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Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2563

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Land Use As A Predictor Of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Presence On The Entebbe Coast Of Lake Victoria, Uganda, Zachary Hoffman Oct 2021

Land Use As A Predictor Of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Presence On The Entebbe Coast Of Lake Victoria, Uganda, Zachary Hoffman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Lake Victoria is shared amongst Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda and has tremendous ecological, economical, and cultural significance. Within the lake system, there are several problems, including the proliferation of an invasive weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Therefore, this study aims to assess several factors that may correlate with water hyacinth proliferation. The specific objectives are (1) to identify possible correlations of water hyacinth density and land use around Entebbe, Uganda, and (2) to identify annual trends in water hyacinth coverage, to better inform policy and conservation efforts. Entebbe has a coastline of six land cover types: flooded vegetation, trees, grasses ...


Man V.S. Wild: An Analysis Of Language Used Regarding Human-Wildlife Conflict In The Kibale National Park Community, Western Region, Uganda, Sophie Perfetto Oct 2021

Man V.S. Wild: An Analysis Of Language Used Regarding Human-Wildlife Conflict In The Kibale National Park Community, Western Region, Uganda, Sophie Perfetto

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

If humans are to live sustainably and in harmony with wildlife in the vicinity of Protected Areas, policy makers, and government authorities need to make informed decisions with consideration to the needs of local communities. For this to happen, policy makers must understand the perceptions of local communities and take local perspectives into account. As language is at the root of perception, language was studied in the context of its role in shaping local perceptions of human-wildlife conflict and consequential conflict mitigation strategies. Six communities around the Northern region of Kibale National Park, Uganda, were studied, with sites located in ...


A Ladder Of Endemicity: A Pioneering Study Of Anuran Communities Along An Elevational Gradient In The Eastern Andean Cloud Forests, Ecuador, Ella Halbert Oct 2021

A Ladder Of Endemicity: A Pioneering Study Of Anuran Communities Along An Elevational Gradient In The Eastern Andean Cloud Forests, Ecuador, Ella Halbert

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Per unit of area, Ecuador is home to the most herpetofauna of any region on Earth, yet many ecosystems are under researched. Positioned between the Eastern Andes and the Amazon rainforest, the Río Pastaza Basin of Ecuador has been the recent focus of anuran biodiversity surveys and is home to many endemic species. This study aimed to determine how the anuran community composition of a vertical transect in the Llanganates National Park varied between elevations. A 7-day expedition was conducted along a new trail up Abitagua Range spanning 1,050 m in elevation. Each night, visual encounter surveys were employed ...


Assessing The Need For And Access To Migrant-Sensitive Rehabilitative Healthcare: An Analysis Of Current Swiss And German Practices, Lauren Cuppy Oct 2021

Assessing The Need For And Access To Migrant-Sensitive Rehabilitative Healthcare: An Analysis Of Current Swiss And German Practices, Lauren Cuppy

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In recent years, the noticeable increase in migration has placed scrutiny on the migrant-sensitive services provided in healthcare settings globally. Migrants, in general, experience different health issues and worse health outcomes than non-migrants. In response to this, healthcare systems around the world have begun implementing migrant-sensitive healthcare (MSHC) systems; yet, although nearly a third of the world’s population experiences some health condition that would benefit from rehabilitation, the implementation of MSHC rehabilitation services have been critically understudied. This paper seeks to investigate the geographic and MSHC accessibility of rehabilitation in Geneva, Switzerland to fill the current gap of literature ...


Bird Diversity In The Ecuadorian Chocó: A Proposal For Avitourism In Villaflora And Manduriacu Reserve, Elizabeth Kroger Oct 2021

Bird Diversity In The Ecuadorian Chocó: A Proposal For Avitourism In Villaflora And Manduriacu Reserve, Elizabeth Kroger

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Ecuador is rich in avifauna, and the Chocó bioregion of Northwestern Ecuador is a hotspot for bird endemism and diversity. However, many rare and beautiful species are threatened by human activities such as logging and mining. It is essential that communities are able to find alternative solutions that bring economic benefits and improve public health. Avitourism is an economically beneficial and environmentally friendly solution. This study examined avifaunal biodiversity in Villaflora and Manduriacu Reserve, a small town in the cloud forest of the Chocó region. Point counts on pre-existing trails were used to assess bird communities as well as search ...


