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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Regaining Their "Cool": Can The Big Three Surf Brands Recover?, Andrew T. Warren Jan 2013

Regaining Their "Cool": Can The Big Three Surf Brands Recover?, Andrew T. Warren

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Australia's "big three" surf brands have found themselves in choppy financial waters.

Last week, Billabong, one of Australia's most iconic surf brands confirmed a $386 million refinancing agreement with US consortium Centerbridge-Oaktree Capital Management acquiring a 40% share, guaranteeing the struggling brand's short-term future after it posted an $859 million loss last financial year.

Like Billabong, public surf company Quiksilver has reported declining revenues, asset write-downs and growing losses, recently announcing third-quarterly earnings had declined 84%. Privately-owned Rip Curl has also been in profit free-fall. In mid-2012 Rip Curl founders Brian Singer and Doug Warbrick engaged Bank ...


Eye Contrast Polarity Is Critical For Face Recognition By Infants, Yumiko Otsuka, Isamu Motoyoshi, Harold C. Hill, Megumi Kobayashi, So Kanazawa, Masami K. Yamaguchi Jan 2013

Eye Contrast Polarity Is Critical For Face Recognition By Infants, Yumiko Otsuka, Isamu Motoyoshi, Harold C. Hill, Megumi Kobayashi, So Kanazawa, Masami K. Yamaguchi

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Just as faces share the same basic arrangement of features, with two eyes above a nose above a mouth, human eyes all share the same basic contrast polarity relations, with a sclera lighter than an iris and a pupil, and this is unique among primates. The current study examined whether this bright-dark relationship of sclera to iris plays a critical role in face recognition from early in development. Specifically, we tested face discrimination in 7- and 8-month-old infants while independently manipulating the contrast polarity of the eye region and of the rest of the face. This gave four face contrast ...


Infant Interest In Their Mother's Face Is Associated With Maternal Psychological Health, Rebecca Jones, Pauline Slade, Olivier Pascalis, Jane S. Herbert Jan 2013

Infant Interest In Their Mother's Face Is Associated With Maternal Psychological Health, Rebecca Jones, Pauline Slade, Olivier Pascalis, Jane S. Herbert

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Early experience can alter infants' interest in faces in their environment. This study investigated the relationship between maternal psychological health, mother-infant bonding, and infant face interest in a community sample. A visual habituation paradigm was used to independently assess 3.5-month old infants' attention to a photograph of their mother's face and a stranger's face. In this sample of 54 healthy mother-infant pairs, 57% of mothers (N=31) reported symptoms of at least one of stress response to trauma, anxiety, or depression. Interest in the mother-face, but not stranger-face, was positively associated with the mother's psychological health ...


Development Of A Short Measure Of Psychological Recovery In Serious Mental Illness: The Stori-30, Retta Andresen, Peter Caputi, Lindsay Oades Jan 2013

Development Of A Short Measure Of Psychological Recovery In Serious Mental Illness: The Stori-30, Retta Andresen, Peter Caputi, Lindsay Oades

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objective: To develop a brief measure of stage of psychological recovery from mental illness by identifying the best-performing items of the 50-item Stages of Recovery Instrument (STORI). Method: Item response modelling was used to identify a short form of the full-length STORI. The resulting items were subjected to factor analysis to further refine the subscales. A second data set was used to confirm the construct validity of the new measure. A correlational analysis was conducted to examine relationships among the five subscale scores. Results: Analyses identified 30 items that represented the five stages of the full STORI. The five stage ...


