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Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Self-Reported Survey On The Confidence Levels And Motivation Of New South Wales Practice Nurses On Conducting Advance-Care Planning (Acp) Initiatives In The General-Practice Setting, Emilia Fan, Joel J. Rhee Jan 2017

A Self-Reported Survey On The Confidence Levels And Motivation Of New South Wales Practice Nurses On Conducting Advance-Care Planning (Acp) Initiatives In The General-Practice Setting, Emilia Fan, Joel J. Rhee

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Nurses are well positioned to initiate and conduct advance-care planning (ACP) conversations; however, there has been limited research on practice nurses performing this role in Australia. The aim of the present study was to understand the beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, confidence, training and educational needs of New South Wales practice nurses with regards to involvement in ACP. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in August to October 2014. Nurses were recruited through nursing organisations and Medicare Locals. There were 147 completed surveys (n = 147). Participants were mostly female registered nurses, with a median age of 50, and 6 years of practice-nurse ...


Leveraging Ongoing Research To Evaluate The Health Impacts Of South Africa's Salt Reduction Strategy: A Prospective Nested Cohort Within The Who-Sage Multicountry, Longitudinal Study, Karen E. Charlton, Lisa J. Ware, Elias Menyanu, Richard Berko Biritwum, Nirmala Naidoo, Chine Pieterse, Savathree (Lorna) Madurai, Jeannine Baumgartner, George A. Asare, Elizabeth Thiele, Aletta E. Schutte, Paul Kowal Jan 2016

Leveraging Ongoing Research To Evaluate The Health Impacts Of South Africa's Salt Reduction Strategy: A Prospective Nested Cohort Within The Who-Sage Multicountry, Longitudinal Study, Karen E. Charlton, Lisa J. Ware, Elias Menyanu, Richard Berko Biritwum, Nirmala Naidoo, Chine Pieterse, Savathree (Lorna) Madurai, Jeannine Baumgartner, George A. Asare, Elizabeth Thiele, Aletta E. Schutte, Paul Kowal

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Introduction: Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study. Methods and analysis: Baseline sodium intake was assessed in a nested cohort of the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health ...


Unravelling The Glass Trade Bead Sequence From Magoro Hill, South Africa: Separating Pre-Seventeenth-Century Asian Imports From Later European Counterparts, Farahnaz Koleini, Linda C. Prinsloo, Wim M. Biemond, Philippe Colomban, Anh T. Ngo, Jan C. Boeyens, Maria M. Van Der Ryst, Koos Van Brakel Jan 2016

Unravelling The Glass Trade Bead Sequence From Magoro Hill, South Africa: Separating Pre-Seventeenth-Century Asian Imports From Later European Counterparts, Farahnaz Koleini, Linda C. Prinsloo, Wim M. Biemond, Philippe Colomban, Anh T. Ngo, Jan C. Boeyens, Maria M. Van Der Ryst, Koos Van Brakel

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Excavations conducted between 2010 and 2012 at Magoro Hill, a site in South Africa's Limpopo Province frequented or intermittently occupied by African farming communities since the first millennium AD, yielded a substantial glass bead assemblage. A selection of the beads was studied non-destructively by classifying them according to morphological attributes, supplemented by Raman analyses and XRF measurements. It became evident that a morphological classification of beads recovered from sites that include imports into Africa after the seventeenth century AD could be problematic due to apparent morphological similarities between earlier and later beads. This paper demonstrates the use and archaeological ...


Considerations For U-Series Dating Of Sediments: Insights From The Flinders Ranges, South Australia, Heather K. Handley, Simon P. Turner, Anthony Dosseto, David Haberlah, Juan C. Afonso Jan 2013

Considerations For U-Series Dating Of Sediments: Insights From The Flinders Ranges, South Australia, Heather K. Handley, Simon P. Turner, Anthony Dosseto, David Haberlah, Juan C. Afonso

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Uranium isotope ratios have been determined for the fine-grained detrital fraction of Pleistocene Wilkawillina valley-fill sediments, four local Proterozoic bedrock samples and fine-grained aeolian material from a sand dune deposit of the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. The aim was to quantify the comminution age, i.e. the time elapsed since physical weathering of the bedrock, and residence time of the valley-fill sediments and to place tighter constraints on input parameters for the comminution age calculation. Despite using two independent approaches for determination of the recoil lost fraction of 234U from the sediment (weighted geometric and surface area estimates), samples fail ...