Retrato De Una Economía En Movimiento: Retos De La Economía Sustentable En San Francisco De Borja, Quijos, Napo, Meghan Mary Edwards Oct 2021

Retrato De Una Economía En Movimiento: Retos De La Economía Sustentable En San Francisco De Borja, Quijos, Napo, Meghan Mary Edwards

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Esta monografía presenta la situación económica actual en el Valle Quijos, en la parte occidental de la provincia de Napo, Ecuador. La mayoría de los residentes son gente campesina, que se dedica a la ganadería y la lechería. Se encuentran en la zona de amortiguamiento de dos parques nacionales, y mientras la población está creciendo, la gente tiene cada vez menos espacio entre las áreas protegidas, que ha generado conflictos sociales y conflictos ambientales, que incluyen la deforestación, la caza ilegal, y la erosión de las áreas pendientes. La monografía investiga el turismo y la ganadería tecnificada como algunos posibles ...


La Educación Alternativa Y Comunitaria Y El Rol De La Minka En La Comunidad De Chukidel Ayllu Llakta – Lagunas En Saraguro: Un Enfoque Intercultural Y Multilingüe, Kristin Lynn Vogel Oct 2021

La Educación Alternativa Y Comunitaria Y El Rol De La Minka En La Comunidad De Chukidel Ayllu Llakta – Lagunas En Saraguro: Un Enfoque Intercultural Y Multilingüe, Kristin Lynn Vogel

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Esta monografía discute dos casos de educación alternativa y comunitaria, respectivamente, entre el espacio educativo Yachay Kawsay y la escuela comunitaria Inti Raymi en el pueblo de Saraguro en la provincia de Loja, Ecuador, utilizando la información de la observación y las entrevistas. Específicamente, yo examino la práctica indígena de la minka, lo que es y cómo desempeña un papel en el funcionamiento de la educación en la comunidad de Chukidel Ayllu Llakta – Lagunas, del apoyo por los padres a la alimentación de los estudiantes hasta la recaudación de los fondos para propuestas educativas. Además, yo examino la metodología educativa ...


A Phenological Analysis Of Páramo Vegetation Along An Altitudinal Gradient: The Influence Of Camelids On Andean Flora In The Páramo Of Chimborazo, Ecuador, Tessa Seifried Oct 2021

A Phenological Analysis Of Páramo Vegetation Along An Altitudinal Gradient: The Influence Of Camelids On Andean Flora In The Páramo Of Chimborazo, Ecuador, Tessa Seifried

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study hopes to reveal the mechanisms behind camelid-plant interactions in the Chimborazo province of Ecuador, which is known for having a large population of domesticated alpacas (Vicugna pacos), along with wild vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) that were reintroduced into the area 30 years ago. These camelid species, especially vicuñas, are understudied within Ecuador in regards to their effects on plant composition, diversity, and spatial phenology. To gain a better insight into this topic, three sites were chosen: a site inhabited by only vicuña, a site inhabited by only alpaca, and a site inhabited by both species. The vicuña site sat ...


Comparación Entre Las Percepciones Médicas Y Psicológicas De La Diabetes Tipo 2 Y La Tuberculosis En El Ecuador, Héctor Ortiz Oct 2021

Comparación Entre Las Percepciones Médicas Y Psicológicas De La Diabetes Tipo 2 Y La Tuberculosis En El Ecuador, Héctor Ortiz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Research Question: What are the differences and similarities between the perceptions of the medical and psychological management of both type 2 diabetes and tuberculosis? Objectives: The principal objective of this study is to understand the perceptions behind DM2 and TB as well as how these perceptions affect the care of these diseases. Secondary objectives are to define the epidemiological transition, describe the medical and psychological management and care of DM2 and TB, analyze how the people perceive the management and psychological care of DM2 and TB, and analyze the comparison of the perceptions of both diseases. Background: The epidemiological transition ...


