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Articles 2191 - 2220 of 2224

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Evaluating Hiv/Std Interventions In Developing Countries: Do Current Indicators Do Justice To Advances In Intervention Approaches?, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Catherine Campbell Jan 1999

Evaluating Hiv/Std Interventions In Developing Countries: Do Current Indicators Do Justice To Advances In Intervention Approaches?, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Catherine Campbell

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

HIV continues to spread unabated in many developing countries. Here we consider the interventions that are currently in place and critically discuss the methods that are being used to evaluate them as reported in the published literature. In recent years there has been a move away from highly individual-oriented interventions towards more participatory approaches that emphasise techniques such as community-led peer education and group discussions. However, this move towards more community orientated intervention techniques has not been matched by the development of evaluation methods with which to capture and explain the community and social changes which are often necessary preconditions ...


Turning Memories Into Memoirs: The Australian Experience, Rae Luckie Jan 1999

Turning Memories Into Memoirs: The Australian Experience, Rae Luckie

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Eighteen months ago I began to teach a hybrid course of "creative writing/writing life stories" through Kiama Adult & Community Education. I searched the Internet for resources and happened upon a web page "Turning Memories into Memoirs" which promoted lifewriting and had a network of teaching affiliates. The author of the program, Denis Ledoux, has been teaching lifewriting since 1988. His partner and publisher, artist Martha Blowen and I began an e-mail correspondence of gigantic proportions. I lived through their severe ice storm, saw the Arkansas massacre through her eyes, learnt about home schooling and life in Maine. We've ...


Social Identity, Domain Specific Self-Esteem And Intergroup Evaluation: The Relevance Of Important Self-Esteem Domains., John A. Hunter, Kerry O'Brien, Andrew C. Grocott Jan 1999

Social Identity, Domain Specific Self-Esteem And Intergroup Evaluation: The Relevance Of Important Self-Esteem Domains., John A. Hunter, Kerry O'Brien, Andrew C. Grocott

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The present investigation sought to extend recent research concerned with assessing the link between domain specific self-esteem and intergroup evaluation. It was hypothesized that, following the display of group favoring evaluations, category members would experience an increase in that domain of self-esteem judged to be more important to the ingroup. Support for this hypothesis was found. A pilot study was conducted to ascertain which domains of the self were judged by male category members to be important and unimportant to the ingroup. On the basis of this analysis, domains of self-esteem important (i.e. physical self-esteem) and unimportant (i.e ...


A Relacao Escola-Familia - Um Modelo De Trocas E Colaboracao, Eliana Bhering, Iram Siraj-Blatchford Jan 1999

A Relacao Escola-Familia - Um Modelo De Trocas E Colaboracao, Eliana Bhering, Iram Siraj-Blatchford

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This study uses data from 21 fourth grade parents in 8 Brazilian state pre- and primary schools in Belo Horizonte - MG, Brazil, to examine their views about parental involvement and others issues related to their children's school education. The data has been collected through using Epstein's typology (in Brandt, 1989). This typology has already been validated in the past and it was created to summarise many of the kinds of parental involvement practices that any level of school education - from nursery years to secondary level - may develop. A different pattern of the parents and the schools relationship emerged ...


Economic Evaluation And Ebm, Glenn P. Salkeld Jan 1999

Economic Evaluation And Ebm, Glenn P. Salkeld

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In the world of textbook economics, the "sovereign" consumer weighs up the (freely available) evidence on the costs, risks, harms and benefits before purchasing health care. The value that consumers then attach to the evidence and the expected outcomes is revealed through their purchasing decisions in the market. Ultimately, the consumer's decision represents the best or benefit maximising choice given the available information. The notion of this evidence-based market is however a long way from the reality of health care in Australia. Consumers (that is, patients) generally do not have current best evidence to hand. The same could be ...