From Research To Policy In Chronic Disease Prevention: Mandatory Salt Reduction In South Africa, K Charlton, K Steyn, N Levitt, C Lombard Jan 2013

From Research To Policy In Chronic Disease Prevention: Mandatory Salt Reduction In South Africa, K Charlton, K Steyn, N Levitt, C Lombard

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Abstract of a poster that presented at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, Granada, Spain, September 15-20, 2013.


Relationship Of Calling Intensity To Micrometeorology In Pond Breeding Frogs From Central Eastern New South Wales, Francis Lemckert, Trent Penman, Michael J. Mahony Jan 2013

Relationship Of Calling Intensity To Micrometeorology In Pond Breeding Frogs From Central Eastern New South Wales, Francis Lemckert, Trent Penman, Michael J. Mahony

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Micrometeorological factors can strongly influence calling activity in frogs, but relatively little empirical evidence has examined possible relationships in Australian species. Such information is important when using surveys to detect species for management and research. We recorded the calling activity of frogs breeding at 93 ponds through coastal northern New South Wales and used linear mixed effects models to compare the number of calling males with temperature, humidity and cumulative rainfall at 24 hours and 72 hours prior to calling surveys. We obtained sufficient data to analyze the relationships for nine species, obtaining a positive response to 72-hour rainfall in ...


"Use Salt And Foods High In Salt Sparingly": A Food-Based Dietary Guideline For South Africa, E Wentzel-Viljoen, K Steyn, E Ketterer, K E. Charlton Jan 2013

"Use Salt And Foods High In Salt Sparingly": A Food-Based Dietary Guideline For South Africa, E Wentzel-Viljoen, K Steyn, E Ketterer, K E. Charlton

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Increased salt intake leads to an increase in blood pressure and decreased sodium intake relative to the usual or increased intake results in lowered blood pressure in adults, with or without hypertension. Blood pressure is a strong proxy indicator for the risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and strokes. Hypertension is estimated to have caused 9% of all deaths in South Africa in 2000. In 2008, 42% of men and 34% of women aged 35-44 years, and 60% of men and 50% of women aged 45-54 years, were hypertensive. More than 70% of both men and women older than ...


Measurements Of Reactive Trace Gases And Variable O3 Formation Rates In Some South Carolina Biomass Burning Plumes, S K. Akagi, Robert J. Yokelson, I R. Burling, S Meinardi, I Simpson, D R. Blake, G R. Mcmeeking, A Sullivan, T Lee, S Kreidenweis, S Urbanski, J Reardon, D W.T Griffith, T J. Johnson, D R. Weise Jan 2013

Measurements Of Reactive Trace Gases And Variable O3 Formation Rates In Some South Carolina Biomass Burning Plumes, S K. Akagi, Robert J. Yokelson, I R. Burling, S Meinardi, I Simpson, D R. Blake, G R. Mcmeeking, A Sullivan, T Lee, S Kreidenweis, S Urbanski, J Reardon, D W.T Griffith, T J. Johnson, D R. Weise

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

In October–November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC), US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along ...


Heavy Metal Pollution Negatively Correlates With Anuran Species Richness And Distribution In South-Eastern Australia, Kristina L.G Ficken, Phillip G. Byrne Jan 2013

Heavy Metal Pollution Negatively Correlates With Anuran Species Richness And Distribution In South-Eastern Australia, Kristina L.G Ficken, Phillip G. Byrne

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Heavy metal pollution has likely played an important role in global biodiversity decline, but there remains a paucity of information concerning the effects of metals on amphibian diversity. This study assessed anuran species richness and distribution in relation to sediment metal content and water chemistry in wetlands located along the Merri Creek corridor in Victoria, south-eastern Australia. Anurans were present in 60% (21/35) of study sites, with a total of six species detected: the eastern common froglet (Crinia signifera), the eastern sign-bearing froglet (Crinia parinsignifera), the southern brown tree frog (Litoria ewingii), the growling grass frog (Litoria raniformis), the ...


