Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

High

Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Enhancing The Defensibility Of Examiners' Marks In High Stake Osces, Boaz Shulruf, Arvin Damodaran, Philip Jones, Sean Kennedy, George Mangos, Anthony J. O'Sullivan, Joel J. Rhee, Silas Taylor, Gary Velan, Peter Harris Jan 2018

Enhancing The Defensibility Of Examiners' Marks In High Stake Osces, Boaz Shulruf, Arvin Damodaran, Philip Jones, Sean Kennedy, George Mangos, Anthony J. O'Sullivan, Joel J. Rhee, Silas Taylor, Gary Velan, Peter Harris

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Background: Most assessments in health professions education consist of knowledge-based examinations as well as practical and clinical examinations. Among the most challenging aspects of clinical assessments is decision making related to borderline grades assigned by examiners. Borderline grades are commonly used by examiners when they do not have sufficient information to make clear pass/fail decisions. The interpretation of these borderline grades is rarely discussed in the literature. This study reports the application of the Objective Borderline Method (version 2, henceforth: OBM2) to a high stakes Objective Structured Clinical Examination undertaken at the end of the final year of a ...


Antarctic Moss Biflavonoids Show High Antioxidant And Ultraviolet-Screening Activity, Melinda J. Waterman, Ari Satia Nugraha, Rudi Hendra, Graham E Ball, Sharon A. Robinson, Paul A. Keller Jan 2017

Antarctic Moss Biflavonoids Show High Antioxidant And Ultraviolet-Screening Activity, Melinda J. Waterman, Ari Satia Nugraha, Rudi Hendra, Graham E Ball, Sharon A. Robinson, Paul A. Keller

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Ceratodon purpureus is a cosmopolitan moss that survives some of the harshest places on Earth: from frozen Antarctica to hot South Australian deserts. In a study on the survival mechanisms of the species, nine compounds were isolated from Australian and Antarctic C. purpureus. This included five biflavonoids, with complete structural elucidation of 1 and 2 reported here for the first time, as well as an additional four known phenolic compounds. Dispersion-corrected DFT calculations suggested a rotational barrier, leading to atropisomerism, resulting in the presence of diastereomers for compound 2. All isolates absorbed strongly in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum, e.g ...


High Temperature Postsynthetic Rearrangement Of Dimethylthiocarbamate-Functionalized Metal-Organic Frameworks, Timothy Ablott, Marc Turzer, Shane Telfer, Christopher Richardson Jan 2016

High Temperature Postsynthetic Rearrangement Of Dimethylthiocarbamate-Functionalized Metal-Organic Frameworks, Timothy Ablott, Marc Turzer, Shane Telfer, Christopher Richardson

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

A thermally promoted postsynthetic rearrangement has been performed on a zinc IRMOF-9-type framework bearing dimethylthiocarbamate tag groups. The rearrangement was accomplished via conventional heating at 285 °C. Crucially, despite the high temperature, the MOF maintains its high accessible surface area and pore space following thermal treatment. The structures and physical properties of the frameworks were characterized by a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, differential thermal-thermogravimetric analysis, and gas sorption analysis. The rearrangement results in a slightly higher level of CO2 adsorption for the modified MOF but with equivalent heat of adsorption. This work offers new perspectives ...


Graphene Cryogel Papers With Enhanced Mechanical Strength For High Performance Lithium Battery Anodes, Kewei Shu, Caiyun Wang, Meng Wang, Chen Zhao, Gordon G. Wallace Jan 2014

Graphene Cryogel Papers With Enhanced Mechanical Strength For High Performance Lithium Battery Anodes, Kewei Shu, Caiyun Wang, Meng Wang, Chen Zhao, Gordon G. Wallace

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

A porous graphene paper was prepared by pressing a graphene cryogel, followed by thermal reduction at 220 °C. The cryogel was formed by freeze-drying a solution containing chemically reduced graphene and graphene oxide (CRG/GO). The formed graphene cryogel papers deliver a much higher discharge capacity and rate capability than that from conventional graphene papers fabricated by filtration. These new structures have a discharge capacity higher than 400 mA h g−1 at a current density of 2000 mA g−1 in sharp contrast to 229 mA h g−1 at 50 mA g−1 obtained from conventional graphene papers ...