Hallmark Events, Kevin M. Dunn, Pauline M. Mcguirk Jan 1999

Hallmark Events, Kevin M. Dunn, Pauline M. Mcguirk

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The modern Olympic Games have always been an international event: a celebration of sporting competition between athletes from many nations. In an era marked by the quickening pace of global integration of the world's economic and cultural systems, the Olympics can also be thought of as a globalised 'hallmark event'. Certainly, the Games have economic, cultural and political dimensions that mirror the various processes of globalisation. The impacts of the Games on its host city are similar to the impacts of globalisation processes. In this chapter we discuss the analogies between the Olympics, as a hallmark event, and the ...


Risk, Needs And Responsivity In Violence Rehabilitation: Implications For Programs With Indigenous Offenders, Kevin Howells, Andrew Day, Stuart Byrne, Mitchell K. Byrne Jan 1999

Risk, Needs And Responsivity In Violence Rehabilitation: Implications For Programs With Indigenous Offenders, Kevin Howells, Andrew Day, Stuart Byrne, Mitchell K. Byrne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

As a group of forensic psychologists with a background in clinical practice and research with offenders, we share the perception that sensitivity to cultural issues is a neglected area in offender rehabilitation. Perhaps this should be stated more strongly: that cultural dimensions of offender rehabilitation programs require urgent attention. We are working to understand how rehabilitation programs can be most appropriately offered to Aboriginal offenders, with a particular interest in programs dealing with anger, aggression and violence ( Howells et al, 1997). Our starting point in this area has been an interest in whether the rehabilitation of offenders works - in the ...


Strategies For Managing Suicide And Self-Harm In Prisons, Morag Mcarthur, Peter J. Camilleri, Honey Webb Jan 1999

Strategies For Managing Suicide And Self-Harm In Prisons, Morag Mcarthur, Peter J. Camilleri, Honey Webb

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Previous research has consistently shown that suicide is the leading cause of death in Australian prisons. This paper provides a summary of current program initiatives and strategies for minimising self harm that are operating in Australian prisons.


Investigating Hiv/Aids In Southern Africa, Catherine L. Mac Phail Jan 1998

Investigating Hiv/Aids In Southern Africa, Catherine L. Mac Phail

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Book Review Webb, D (1997) HIV and AIDS in Africa. Cape Town: David Philip. ISBN 0 86486 341 1


Adolescents And Hiv In Developing Countries: New Research Directions, Catherine L. Mac Phail Jan 1998

Adolescents And Hiv In Developing Countries: New Research Directions, Catherine L. Mac Phail

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Adolescents are of interest in HIV/STD studies as they are a group whose behaviour places them at increased risk of HIV infection (Hein, 1992). Adolescence is a period characterised by the development and formation of sexuality, a process which frequently involves a high turn-over of sexual partners (Krahe and Reiss, 1995; Lear, 1995). Teenage experimentation with drugs and alcohol frequently leads to the adoption of high risk behaviours or engagement in unplanned episodes of casual sex (Weatherburn and Project SIGMA, 1992). In addition, adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the normative social influences of their peers (DiClemente, 1990). These influences ...


The Accessing Of Geometry Schemas By High School Students, Mohan Chinnappan Jan 1998

The Accessing Of Geometry Schemas By High School Students, Mohan Chinnappan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In this study I examine the question, what is the nature of prior mathematical knowledge that facilitates the construction of useful problem representations in the domain of geometry? The quality of prior knowledge is analysed in terms ofschemas that provide a measure of the degree of organisation of prior knowledge. Problem-solving performance and schema activation of a group of high- and low-achieving students were compared. As expected, the high achievers produced more correct answers than the low achievers. More significantly, schema comparison indicated that the high achievers accessed more problem-relevant schemas than the low achievers. In a related task which ...


Criteria For Determining Quality In Early Learning For 3-6 Year-Olds, Iram Siraj-Blatchford Jan 1998

Criteria For Determining Quality In Early Learning For 3-6 Year-Olds, Iram Siraj-Blatchford

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This book is about extending good practice in curriculum development and supporting and sustaining the positive practices that characterise many early childhood settings. The curriculum cannot be seen in isolation and it cannot exist without a strong and well-developed framework of support, the social and institutional context in which curriculum 'happens'. To develop and deliver a sound curriculum the staff must be well informed about child development and culture and about subject knowledge and appropriate ways of 'teaching' young children so that all the children in their setting can access the curriculum. Time needs to be spent developing shared perspectives ...