C-Amp Dependent Protein Kinase A Inhibitory Activity Of Six Algal Extracts From South Eastern Australia And Their Fatty Acid Composition, Ana Zivanovic, Danielle Skropeta Jan 2012

C-Amp Dependent Protein Kinase A Inhibitory Activity Of Six Algal Extracts From South Eastern Australia And Their Fatty Acid Composition, Ana Zivanovic, Danielle Skropeta

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

c-AMP dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) is an important enzyme involved in the regulation of an increasing number of physiological processes including immune function, cardiovascular disease, memory disorders and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PKA inhibitory activity of a range of algal extracts, along with their fatty acid composition. Six algal species were investigated including two Chlorophyta (Codium dimorphum and Ulva lactuca), two Phaeophyta (Phyllospora comosa and Sargassum sp.) and two Rhodophyta (Prionitis linearis and Corallina vancouveriensis), with the order of PKA inhibitory activity of their extracts identified as follows: brown seaweeds > red ...


Weathering, Bauxitisation And Soil Genesis From The Nakobalevu Basalt, South-East Viti Levu, Fiji, J A. Bonato, R J. Morrison Jan 2012

Weathering, Bauxitisation And Soil Genesis From The Nakobalevu Basalt, South-East Viti Levu, Fiji, J A. Bonato, R J. Morrison

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The augite-olivine flows (5.3 Ma) capping Mount Nakobalevu, a few kilometres north-west of Suva, Fiji, have been subjected to rapid and deep weathering. The Nakobalevu K1 and K2 weathering profiles (at approximately 454 m altitude) show features of strong bauxitisation, and the attributes of a "classical" lateritic profile. Aluminium and iron enrichment in the 2-3 m depth layers of the Nakobalevu weathering profiles is marked, with the presence of abundant gibbsite (as gravels and nodules, and in the silt and clay-sized fractions), goethite, kaolinite, haematite and magnetite (grains); the presence of fragmented (goethitic and gibbsitic) crustal materials in each ...


How Generalisable Are Results Of Studies Conducted In Practicebased Research Networks? A Cross-Sectional Study Of General Practitioner Demographics In Two New South Wales Networks, Parker Magin, Melanie Marshall, Susan Goode, Georgina Cotter, C Dimity Pond, Nicholas Zwar Jan 2011

How Generalisable Are Results Of Studies Conducted In Practicebased Research Networks? A Cross-Sectional Study Of General Practitioner Demographics In Two New South Wales Networks, Parker Magin, Melanie Marshall, Susan Goode, Georgina Cotter, C Dimity Pond, Nicholas Zwar

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objective: To compare the demographics of general practitioners in two practice-based research networks (PBRNs) and to explore the generalisability of research findings from these PBRNs. Design, setting and participants: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of two geographically-based PBRNs - Hunter New England Central Coast Network of Research General Practices (NRGP) and Primary Healthcare Research Network-General Practice (PHReNet-GP) - during August-September 2010. All 183 GP members of both PBRNs were invited to participate; of these, 140 (77%) participated. Main outcome measures: GPs' demographics, use of languages other than English in consultations, and previous participation in research. Practices' use of practice nurses. Socioeconomic status and rurality ...


Development Of A Novel Nutrition Screening Tool For Use In Elderly South Africans, Karen E. Charlton, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Johanna Nel Jan 2005

Development Of A Novel Nutrition Screening Tool For Use In Elderly South Africans, Karen E. Charlton, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Johanna Nel

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objective: To develop a nutrition screening tool for use in older South Africans. Design: A cross-sectional validation study in 283 free-living and institutionalised black South Africans (60+ years). Methods: Trained fieldworkers administered a 24-hour recall and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) screening tool, and performed anthropometric measurements and physical function tests. Cognitive function was assessed using a validated version of the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test. Biochemical indicators assessed included serum albumin, haemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin B12, red-blood-cell folate, cholesterol and vitamin C. The MNA was used as the gold standard against which a novel screening tool was developed using a six-step ...