Assessment Of Psychology Competencies In Field Placements: Standardized Vignettes Reduce Rater Bias, Craig J. Gonsalvez, John Bushnell, Russell Blackman, Frank Deane, Vida Bliokas, Kathryn Nicholson-Perry, Alice Shires, Yasmina Nasstasia, Christopher Allan, Roslyn Knight Jan 2013

Assessment Of Psychology Competencies In Field Placements: Standardized Vignettes Reduce Rater Bias, Craig J. Gonsalvez, John Bushnell, Russell Blackman, Frank Deane, Vida Bliokas, Kathryn Nicholson-Perry, Alice Shires, Yasmina Nasstasia, Christopher Allan, Roslyn Knight

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Supervisors' ratings of psychology trainees' competence in field settings are a critical component of training assessment. There has been little systematic research regarding the validity of these assessments, but the available evidence suggests we have a problem! Supervisors' judgments may be affected by systemic biases that pose a serious threat to assessment credibility. The current study is part of a research collaboration among six universities that endeavors to develop and evaluate a new method the use of vignettes against outcomes derived from a conventional rating scale. Individual vignettes were designed and subjected to a rigorous process of peer-review and revisions ...


Of Mice And Men: Role Of Mice In Biomedical Research Questioned, Christopher J. Degeling, Jane Johnson Jan 2013

Of Mice And Men: Role Of Mice In Biomedical Research Questioned, Christopher J. Degeling, Jane Johnson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

A study recently published in the peer-reviewed journal PNAS (Proceedings of the National of Academy Sciences) shows that mice are poor models for human inflammatory diseases. The paper, which focused on sepsis, burns and trauma, raises questions about the fundamental role of mice in biomedical research.


'It Was Not Just A Walking Experience': Reflections On The Role Of Care In Dog-Walking, Christopher J. Degeling, Melanie Rock Jan 2013

'It Was Not Just A Walking Experience': Reflections On The Role Of Care In Dog-Walking, Christopher J. Degeling, Melanie Rock

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Research into physical activity and human health has recently begun to attend to dog-walking. This study extends the literature on dog-walking as a health behaviour by conceptualizing dog-walking as a caring practice. It centres on qualitative interviews with 11 Canadian dog-owners. All participants resided in urban neighbourhoods identified through previous quantitative research as conducive to dog-walking. Canine characteristics, including breed and age, were found to influence people's physical activity. The health of the dog and its position in the life-course influenced patterns of dog-walking. Frequency, duration and spatial patterns of dog-walking all depended on relationships and people's capacity ...


What To Think Of Canine Obesity? Emerging Challenges To Our Understanding Of Human-Animal Health Relationships, Christopher J. Degeling, Ian Kerridge, Melanie Rock Jan 2013

What To Think Of Canine Obesity? Emerging Challenges To Our Understanding Of Human-Animal Health Relationships, Christopher J. Degeling, Ian Kerridge, Melanie Rock

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The coincident and increasing occurrence of weight-related health problems in humans and canines in Western societies poses a challenge to our understanding of human-animal health relationships. More specifically, the epistemological and normative impetus provided by current approaches to shared health risks and chronic diseases in cohabiting human and animal populations does not account for causal continuities in the way that people and their pets live together. An examination of differences in medical responses to these conditions in human and pet dogs points to the existence of a distinct conceptual and ethical sphere for companion animal veterinary medicine. The disengagement of ...


Hendra In The News: Public Policy Meets Public Morality In Times Of Zoonotic Uncertainty, Christopher J. Degeling, Ian Kerridge Jan 2013

Hendra In The News: Public Policy Meets Public Morality In Times Of Zoonotic Uncertainty, Christopher J. Degeling, Ian Kerridge

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Public discourses have influence on policymaking for emerging health issues. Media representations of unfolding events, scientific uncertainty, and real and perceived risks shape public acceptance of health policy and therefore policy outcomes. To characterize and track views in popular circulation on the causes, consequences and appropriate policy responses to the emergence of Hendra virus as a zoonotic risk, this study examines coverage of this issue in Australian mass media for the period 2007-2011. Results demonstrate the predominant explanation for the emergence of Hendra became the encroachment of flying fox populations on human settlement. Depictions of scientific uncertainty as to whom ...