Learning Through Making In The Early Years, John Siraj-Blatchford, Iram Siraj-Blatchford Jan 1998

Learning Through Making In The Early Years, John Siraj-Blatchford, Iram Siraj-Blatchford

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Fifty four five-year-old children in three London Primary Schools were tested using the British Ability Scales. Every 'product' of the children's construction work for the term was photographed. Three intervention groups were withdrawn from their classroom for one hour per week for focused instruction. 'Access only' groups were also withdrawn but were not provided with instruction. The children in the second control group received no additional experience of making beyond that normally provided in the classroom. A total of 450 products were constructed by the children during the intervention phase and each has been categorised from an analysis of ...


A Sociology Of Educating, Roland Meighan, Iram Siraj-Blatchford Jan 1997

A Sociology Of Educating, Roland Meighan, Iram Siraj-Blatchford

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Since it was first published in 1981, Sociology of Educating has become a firmly established text in its field. This third edition retains much of the structure and content of its predecessors, whilst benefiting from significant changes which take account of educational issues that have arisen and developed in recent years. The text covers a wide range of topics clearly, and in depth. They include further education, home-based teaching, educational research, and grading and examining. In line with current thinking, this edition places increased emphasis on educating outside and beyond the school, and pre-school. Every chapter ends with 'signposts' which ...


Uncovering Carrington, Hilary Winchester, Kevin M. Dunn, Pauline M. Mcguirk Jan 1997

Uncovering Carrington, Hilary Winchester, Kevin M. Dunn, Pauline M. Mcguirk

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The first part of this chapter examines Carrington's place within Newcastle, its separation from the rest of the city, its reputation, and its internal differentiation. The second part of this chapter considers the collective memory of Carrington as a stigmatised and dangerous industrial and maritime space with its own internal social and spatial divisions.


The School Improvement Project Of The Aga Khan Education Service, Uganda, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Matthew Odada, Martin Omagor Jan 1997

The School Improvement Project Of The Aga Khan Education Service, Uganda, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Matthew Odada, Martin Omagor

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This evaluative study looks at the Kampala (Uganda) Schools' Improvement Project (SIP) . The purpose of the project, which lasted from 1994 to 1997, was to improve the quality of teaching and learning in Kampala primary schools by promoting and then institutionalizing the adoption of child-centered teaching methods and resources in project schools. Project strategies involved training teachers in workshop settings, providing instructional materials to support learning, and providing on-the-job training and follow-up support for teachers. Key questions of this project evaluation were: (1) how well did SIP activities lead to achievement of the objectives? (2) what were the strengths of ...


Marijuana: A Guide To Quitting, Brin F. S Grenyer, Nadia Solowij, Richard Peters Jan 1996

Marijuana: A Guide To Quitting, Brin F. S Grenyer, Nadia Solowij, Richard Peters

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

No abstract provided.


Perceiving Self-Motion In Depth: The Role Of Stereoscopic Motion And Changing-Size Cues, Stephen Palmisano Jan 1996

Perceiving Self-Motion In Depth: The Role Of Stereoscopic Motion And Changing-Size Cues, Stephen Palmisano

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

During self-motions different patterns of optic flow are presented to the left and right eyes. Previous research has, however, focussed mainly on the self-motion information contained in a single pattern of optic flow. The current studies investigated the role that binocular disparity plays in the visual perception of self-motion, showing that the addition of stereoscopic cues to optic flow significantly improves forwards linear vection in central vision. Improvements were also achieved by adding changing-size cues to sparse (but not dense) flow patterns. These findings showed that assumptions in the heading literature that stereoscopic cues only facilitate self-motion when the optic ...


