigualdad de oportunidades, diría cualquiera. Abrams traía noticias. En el norte de Nicaragua, donde peleaban con la Contra, las sandinistas habían derribado por error un helicóptero cargado de periodistas. Ocha muertos.


Opinion: Education For Professional Leadership And The Humanities: Exhortations And Demonstrations, Peter Iver Kaufman Sep 2015

Opinion: Education For Professional Leadership And The Humanities: Exhortations And Demonstrations, Peter Iver Kaufman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The complaint: pre-professional, para-professional, and professional programs occupy large slabs of the undergraduate curricula in colleges and universities in the United States. Core courses in which the arts and humanities were introduced to first- and second-year students are extinct in places, replaced by distribution requirements or specialized seminars that occasionally--but not often--expose students to a broad range of studies from classics to cultural anthropology, history, philosophy, music, literature, political theory, and other precincts in the liberal arts. Undergraduates wishing to enter the professional programs in journalism, business (finance, accounting, and marketing), education, energy, environmental sciences, health care, and health sciences ...


Deposito Diademate: Augustine’S Emperors, Peter Iver Kaufman Mar 2015

Deposito Diademate: Augustine’S Emperors, Peter Iver Kaufman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

To assist colleagues from other disciplines who teach Augustine’s texts in their core courses, this contribution to the Lilly Colloquium discusses Augustine’s assessments of Emperors Constantine and Theodosius. His presentations of their tenure in office and their virtues suggest that his position on political leadership corresponds with his general skepticism about political platforms and platitudes. Yet careful reading of his revision of Ambrose’s account of Emperor Theodosius’s public penance and reconsideration of the last five sections of his fifth book City of God—as well as a reappraisal of several of his sermons on the Psalms ...


Playing (With) The Villain: Critical Play And The Joker-As-Guide In Batman: Arkham Asylum (Vg 2009), Kristin M.S. Bezio Jan 2015

Playing (With) The Villain: Critical Play And The Joker-As-Guide In Batman: Arkham Asylum (Vg 2009), Kristin M.S. Bezio

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Rocksteady's 2009 video game Batman: Arkham Asylum begins with a prototypical ending: when the game begins, the player is shown a cinematic cutscene (in which the player is a passive viewer) that begins in Gotham City while the static-y voice of the police dispatcher says, "The Joker has been apprehended; Batman is now en route to Arkham Island."1 The scene cuts to a sign pointing the way to Arkham Asylum as the Batmobile speeds past. We see Batman-driving-for only a few seconds before the "camera" shifts to focus on the Joker, bound and semiconscious in the back seat ...


On "Strongly Fortified Minds": Self-Restraint And Cooperation In The Discussion Tradition, Sandra J. Peart, David M. Levy Jan 2015

On "Strongly Fortified Minds": Self-Restraint And Cooperation In The Discussion Tradition, Sandra J. Peart, David M. Levy

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Accordingly, this essay explores some unappreciated benefits of discussion.2 While educators frequently favor discussion as a means to encouraging engaged learning, they nonetheless rarely attempt to explain how or why these benefits arise. More than this, the role of economists from Adam Smith through Frank Knight and his student, James Buchanan, in explaining the benefits associated with discussion has been neglected both within economics and throughout the academy. In this tradition one accepts the inevitability of an individual "point of view" and the good society is one that can govern itself by means of an emergent consensus among points ...


City Profile Of Richmond, Julian Maxwell Hayter Jan 2015

City Profile Of Richmond, Julian Maxwell Hayter

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Cities are never blank slates. Every urban ranking and rating begs acknowledgement of lasting cultural legacies and histories. It is essential that any quantitative assessment not stand outside of context. At stake is the difference between possessing sheer quantities of information, on the one hand, and quality knowledge, or wisdom, on the other. In order to put data into a context for wise action, Thriving Cities has created distinct city profiles for its pilot cities.

These profiles are central in that they characterize a given pilot city in relation to the Project's distinctive "human ecology" framework and research design ...


How Do Leaders Lead? Through Social Influence, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2015

How Do Leaders Lead? Through Social Influence, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This chapter considers leadership to be a social influence process that derives from multifarious sources, manifests itself in a variety of forms, and generates outcomes both extraordinary and commonplace. However, it cuts through some of influence’s complexities by distinguishing between two oft-contrasted forms of influence: the direct and the indirect (Falbo, 1977; Kipnis, 1984). Military leaders, as legitimate authorities in the services, can and do issue orders to subordinates who are duty-bound to follow those orders. Politicians speak directly to their constituents, explaining their policies and asking for support. Team leaders identify the subtasks that must be completed by ...


Political Ideology And American Intergroup Discrimination: A Patriotism Perspective, Crystal L. Hoyt, Aleah Goldin Jan 2015

Political Ideology And American Intergroup Discrimination: A Patriotism Perspective, Crystal L. Hoyt, Aleah Goldin

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this research we take the theoretical approach advocated by Greenwald and Pettigrew (2014) and demonstrate the powerful role of ingroup favoritism, rather than hostility, in American intergroup biases. Specifically, we take a novel perspective to understanding the relationship between political ideology and discrimination against ethnic-minority Americans by focusing on the role of patriotism. Across three studies, we show that political ideology is a strong predictor of resource allocation biases and this effect is mediated by American patriotism and not by prejudice or nationalism. Conservatives report greater levels of patriotism than liberals, and patriotism is associated with donating more to ...


Comment: Entering The "Great School Of Self-Command": The Moralizing Influence Of Markets, Language, And Imagination, Sandra J. Peart Jan 2015

Comment: Entering The "Great School Of Self-Command": The Moralizing Influence Of Markets, Language, And Imagination, Sandra J. Peart

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Economists for centuries have struggled to understand the self-other relationship and its implications for economic life. For economists in the classical tradition of Adam Smith, this was a central question regarding the wealth and flourishing of nations. Later, as this volume demonstrates, the relationship of the self to others was forgotten as economics became associated almost exclusively with the pursuit of what Peter Boettke and Daniel Smith describe as "ruthless efficiency."

In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis and a growing body of experimental and empirical evidence showing the predictive shortcomings of narrow self-interest models, a more capacious economics ...