Community-Based Service-Learning: Partnerships Of Reciprocal Exchange?, Laura Ann Hammersley Jan 2013

Community-Based Service-Learning: Partnerships Of Reciprocal Exchange?, Laura Ann Hammersley

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Community-based service-learning (CBSL) integrates experiential learning and academic goals with organized activities designed to meet the objectives of community partners. CBSL has potential to enhance (1) academic learning, (2) foster civic responsibility, (3) develop life skills and (4) transform student attitudes. However, little research supports claims that benefits are mutual amongst host counterparts. A lack of empirical research into community partner conceptualizations of best practice approaches and impacts, reflects a uni-dimensional understanding of the mutuality of programs, and fails to challenge dominant power relations embedded in traditionally uneven partnerships. It remains problematic to engage with service-learning without considering neocolonialist ideologies ...


A Journal For And With Health Promotion Practitioners And Researchers, Stacy M. Carter, Jonine Jancey Jan 2013

A Journal For And With Health Promotion Practitioners And Researchers, Stacy M. Carter, Jonine Jancey

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Editorial


Assessment Of Psychosocial Outcomes In Adolescents And Young Adults With Cancer: A Systematic Review Of Available Instruments, Claire E. Wakefield, Pandora Patterson, Fiona Ej Mcdonald, Helen L. Wilson, Esther L. Davis, Ursula Sansom-Daly Jan 2013

Assessment Of Psychosocial Outcomes In Adolescents And Young Adults With Cancer: A Systematic Review Of Available Instruments, Claire E. Wakefield, Pandora Patterson, Fiona Ej Mcdonald, Helen L. Wilson, Esther L. Davis, Ursula Sansom-Daly

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Given the burgeoning body of research relating to the psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, this review aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and appropriateness of the instruments available for use in this unique population. Specifically, we reviewed published instruments developed to assess psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress, and fear of recurrence), psychological growth (resilience, posttraumatic growth, and benefit finding), unmet needs, coping, quality of life, identity, and mindfulness-based practices and skills in AYAs with cancer. Given the dearth of validated instruments targeting AYAs with cancer, this review also provides a summary of promising measures yet ...


Disability In Zimbabwe Under The New Constitution: Demands And Gains Of People With Disabilities, Jacob Mugumbate, Chamunogwa Nyoni Jan 2013

Disability In Zimbabwe Under The New Constitution: Demands And Gains Of People With Disabilities, Jacob Mugumbate, Chamunogwa Nyoni

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

People with disabilities looked at the constitution making process as their biggest opportunity to have their dreams realised. They had numerous expectations including increased opportunities in health, education, social protection, habitation, participation and employment. Although they were excluded from the first stages of the process, they were later actively involved. The outcome of their involvement has been several provisions in the constitution addressing disability concerns. The extent to which these provisions are adequate or inadequate has been a subject of contention. This article looks at the provisions in the final version of the constitution that received presidential assent on 22 ...


Is An Independent West Papuan State Possible?, Camellia B. Webb-Gannon Jan 2013

Is An Independent West Papuan State Possible?, Camellia B. Webb-Gannon

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The very unpredictability of politics is the greatest hope for those seeking an independent West Papuan state. Here, some of the key issues occupying West Papuan nationalists and observers of the region's politics are addressed, including whether West Papuans are entitled to their own state; whether such a state would be politically and economically viable; and what chance Papuans have of forging their national vision into a constitutional reality.


Unifying Psychology Through Situational Realism, Agnes Petocz, Nigel Mackay Jan 2013

Unifying Psychology Through Situational Realism, Agnes Petocz, Nigel Mackay

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

We propose that a coherent and thoroughgoing version of realism, known as situational realism, offers a unifying program for psychology. This realism emerges from the conditions of being that enable knowledge and discourse. Because this research originated largely in a century's work by Australian psychologists and philosophers, we will introduce and explain research and vocabulary that might be unfamiliar to some readers. The approach is characterized by seven themes: ontological egalitarianism; situational complexity and process orientation; a network or field view of causality; a realist logic; a view of relations as nonconstitutive; an externalist relational approach to mind; and ...