Letters To A Glacier; An Experiment And Critique Of M. Jackson’S Glacier-Ruins Narrative, Lily Fife Schaeufele Oct 2021

Letters To A Glacier; An Experiment And Critique Of M. Jackson’S Glacier-Ruins Narrative, Lily Fife Schaeufele

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

“Words are events, they do things, change things. They transform both speaker and hearer; they feed energy back and forth and amplify it. They feed understanding or emotion back and forth and amplify it.” —Ursula K. Le Guin

Letters to a Glacier; The Buoy Project Isafjordur is an ongoing invitation to the people of Isafjordur to write a letter to a specific glacier in Iceland onto a collection of discarded buoys gathered from the Isafjorudur and Bolungarvik junk yards. Over a period of two days on November 9th and 10th, I actively invited customers in the local cafe Heimabyggð to ...


Science Is For Everybody: A Resource For Understanding Glaciers, Climate, And Modeling, Emma Watson Oct 2021

Science Is For Everybody: A Resource For Understanding Glaciers, Climate, And Modeling, Emma Watson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change threatens the existence of glaciers worldwide. In order to properly interact with these changing systems, we must first understand them. Glacial models provide an excellent way to do this; however, the language and mathematical concepts used in their creation is generally inaccessible to a common audience. This project presents an online resource for a general audience to interact with climate science, glaciology, and glacial modeling. Long term goals for the project include the incorporation of a glacial model of Drangajökull, Vestfirðir, NW Iceland. As such, focus for the project includes a literature review of glaciers, Drangajökull in particular ...


Political Processes Of Displacement In Infrastructure Development: The Case Of Aldeia Da Luz And The Alqueva Dam, Cordelia Walz Oct 2021

Political Processes Of Displacement In Infrastructure Development: The Case Of Aldeia Da Luz And The Alqueva Dam, Cordelia Walz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In 2002, the residents of Aldeia da Luz left their village for the final time, displaced to make room for the Alqueva Dam, a massive regional hydropower and irrigation project almost half a century in the making. The Alqueva Multipurpose Project was marketed by the Portuguese government as a way to develop the impoverished region of the Alentejo and bring innovation to the agricultural sector. The village of Luz was the only physical obstacle to this goal and, therefore, its residents were dispossessed, sacrificed for the development of the greater Alentejo region. However, unlike many other large-scale infrastructure projects that ...


Public Perception Of Forest And Fire Management Policy In Portugal, Jensen Rocha Oct 2021

Public Perception Of Forest And Fire Management Policy In Portugal, Jensen Rocha

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The impacts of forest fires are growing as climate change creates more frequent ideal temperature conditions for extreme wildfires. With the devastating fires it experienced in 2017, Portugal stands as an example of the impacts of dangerous wildfires and is working on developing a plan to protect its country from this rising threat. Important in the plan development is the opinion of the many stakeholders involved and the public whom the fires impact. Using an interview and survey approach, this study gathers public and stakeholder opinion on the forest and fire management policy in Portugal to understand what issues in ...


Representation And Recommendations: Participation Of People Who Use Drugs In Un-Level Policy-Making, Lily Knudsen Oct 2021

Representation And Recommendations: Participation Of People Who Use Drugs In Un-Level Policy-Making, Lily Knudsen

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Although participation in health policy-making is a popular topic in the literature and a stated priority of the United Nations, very little research has been published examining the full spectrum of participation by people who use drugs (PWUD) at the UN level. This study aims to describe and evaluate this participation through a combination of a literature review that looks at academic sources, UN publications, and publications by organizations of PWUD, and a series of interviews with representatives of organizations of PWUD who have participated in UN level policy-making.

Data collected demonstrates that there is no comprehensive system for the ...