Carrington: Community Of Difference?, Hilary Winchester, Pauline M. Mcguirk, Angela Parkes, Kevin M. Dunn Jan 1996

Carrington: Community Of Difference?, Hilary Winchester, Pauline M. Mcguirk, Angela Parkes, Kevin M. Dunn

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Newcastle is a city redolent with images. Perhaps the most dominant of these is of a male industrial working environment deriving from the days of the 'coally seaport', while other aspects of its identity, such as the female and the Aboriginal, are suppressed and obscured (Dunn et al., 1995). Another recurrent image is of profound community, of solidaritty. This is evident in the 'Our Town' epithet applied to numerous local businesses. 5uch an image is portrayed in the cartoon by Eggleston, where the SS Newcastle is under siege from economic, political and physical forces, where the (all male) inhabitants, clinging ...


Continuidade, Communidade E Contexto: Importancia Na Pesquisa E Avaliacao Da Educacao Na Primeira Infancia, Iram Siraj-Blatchford Jan 1996

Continuidade, Communidade E Contexto: Importancia Na Pesquisa E Avaliacao Da Educacao Na Primeira Infancia, Iram Siraj-Blatchford

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Em seu livro Os doze sobreviventes, Robert Myers comenta a preocupação em expandir projetos-pilotos de desenvolvimento e chama atenção para o seguinte fato: a pressão para que sejam oferecidas soluções de grande alcance torna-se, com freqüência, um problema. " Por ironia, embora sejam humanitários os motivos que geram preocupação com a cobertura, é exatamente o aspecto humano que corre risco de perder-se no processo, quando o que está em mira são ações cada vez maiores. Quando o essencial passa a ser a mais ampla cobertura possível - objetivo, às vezes, alcançado - atribui-se uma importância indevida aos números, tornando-os um fim em si ...


Equitable Access To Education For Young Homeless People, Valerie Harwood, Ruth Phelan Jan 1995

Equitable Access To Education For Young Homeless People, Valerie Harwood, Ruth Phelan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

At the National Social Policy Conference in 1995 we were one of a minority of service providers presenting a paper; in fact we found ourselves presenting with one other of this minority at the last session of the conference on Friday afternoon. It was a disappointing time slot and left us pondering the question of how seriously 'policy makers' take the contributions of the people who are at the 'coalface'. We made the decision to present a paper at the conference because we believe the program we initiated is innovative and beneficial to a severely marginalised group of young people ...


Power And Influence In Urban Planning: Community And Property Interests' Participation In Dublin's Planning System, Pauline M. Mcguirk Jan 1995

Power And Influence In Urban Planning: Community And Property Interests' Participation In Dublin's Planning System, Pauline M. Mcguirk

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Using local authority planning in Dublin as a case study. the extent and effectiveness of community and development interests' participation in policy formulation is examined. A primary locus is on the nature and timing of participation as a determinant of the relalive influence that each can exert over policy decisions. A critical distinction is drawn between formal and informal participation channels. The vast array of informal channels available to development interests can mean that they have little need to participate formally; thus a primary and secondary layer of influence on policy formulation can be distinguished. The primary layer is largely ...


Nourish And Nurture: World Food Programme Assistance For Early Childhood Education In India's Integrated Child Development Service, Iram Siraj-Blatchford Jan 1995

Nourish And Nurture: World Food Programme Assistance For Early Childhood Education In India's Integrated Child Development Service, Iram Siraj-Blatchford

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Part of UNESCO's Action Research in Family and Early Childhood series, this monograph is based upon a technical report on the Early Childhood Education (ECE) component of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India. This document overviews the ICDS and how better use could be made of World Food Programme (WFP) food aid along with the ECE component, including the aspect of providing education to mothers and adolescent girls. The report notes that the WFP has provided support to ICDS since March 1976; the other main donor supporting ICDS is the American organization, CARE. Also noted is ...