Preparation For Teaching Gifted Students: An Updated Investigation Into University Offerings In New South Wales, Kylie Fraser-Seeto, Steven J. Howard, Stuart Woodcock Jan 2013

Preparation For Teaching Gifted Students: An Updated Investigation Into University Offerings In New South Wales, Kylie Fraser-Seeto, Steven J. Howard, Stuart Woodcock

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Gifted and talented students are a diverse and often overlooked group of students. Research suggests that this may be at least partly related to limited gifted and talented education training at the preservice level. In fact, within an Australian context, preservice training in gifted and talented education in Australia has consistently been found to be insufficient. Given that the last study of Australian preservice gifted and talented education offerings was conducted in 2005, however, the current study sought to investigate whether these provisions had substantially changed in the eight years since that study. Further, this study sought to provide a ...


Vegetables Containing Phytochemicals With Potential Anti-Obesity Properties: A Review, David J. Williams, David Edwards, Ingrid Hamernig, Le Jian, Anthony P. James, Stuart Keith Dr Stuart Keith Johnson, Linda Tapsell Jan 2013

Vegetables Containing Phytochemicals With Potential Anti-Obesity Properties: A Review, David J. Williams, David Edwards, Ingrid Hamernig, Le Jian, Anthony P. James, Stuart Keith Dr Stuart Keith Johnson, Linda Tapsell

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The incidence of obesity is rising worldwide at an alarming rate and is becoming a major public health concern with incalculable social and economic costs. Studies have exposed the relationship between the adiposity, inflammation and the development of other metabolic disorders, so dietary factors that influence some or all of these are of interest. Dietary phytochemicals appear to be able to target different stages of the adipocyte (fat cell) lifecycle. For example, several classes of polyphenols have been implicated in suppressing the growth of adipose tissue through modifying the adipocyte lifecycle. Many dietary phytochemicals also have strong anti-inflammatory activity, but ...


Treated Differently? Evidence Of Racism And Discrimination From A Local Perspective, Patricia Kennedy Jan 2013

Treated Differently? Evidence Of Racism And Discrimination From A Local Perspective, Patricia Kennedy

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

One of the key findings of this study is that as many as 80% of those who experienced racism or discrimination do not report it. The report shows that racism and discrimination are happening in Limerick but victims and witnesses are reluctant to turn to the authorities for assistance. While this particular study documents local manifestations of racism and discrimination, the issues are of global, national and regional significance.


Changes In Pre-Service Teachers Perceptions’ Of Tea Cher Qualities: Development From Egocentric To Student Centric, Lynn D. Sheridan Jan 2013

Changes In Pre-Service Teachers Perceptions’ Of Tea Cher Qualities: Development From Egocentric To Student Centric, Lynn D. Sheridan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This study looks at pre-service teachers’ developing perceptions wit h a view to supporting teacher education practices. In determining and guiding program structures it is the opinions of the experts that are most often heard. Absent from this debate is an understanding of the changing perceptions of the pre-service teacher as they progress through their program. The purpose of this paper is to extend our understanding of pre-service teacher belief systems’ highlighting, the relevance this has for understanding and supporting pre-service teacher development. The perceptions of valued teacher qualities changed from ego-centric beliefs to student centric practices for the participants ...


Mapping Face Recognition Information Use Across Cultures, Sebastien R. Miellet, Luca Vizioli, Lingnan He, Xinyue Zhou, Roberto Caldara Jan 2013

Mapping Face Recognition Information Use Across Cultures, Sebastien R. Miellet, Luca Vizioli, Lingnan He, Xinyue Zhou, Roberto Caldara

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Face recognition is not rooted in a universal eye movement information-gathering strategy. Western observers favor a local facial feature sampling strategy, whereas Eastern observers prefer sampling face information from a global, central fixation strategy.Yet, the precise qualitative (the diagnostic) and quantitative (the amount) information underlying these cultural perceptual biases in face recognition remains undetermined.To this end, we monitored the eye movements of Western and Eastern observers during a face recognition task, with a novel gaze-contingent technique: the Expanding Spotlight.