Evaluating The Pragmatic And Moralistic Approach To Drug Policy And Addiction In Opioid Epidemic Outcomes, Brielle Seidel Oct 2021

Evaluating The Pragmatic And Moralistic Approach To Drug Policy And Addiction In Opioid Epidemic Outcomes, Brielle Seidel

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Drug use, policy and outcomes differ in all countries; however, trends exist in response to these circumstances and can typically be evaluated through a pragmatic and moralistic lens. The public health, and evidence-based pragmatic approach differs from the law enforcement-centered moralistic approach, specifically in outcomes of people suffering from substance use disorder. Particularly for opioid use disorder, countries that have taken the pragmatic approach in response to opioid epidemics have had dramatic results. Two of the countries discussed include Switzerland and Portugal, with additional information on the Netherlands. In contrast, current opioid epidemics exist in certain countries who maintain a ...


Narrativas De La Autoconstrucción: Posicionalidades E Identidades En Migrantes Venezolanos En Quito, Ecuador, Vicente Bickel Oct 2021

Narrativas De La Autoconstrucción: Posicionalidades E Identidades En Migrantes Venezolanos En Quito, Ecuador, Vicente Bickel

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this project is to explore the identities of the Venezuelan population in Quito, Ecuador. The country itself has received more than a million people from Venezuela, some who have continued their journey and around 500,000 who have stayed in Ecuador. Most migrants left to the unstable political situation in Venezuela which reached its breaking point around 2015, the year in which this population began to enter Ecuador en masse. The central question of this study is: "What is the self-constructed identity of Venezuelan migrants and refugees in the city of Quito, Ecuador and how has their ...


A Hidden Emergency: Transgenerational Inheritance In The Next Generation Of Rwandans, Neila Gross Oct 2021

A Hidden Emergency: Transgenerational Inheritance In The Next Generation Of Rwandans, Neila Gross

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Cases of physiological and psychological health disorders in the generation succeeding generation of the 1994 genocide are rising at an alarming pace. The presented work herein details a qualitative and quantitative approach to understanding the transmission of trauma from the surviving population of the 1994 Genocide Against Tutsi in their offspring using the APA PTSD System Scale-Interview (PSS-I). Several variables including age, gender and background were employed in this study. The results indicate that offspring born of targeted survivors of the 1994 Genocide Against Tutsi show increased trends of experiencing PTSD symptoms with children born in 1994 exhibiting the greatest ...


The Gap Between Policy And The People: A Case Study Of The Buikwe Fishing Communities, Capri Gutiérrez Oct 2021

The Gap Between Policy And The People: A Case Study Of The Buikwe Fishing Communities, Capri Gutiérrez

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

To examine the implementation of Local Government development planning in periphery and hard to reach communities in Uganda, the fishing villages of the Buikwe District were used as a case study. The objective of the study was to explore how Local Government development planning is implemented in the fishing villages to identify gaps. Implementation was broken down into three areas: consultations, needs and services, and service delivery.

The study mimicked the bottom-up approach to decentralized development planning in Uganda, beginning with seven focus group discussions in five fishing villages of Buikwe. Eleven key informant interviews were then conducted with Local ...


Cbos As A Tool For Sustainable Community Development: The Case In Kapchorwa, Annie Manges Oct 2021

Cbos As A Tool For Sustainable Community Development: The Case In Kapchorwa, Annie Manges

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this research was to assess the ability of Community Based Organizations, or CBOs, in the Kapchorwa District of Uganda to create long-term and sustainable community development that meets the needs of their community. To provide the necessary context for the study, I conducted a literature review of poverty in Uganda, theory in sustainable and community development, the connection of CBOs to sustainable community development, challenges and strengths for CBOs, and the general context of the structure of and the regulations for a CBO in Uganda.

The participants in the research were members of CBOs in the Kapchorwa ...


Harvesting The Truth About Salt Mining: An Assessment Of The Factors And Demographics That Influence Women To Become Salt Miners, Katwe Uganda, Amelia Simmonds Oct 2021

Harvesting The Truth About Salt Mining: An Assessment Of The Factors And Demographics That Influence Women To Become Salt Miners, Katwe Uganda, Amelia Simmonds

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Traditional and rudimentary methods of salt mining have been used to harvest salt from Lake Katwe in Uganda for over 400 years. Even though these methods are effective in extracting salt, they are proven to be hazardous to the miners. Though not often acknowledged, the role of women in salt mining operations is significant as they make up half of the workforce in East Africa. Regardless of the health risks associated with the mining sector, the number of women involved in small-scale salt mining increases by the year. The main objective of this study was to gain a better understanding ...