Technology In Teacher Education: Using Multimedia To Enhance The Design And Make Process, Brian Ferry, Christine A. Brown Jan 1995

Technology In Teacher Education: Using Multimedia To Enhance The Design And Make Process, Brian Ferry, Christine A. Brown

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper reports on the use of a multimedia journal to enhance a subject in technology education. The subject was delivered to preservice teachers studying to be primary school teachers. The multimedia journal was used to assist in the delivery of the subject and to record the progress made by students. It is argued that multimedia used in this manner complements and extends upon the teaching program and becomes an integral part of the learning process.


Intrusiveness Of Interventions: Ratings By Psychologists, R Don Tustin, Barbara Pennington, Mitchell K. Byrne Jan 1994

Intrusiveness Of Interventions: Ratings By Psychologists, R Don Tustin, Barbara Pennington, Mitchell K. Byrne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

A survey was conducted of opinions of 24 psychologists in South Australia about the intrusiveness of 89 interventions including methods that might be used to reduce challenging behaviour. Interventions arose from a variety of sources, including behavioural psychology and medicine. Interventions might infringe on 8 different rights. Respondents rated the degree to which interventions were perceived to intrude on clients' rights, using a 4-point scale: abusive, very intrusive, intrusive, and not intrusive. A reasonable degree of consistency in ratings was found. Respondents did not rate all interventions that infringed on the same right as being equally intrusive. A number of ...


School Geometry: Focus On Knowledge Organisation, Mohan Chinnappan, Michaell Lawson Jan 1994

School Geometry: Focus On Knowledge Organisation, Mohan Chinnappan, Michaell Lawson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Given that geometry is an area of mathematics that has a firm and obvious basis in the real environment, senior secondary students have surprising difficulties in geometric problem-solving. One distinct difficulty appears to be in activating the particular concepts among those previously acquired that are applicable to the problem at hand. A model is presented for analysis of student understanding, based on five levels of geometric knowledge.


Performance Indicators: Just How Do You Weight Them?, John Hattie, Jim S. Tognolini Jan 1994

Performance Indicators: Just How Do You Weight Them?, John Hattie, Jim S. Tognolini

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The development and use of performance indicators in higher education has become a major topic for research and discussion throughout the world. Research efforts and resources are being channeled into improving their use. These efforts include extending the range (including developing indicators of quality) and objectivity of indicators; improving the procedures for measuring weighting and combining performance indicators; and refining procedures for linking funding and resource allocation to performance indicators. This paper uses a questionnaire and a sample of responses to demonstrate a methodology for making explicit the weightings experts ascribe to individual performance indicators used in the process of ...


Educational Issues For Family Day Care: Results Of A South Australian Survey, Peter J. Camilleri, Rosemary Kennedy Jan 1994

Educational Issues For Family Day Care: Results Of A South Australian Survey, Peter J. Camilleri, Rosemary Kennedy

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The training of family day care providers has been piecemeal, informal and of questionable quality. Their training has not been a serious issue because of the widely held view that family day care is an extension of the 'mothering' skills of the provider. This view of family day care as a 'home away from home' and the perception that it is essentially an extension of the normal domestic duties of women has mitigated against the development of formalised training. The push towards better and more importantly formalised training for family day care providers has arisen through a variety of reasons ...


Predskolni Pece A Vychova, Edward Melhuish Jan 1993

Predskolni Pece A Vychova, Edward Melhuish

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

No abstract provided.


A Potpourri Of Institutional Research Issues In A Planning Environment, Jim S. Tognolini, Peter Mccormack Jan 1993

A Potpourri Of Institutional Research Issues In A Planning Environment, Jim S. Tognolini, Peter Mccormack

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The need for institutional research in Australian tertiary institutions appears to be expanding. It is spurred on by the increased demands for institutional accountability and assessment, coupled with developments in planning and policy analysis, in a climate of diminishing resources. It is in this context that we thought it might be interesting, and timely, to prepare a paper to consider some of the practical issues confronted by an institutional research unit which is centrally involved in a university's integrated strategic planning and budgeting processes. In this presentation we will discuss issues such as role identity and the plight of ...