Governing Carbon In The Australian City: Local Government Responses, Robyn Dowling, Pauline M. Mcguirk, Harriet Bulkeley Jan 2013

Governing Carbon In The Australian City: Local Government Responses, Robyn Dowling, Pauline M. Mcguirk, Harriet Bulkeley

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Mitigating and adapting to future changes in climate in the context of urban growth has focused the attention of Australian governments, planners, business and community interests alike. In this landscape we see a proliferation of frameworks and initiative s for governing carbon, from Australian state and local governments as well as a wide array of other actors including the private and not-for-profit sectors. Currently no clear picture of their architecture or workings exists. In this paper we use urban local governments - a central actor in these frameworks - as an entry point. Drawing on recent research aimed to document urban carbon ...


Understanding The School Community's Response To School Closures During The H1n1 2009 Influenza, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Rebecca Tooher, Joanne Collins, Jackie M. Street, Helen S. Marshall Jan 2013

Understanding The School Community's Response To School Closures During The H1n1 2009 Influenza, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Rebecca Tooher, Joanne Collins, Jackie M. Street, Helen S. Marshall

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background

During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, Australian public health officials closed schools as a strategy to mitigate the spread of the infection. This article examines school communities’ understanding of, and participation in, school closures and the beliefs and values which underpinned school responses to the closures.

Methods

We interviewed four school principals, 25 staff, 14 parents and 13 students in five schools in one Australian city which were either fully or partially closed during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

Results

Drawing on Thompson et al’s ethical framework for pandemic planning, we show that considerable variation existed between and within ...


Identifying The Quality Of Life Effects Of Urinary Incontinence With Depression In An Australian Population, Jodie C. Avery, Nigel P. Stocks, Paul Duggan, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Anne Taylor, Robert Goldney, Alastair Maclennan Jan 2013

Identifying The Quality Of Life Effects Of Urinary Incontinence With Depression In An Australian Population, Jodie C. Avery, Nigel P. Stocks, Paul Duggan, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Anne Taylor, Robert Goldney, Alastair Maclennan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background

To explore the additive effect of urinary incontinence, in people with comorbid depression, on health related quality of life.

Methods

Males and females, 15 to 95 years (n = 3010, response rate 70.2%) were interviewed face to face in the 1998 Autumn South Australian Health Omnibus Survey.

Results

Self-reported urinary incontinence was found in 20.3% (n=610), and depression as defined by the PRIME-MD in 15.2% (n=459) of the survey population. Urinary incontinence with comorbid depression was found in 4.3% of the overall population. Univariate analysis showed that respondents with urinary incontinence and comorbid depression ...


Community Knowledge, Behaviours And Attitudes About The 2009 H1n1 Influenza Pandemic: A Systematic Review, Rebecca Tooher, Joanne Collins, Jackie M. Street, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Helen S. Marshall Jan 2013

Community Knowledge, Behaviours And Attitudes About The 2009 H1n1 Influenza Pandemic: A Systematic Review, Rebecca Tooher, Joanne Collins, Jackie M. Street, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Helen S. Marshall

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background

Effectiveness of pandemic plans and community compliance was extensively researched following the H1N1 pandemic. This systematic review examined community response studies to determine whether behavioural responses to the pandemic were related to level of knowledge about the pandemic, perceived severity of the pandemic and level of concern about the pandemic.

Methods

Literature databases were searched from March 2009 to August 2011 and included cross‐sectional or repeated population surveys undertaken during or following the H1N1 pandemic which reported on community response to the pandemic. Studies using population subgroups and other respiratory diseases were excluded, as were mathematical modelling and ...


Musicals Are Gay: A Brief History Of Gay Men, Hollywood Divas And Movie Musicals, Scott J. Mckinnon Jan 2013

Musicals Are Gay: A Brief History Of Gay Men, Hollywood Divas And Movie Musicals, Scott J. Mckinnon

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

No abstract provided.