Development And Validation Of Instruments Measuring Body Image And Body Weight Dissatisfaction In South African Mothers And Their Daughters, Zandile Mciza, Julia Goedecke, Nelia P. Steyn, Karen E. Charlton, Thandi Puoane, Shelly Meltzer, Naomi Levitt, Estelle V. Lambert Jan 2005

Development And Validation Of Instruments Measuring Body Image And Body Weight Dissatisfaction In South African Mothers And Their Daughters, Zandile Mciza, Julia Goedecke, Nelia P. Steyn, Karen E. Charlton, Thandi Puoane, Shelly Meltzer, Naomi Levitt, Estelle V. Lambert

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objective We sought to validate questionnaires concerning body image perception, body size dissatisfaction and weight-related beliefs in multi-ethnic South African mothers and their daughters. Settings and subjects: Girls attending primary school (ages 9-12 years, n = 333) and their mothers (n = 204) were interviewed regarding their demographics and body image. Weight, height and skinfold thicknesses were measured. Body image questions and body mass index (BMI) were compared with silhouettes adapted from the Pathways Study for girls and Stunkard's body image figures for mothers. A Feel-Ideal Difference (FID) index score was created by subtracting the score of the silhouette selected by ...


Knowledge Of Iodine Nutrition In The South African Adult Population, Pieter Jooste, Nicola Upson, Karen E. Charlton Jan 2005

Knowledge Of Iodine Nutrition In The South African Adult Population, Pieter Jooste, Nicola Upson, Karen E. Charlton

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objectives To determine the level of knowledge regarding iodine nutrition and its relationship with socio-economic status in the South African population. Design A cross-sectional population survey collecting questionnaire information on knowledge of iodine nutrition and sociodemographic variables in a multistage, stratified, cluster study sample, representative of the adult South African population. Setting Home visits and personal interviews in the language of the respondent. Subjects Data were collected from one adult in each of the selected 2164 households, and the participation rate was 98%. Results Only 15.4% of respondents correctly identified iodised salt as the primary dietary source of iodine ...


Full Term, Peri-Urban South African Infants Under Six Months Of Age Are At Risk For Early-Onset Anemia., Lindi Sibeko, Ma Dhansay, Karen E. Charlton, Timothy Johns, M Van Stuijvenberg, Katherine Gray-Donald Jan 2004

Full Term, Peri-Urban South African Infants Under Six Months Of Age Are At Risk For Early-Onset Anemia., Lindi Sibeko, Ma Dhansay, Karen E. Charlton, Timothy Johns, M Van Stuijvenberg, Katherine Gray-Donald

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objective: There is a paucity of data on the micronutrient status of low-income, lactating South African women and their infants under 6 months of age. The aim of this study was to elucidate the level of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in peri-urban breast-feeding women and their young infants.

Design: Cross-sectional study including anthropometric, biochemical and infant feeding data.

Setting: Peri-urban settlement in Cape Town, South Africa.

Subjects: Breast-feeding women (n = 113) and their infants (aged 1–6 months) attending a peri-urban clinic.

Results: Mean (standard deviation (SD)) haemoglobin (Hb) of the lactating mothers was 12.4 (1.3 ...


Sources And Credibility Of Nutrition Information Among Black Urban South African Women, With A Focus On Messages Related To Obesity., Karen E. Charlton, Philippa Brewitt, Lesley T. Bourne Jan 2004

Sources And Credibility Of Nutrition Information Among Black Urban South African Women, With A Focus On Messages Related To Obesity., Karen E. Charlton, Philippa Brewitt, Lesley T. Bourne

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objectives: (1) To identify the major sources of nutrition information, and the perceived credibility thereof, among urban black South African women; and (2) to determine the level of knowledge regarding nutrition, particularly regarding the topic of obesity. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study that was both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (individual questionnaires). Three hundred and ninety-four black women aged 17-49 years were conveniently sampled from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces in South Africa. Methods: Four focus groups were held with 39 women to identify common themes relating to nutrition knowledge. Based on these data, a questionnaire instrument was developed ...