Indigenous Conceptions Of Community Organization And Autonomy In Oaxaca’S Sierra Norte: Answers And Resistance To State-Sponsored Practices Of Internal Colonialism, Carter Minnick Oct 2021

Indigenous Conceptions Of Community Organization And Autonomy In Oaxaca’S Sierra Norte: Answers And Resistance To State-Sponsored Practices Of Internal Colonialism, Carter Minnick

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Over the past century, the Mexican government has continued to reproduce dominant, colonial relationships with its indigenous populations. Within the last few decades, clashes between harmful neoliberal visions of national development and continued demands for indigenous autonomy have only intensified. In the context of such events, this present work seeks to explore a specific conception of community identity, coined as la comunalidad, in the Sierra Norte region of Oaxaca. After the breakdown of its most fundamental tenets, I will attempt to both underscore its position as a framework of resistance in combatting historical and ongoing state-organized aggressions against these communities ...


The Hands That Weave Stories, Elanna Hawkins Oct 2021

The Hands That Weave Stories, Elanna Hawkins

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

There is a narrative encoded in carpets of Morocco, and I set out with the initial intention to learn how to “read” them—thinking that a Western sense of language is present from the symbols and patterns in the rug. As I progressed in my research and met the skilled women artisans, I realized that I needed to rethink how a story that doesn’t necessarily require a written format can be told to relate to these cultural totems of Morocco. Through in-person experience and online research, I discovered many designs and backgrounds unique to specific regions and areas. Rugs ...


Analysis Of The Moroccan Government & Ngos Responses To Migrant Health Crisis, Jepchirchir Mutwol Oct 2021

Analysis Of The Moroccan Government & Ngos Responses To Migrant Health Crisis, Jepchirchir Mutwol

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Healthcare access in Morocco for migrants has been a topic of growing interest. With the implementation of migration reforms in response to Morocco becoming a destination for migrants, it is important to assess the effectiveness of government policies in aiding migrant health. Additionally, assessing other political actors' influence in government policies is equally important. Through research of existing scholarship, I theorize that the biggest issue impacting migrant access to health is the illegalization of migrants. Without being a legal resident, let alone in asylum or a refugee, migrants cannot access public health services without the fear of deportation. Local and ...


Constructed Memories: A Study Of How The Arts And The National Museum Operate Within Power Structures And State Interests In Postcolonial Morocco, Evan Antonakes Oct 2021

Constructed Memories: A Study Of How The Arts And The National Museum Operate Within Power Structures And State Interests In Postcolonial Morocco, Evan Antonakes

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Moroccan national museum as an institution has a long and complicated history. A product of colonialism, the state has historically used the museum, and the art housed within it, to construct narratives of progress and images of modernization. Doing so is largely at the expense of contemporary artists who have long been neglected by the state and failed by the museum. This paper will communicate how museums, art, and the state intersect in postcolonial Morocco. The paper will examine the inner workings of the Mohammed VI National Museum for Modern and Contemporary Art in Rabat, attempting to contextualize the ...


An Eventful Past Predicting A Bizarre Future: Assessing The Influence Of Ocean Circulation On Key Fish Species In Icelandic Waters. An Analysis Of Past Circulation Records In Order To Predict The State Of Demersal Fish Stocks In Future Climate Scenarios, Matthew Engfer Oct 2021

An Eventful Past Predicting A Bizarre Future: Assessing The Influence Of Ocean Circulation On Key Fish Species In Icelandic Waters. An Analysis Of Past Circulation Records In Order To Predict The State Of Demersal Fish Stocks In Future Climate Scenarios, Matthew Engfer

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Feedback-driven changes in North Atlantic Ocean circulation are affecting marine ecosystems off the coast of Iceland and are predicted to have differing outcomes by 2100. In this study, data reflecting Icelandic fish stock distributions was compiled on a map with oceanographic temperature and depth in order to observe patterns of population changes with changes in ocean currents. After evaluating past temperature effects on demersal fish stocks, future habitat predictions were estimated in weaker ocean circulation scenarios. A number of assumptions were made in order to pinpoint a correlation between ocean temperature and fish habitat. Iceland’s unique location and climate ...