A Pilot Test Of Transformational Leadership Training For Sports Coaches: Impact On The Developmental Experiences Of Adolescent Athletes, Stewart A. Vella, Lindsay G. Oades, Trevor P. Crowe Jan 2013

A Pilot Test Of Transformational Leadership Training For Sports Coaches: Impact On The Developmental Experiences Of Adolescent Athletes, Stewart A. Vella, Lindsay G. Oades, Trevor P. Crowe

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This study investigated the impact of a transformational leadership training program for youth sport coaches on adolescent athletes' perceptions of transformational leadership and positive developmental experiences. The transformational leadership training program was associated with higher rates of perceived transformational leadership behaviour at follow-up when compared to baseline measures. Importantly, these increases were associated with significantly higher rates of self-reported developmental experiences. Coach training was associated with a predictability and reliability to athlete outcomes that was not evident in athletes of a comparison group. Transformational leadership may provide a theoretically sound foundation for coaching practice and education in the service of ...


Measurement Of Mental Attention: Assessing A Cognitive Component Underlying Performance On Standardized Intelligence Tests, Steven J. Howard, Janice Johnson, Juan Pascual-Leone Jan 2013

Measurement Of Mental Attention: Assessing A Cognitive Component Underlying Performance On Standardized Intelligence Tests, Steven J. Howard, Janice Johnson, Juan Pascual-Leone

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Despite the widespread use of standardized IQ tests to measure human intelligence, problems with such measures have led some to suggest that better indices may derive from measurement of cognitive processes underlying performance on IQ tests (e.g., working memory capacity). However, measures from both approaches may exhibit performance biases in favour of majority groups, due to the influence of prior learning and experience. Mental attentional (M-) capacity is proposed to be a causal factor underlying developmental growth in working memory. Measures of M-capacity index important cognitive variance underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests. These measures appear to be reasonably ...


Investigating Synergies Between Literacy, Technology And Classroom Practice, Lisa Kervin, Irina Verenikina, Pauline Jones, Olivia Beath Jan 2013

Investigating Synergies Between Literacy, Technology And Classroom Practice, Lisa Kervin, Irina Verenikina, Pauline Jones, Olivia Beath

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The ways educators incorporate technologies into their classroom literacy experiences and the implications these present for professional practices have been the focus of discussion for some time. We believe it timely to re-examine these debates in a period of 'digital reform' as we consider the realities teachers report as they use technology as a tool in literacy classrooms. In doing this, we acknowledge the potential of new technologies such as laptops, wireless connectivity, Interactive White Boards and mobile communication devices to reshape pedagogic activity within primary classrooms but aim to capture the reality reported by active practitioners. In this paper ...


Effects Of Simultaneously Observing And Making Gestures While Studying Grammar Animations On Cognitive Load And Learning, Lysanne S. Post, Tamara Van Gog, Fred Paas, Rolf A. Zwaan Jan 2013

Effects Of Simultaneously Observing And Making Gestures While Studying Grammar Animations On Cognitive Load And Learning, Lysanne S. Post, Tamara Van Gog, Fred Paas, Rolf A. Zwaan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This study examined whether simultaneously observing and making gestures while studying animations would lighten cognitive load and facilitate the acquisition of grammatical rules. In contrast to our hypothesis, results showed that children in the gesturing condition performed worse on the posttest than children in the non-gesturing, control condition. A more detailed analysis of the data revealed an expertise reversal effect, indicating that this negative effect on posttest performance materialized for children with lower levels of general language skills, but not for children with higher levels of general language skills. The finding that for children with lower language ability, cognitive load ...


Factor Analysis And Validity Of A Short Six-Item Version Of The Desires For Alcohol Questionnaire, C Mo, Frank P. Deane, Geoffrey C. Lyons, Peter Kelly Jan 2013

Factor Analysis And Validity Of A Short Six-Item Version Of The Desires For Alcohol Questionnaire, C Mo, Frank P. Deane, Geoffrey C. Lyons, Peter Kelly

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Reductions in cravings have been associated with improved recovery from alcohol and other drug use problems. Self-report assessments of cravings provide a way of monitoring progress over the course of treatment particularly in residential settings. There is a need to develop brief craving measures suitable for repeat administration. The aim of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of a six-item version of the Desires for Alcohol Questionnaire (DAQ-6). In study 1 exploratory factor analysis involving 710 participants attending residential treatment revealed two factors: 'expectancy of negative reinforcement' and 'strong desires and intentions'. In study 2 confirmatory factor ...