Association Between Blood Pressure And Sodium, Potassium And Calcium Excretion In South Africans, Karen E. Charlton, Krisela Steyn, Jabuliswe Zulu, Deborah Jonathan, Naomi Levitt, J H. Nel, D Veldman Jan 2002

Association Between Blood Pressure And Sodium, Potassium And Calcium Excretion In South Africans, Karen E. Charlton, Krisela Steyn, Jabuliswe Zulu, Deborah Jonathan, Naomi Levitt, J H. Nel, D Veldman

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

No abstract provided.


Prevalence Of Household Food Poverty In South Africa: Results From A Large Nationally Representative Survey, Karen E. Charlton, Donald Rose Jan 2002

Prevalence Of Household Food Poverty In South Africa: Results From A Large Nationally Representative Survey, Karen E. Charlton, Donald Rose

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

OBJECTIVES: Household food insecurity is a major determinant of undernutrition, yet there is little information on its prevalence in the South African population. This paper assesses household food insecurity in South Africa using a quantitative and objective measure, known as food poverty, and provides prevalence estimates by geographic area and socio-economic condition. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis combining two sources: Statistics South Africa's household-based 1995 Income and Expenditure Survey; and the University of Port Elizabeth's Household Subsistence Level series, a nationally-conducted, market-based survey. SETTING: South Africa. SUBJECTS: A nationally representative sample of the entire country - stratified by race, province ...


South African Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: Testing Of The Preliminary Guidelines Among Women In Kwazulu-Natal And The Western Cape, P Love, E Maunder, M Green, F Ross, J Smale-Lovely, K Charlton Jan 2001

South African Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: Testing Of The Preliminary Guidelines Among Women In Kwazulu-Natal And The Western Cape, P Love, E Maunder, M Green, F Ross, J Smale-Lovely, K Charlton

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Aim. To assess the appropriateness of the preliminary South African food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) as a nutrition education tool for women in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and the Western Cape (WC) in terms of comprehension, interpretation and implementation. Methods. This was a qualitative study using focus group discussions. Focus groups were held in five magisterial districts within KZN, and the Cape Town metropolitan area of the WC, to evaluate the comprehensibility and applicability of the FBDGs. Groups were randomly selected according to settlement type (non-urban, urban informal, urban formal) and ethnicity (black, coloured (of mixed origin), Indian, white) to reflect the KZN ...


Nutrition, Health And Old Age: The Case Of Urban South African Elderly, Karen E. Charlton Jan 2000

Nutrition, Health And Old Age: The Case Of Urban South African Elderly, Karen E. Charlton

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The southern African region (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zimbabwe) has the continent's highest percentage of older inhabitants; 6.2% of the population in 1997 was estimated to be 60 years or older. Within southern Africa, South Africa has the highest proportion of older population. The 1996 census data estimate that 2.8 million South Africans are aged 60 years and older, which constitutes 7% of the total population. This percentage is projected to increase to almost 11% of the population over the next 20 years. (Mostert W, Hofmeyr B, Oosthuizen K Demographic projections for South ...


Validation Of A Food Frequency Questionnaire In Older South Africans, Karen E. Charlton, Estelle V. Lambert Jan 1999

Validation Of A Food Frequency Questionnaire In Older South Africans, Karen E. Charlton, Estelle V. Lambert

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objectives: To assess the validity of 213-item semi-qualified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in estimating habitual energy and protein intake in a sample of older South Africans. Repeatability of the FFQ was assessed by comparison of reported intakes after a 6-month period. Design: Cross-sectional analytic study Methods: Twenty-one subjects were selected from a baseline sample of 200 non-institutional subjects aged 65 years and over in Cape Town, who had previously been randomly selected for a nurtition and health survey using a two-stage cluster design. Reported dietary energy and protein intakes, estimated by means of the FFQ method, were compared with 24-hour ...