The Labyrinth Of Data Collection For Humanitarian Project Funding And Implementation, Maria Alejandra Pulido Oct 2021

The Labyrinth Of Data Collection For Humanitarian Project Funding And Implementation, Maria Alejandra Pulido

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

My research concentrates on four NGOs: IOM, IDMC, JIPS, and OCHA which use different tools to collect data and translate the information into evidence for data-driven decision making (DDDM) for the implementation of humanitarian assistance projects. I focus on the importance, advantages, and various data collection tools which help ameliorate the humanitarian sector since it does not have a current professionalized path to enter the workforce. I incorporated four interviews, attended two conferences and analyzed multiple online sources during my project.


A Socio-Ecological Perspective On Integrating Biodiversity Conservation And The Security-Development Nexus In Sub-Saharan Africa, Lilyon Conroy Oct 2021

A Socio-Ecological Perspective On Integrating Biodiversity Conservation And The Security-Development Nexus In Sub-Saharan Africa, Lilyon Conroy

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential of community-based biodiversity conservation as a security-development strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa. While the creation of the security-development nexus has been an essential component in mainstreaming the principles of sustainable human development, there exist numerous gaps in the nexus. With the aid of four expert interviews, this analysis critically assesses the role of the environment and of local communities in successfully implementing the security-development nexus. Using the existing body of work comprising the security-development nexus as a framework, this research examines why biodiversity conservation has been overlooked as a security-development strategy ...


The Role Of Public And Private Sectors: How To Promote National Cybersecurity Strategies And Critical Infrastructure Protection In Southeastern Europe, Larry Cruz Oct 2021

The Role Of Public And Private Sectors: How To Promote National Cybersecurity Strategies And Critical Infrastructure Protection In Southeastern Europe, Larry Cruz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper seeks to address the important role of public and private interests in protecting critical infrastructure in Southeastern Europe, providing examples from Serbia. While the public sector does have a role in protecting critical infrastructure needs, it is the private sector which holds major oversight of the critical infrastructures of the region, therefore having an important role in maintaining their functionality and protection. The literature in this field argues for more collaboration and information sharing between the public and private sectors of the region, though the task is not as simple as it appears given the varying aspirations of ...


An Analysis Of The Role Of Gender In Political News Media Coverage, Clare Atkinson Oct 2021

An Analysis Of The Role Of Gender In Political News Media Coverage, Clare Atkinson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Although there has been a decrease in specific exclusionary rules in governments around the world, most nations are very far from a governing body which represents the diversity that exists within their borders. There are many issues which may dissuade previously marginalized populations from political participation. One of these problems when it comes to female participation, is differential political news coverage. This study looked at how media sources set the political agenda and frame news stories in terms of the gender of a politician, and how this can create an additional challenge for women in government. The investigation found that ...


La Autenticidad Y El Yo: Un Análisis Sobre La Experiencia Urbana De Las Mujeres Indígenas En Ecuador, Madison L. Mcclellan Oct 2021

La Autenticidad Y El Yo: Un Análisis Sobre La Experiencia Urbana De Las Mujeres Indígenas En Ecuador, Madison L. Mcclellan

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As research on the urban indigenous experience continues to expand, considerations of how indigenous populations understand, express and introspect upon their being indigenous in the city still proves an underexplored topic. The generalizing notion that indigenous persons are staticーin temporal, migratory and identity termsーcategorically conflicts with the growing trends of rural to urban migration patterns. Even more, deep-rooted indigenous-rural associations engender identity disorientations among indigenous women living in the city. The city becomes a space of self-confrontation and re-construction as indigenous women encounter questions of authenticity and shame.

Based in literature on identity, performance, authenticity and shame, this research considers ...