Micronutrient Status Of Older Coloured South Africans, K E. Charlton, Petro Wolmarans, Marita Kruger, Demetre L. Labadarios, Ingrid Aronson, Carl J. Lombard Jan 1998

Micronutrient Status Of Older Coloured South Africans, K E. Charlton, Petro Wolmarans, Marita Kruger, Demetre L. Labadarios, Ingrid Aronson, Carl J. Lombard

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objective. To investigate the dietary intake and nutritional status of older coloured South Africans in the Cape Peninsula with regard to their micronutrient status. Design. Cross-sectional analytical study. Methods. A random sample of 200 non-institutionalised subjects in Cape Town aged ^ 65 years was drawn using a two-stage cluster design. Trained fieldworkers interviewed subjects to obtain demographic, dietary and lifestyle data, to draw fasting blood samples for biochemical, haematological, iron status and vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)), serum vitamin B12 and red blood cell folate analyses. Nutrient intake was assessed with a validated quantified food frequency questionnaire. Results ...


The Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus And Associated Risk Factors In Elderly Coloured South Africans, Karen E. Charlton, Naomi S. Levitt, Carl J. Lombard Jan 1997

The Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus And Associated Risk Factors In Elderly Coloured South Africans, Karen E. Charlton, Naomi S. Levitt, Carl J. Lombard

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objective. To determine the prevalence of diabetes and its associated risk factors in elderly coloured South Africans. Research design. Cross-sectional analytical study. Methods. A random sample of 200 non-institutionalised coloured (mixed ancestry) subjects aged 65 years of age, resident in urban Cape Town, was drawn by means of a two-stage cluster design. The survey procedure included an oral glucose tolerance test, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity and alcohol intake assessments. Results. The prevalence of diabetes was 28.7% (95% Cl 21.7 - 35.7%), 25.7% in men and 30.3% in women. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was ...


Physical Activity, Change In Blood Pressure And Predictors Of Mortality In Older South Africans - A 2-Year Follow-Up Study, Karen E. Charlton, Estelle V. Lambert, Judith Kreft Jan 1997

Physical Activity, Change In Blood Pressure And Predictors Of Mortality In Older South Africans - A 2-Year Follow-Up Study, Karen E. Charlton, Estelle V. Lambert, Judith Kreft

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objective. A 2-year follow-up study of a cohort of 200 historically disadvantaged older South Africans was conducted to: (i) characterise current levels of habitual physical activity; (ii) relate physical activity to current risk factors for chronic disease; and (iii) identify risk factors associated with 2-year mortaJity. The baseline sample, drawn in 1993, was found to have a high prevalence of hypertension (71.7%). Research design. Retrospective cohort study. Methods. A baseline sample of 200 persons aged ;:;.. 65 years, resident in the Cape Peninsula, was randomly drawn by means of a two-stage cluster design. Baseline measurements included: anthropometry, waist/hip ratio ...


Vitamin D Status Of Older South Africans, K E. Charlton, D Labadarios, C J. Lombard, M E. J Louw Jan 1996

Vitamin D Status Of Older South Africans, K E. Charlton, D Labadarios, C J. Lombard, M E. J Louw

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objective. To determine the vitamin D status of older 'coloured' South Africans who had not sustained a fracture. Design. Cross-sectional analytic study.

Methods. A random sample of 200 non-institutionalised subjects in Cape Town aged 65 years was drawn using a two-stage cluster design. Trained fieldworkers interviewed subjects to obtain demographic, dietary and lifestyle data, to draw fasting blood samples for the analysis of serum 25-hydroxyvilamin 0 (25(OH)O) and other biochemical parameters. and to take anthropometric measurements.

Results. Seventeen per cent of the subjects (95% Cl: 11.4 - 22.6%) had serum 25(OH)D levels in the deficient ...


The Archaeology Of Social Complexity In South-East Queensland, Michael Morwood Jan 1987

The Archaeology Of Social Complexity In South-East Queensland, Michael Morwood

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The widespread alliance systems of Australian Aboriginal society had an economic and survival value in harsh environments, but in resource-rich areas such as South-east Queensland it is more a question of strategies for increasing regional carrying capacity. Recent archaeological results in the area, with evidence of increases in site numbers and artefact deposition rates and diversification of subsistence resources to include small-bodied species, show the development of new patterns of technology, economy and demography following major environmental changes in the post-Pleistocene period. Widespread changes in Australian prehistory around 4000 years ago may have been triggered in certain key areas such ...