Short-Term Effects Of Fish And Fish Oil Consumption On Total And High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Levels In Overweight And Obese Adults, Elizabeth P. Neale, Beverly Muhlhausler, Yasmine C. Probst, Marijka J. Batterham, Francesca Fernandez, Linda C. Tapsell Jan 2013

Short-Term Effects Of Fish And Fish Oil Consumption On Total And High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Levels In Overweight And Obese Adults, Elizabeth P. Neale, Beverly Muhlhausler, Yasmine C. Probst, Marijka J. Batterham, Francesca Fernandez, Linda C. Tapsell

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objective: Fish or fish oil consumption may increase levels of total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, a hormone associated with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitising effects, however it is not known if the effects of the food and supplement are the same. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of consuming fish and fish oil supplements on plasma total and HMW adiponectin concentrations in overweight human participants.

Materials/Methods: 29 overweight and obese participants underwent a two week run-in period, followed by a four week isocaloric dietary intervention which provided 1.8g of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty ...


Measurements Of Co, Hcn, And C2h6 Total Columns In Smoke Plumes Transported From The 2010 Russian Boreal Forest Fires To The Canadian High Arctic, C Viatte, K Strong, C Paton-Walsh, J Mendonca, N T. O'Neill, J R. Drummond Jan 2013

Measurements Of Co, Hcn, And C2h6 Total Columns In Smoke Plumes Transported From The 2010 Russian Boreal Forest Fires To The Canadian High Arctic, C Viatte, K Strong, C Paton-Walsh, J Mendonca, N T. O'Neill, J R. Drummond

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

In August 2010, simultaneous enhancements of aerosol optical depth and total columns of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and ethane (C2H6) were observed at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, 80.05°N, −86.42°W, 0.61 km above sea level, Eureka, Nunavut, Canada). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) hot spots, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index maps, and Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) back-trajectories were used to attribute these enhancements to an intense boreal fire event occurring in Russia. A ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer at PEARL provided vertically integrated measurements of trace ...


A High Prevalence Of Malnutrition In Acute Geriatric Patients Predicts Adverse Clinical Outcomes And Mortality Within 12 Months, Karen E. Charlton, Marijka J. Batterham, Steven Bowden, Abhijeet Ghosh, Katherine Caldwell, Lilliana Barone, Michelle Mason, J. Potter, Barbara Meyer, Marianna Milosavljevic Jan 2013

A High Prevalence Of Malnutrition In Acute Geriatric Patients Predicts Adverse Clinical Outcomes And Mortality Within 12 Months, Karen E. Charlton, Marijka J. Batterham, Steven Bowden, Abhijeet Ghosh, Katherine Caldwell, Lilliana Barone, Michelle Mason, J. Potter, Barbara Meyer, Marianna Milosavljevic

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Background & aims Older malnourished patients experience increased length of hospital stay and greater morbidity compared to their well nourished counterparts. This study aimed to assess whether nutritional status at hospital admission predicted clinical outcomes at 12 months follow-up. Methods Secondary data analysis of 2602 consecutive patient admissions to an acute tertiary hospital in New South Wales, Australia on or before 1st June 2009. Twelve-month data was analysed in a sub-sample of 774 patients. Nutritional status was determined within 72 h of admission using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Outcomes, obtained from electronic patient records included hospital readmission rate, total length of stay (LOS), change in level of care at discharge, and in-hospital mortality. Results A third (34%) of patients were malnourished and 55% at risk of malnutrition. Using a Cox proportional hazards regression model, controlling for underlying illness and age, patients at risk of malnutrition were 2.46 (95% CI: 1.36, 4.45; p = 0.003) times more likely to have a poor clinical outcome (mortality/discharge to higher level of care), while malnourished patients had a 3.57 (95% CI: 1.94, 6.59; p = 0.000) times higher risk. Conclusions A poor nutritional status carries a substantially greater risk of death and/or loss of dependency in older adults. Interventions to improve the nutritional status of patients during their hospital stay, and following discharge back to the community, are needed to lower the risk of adverse outcomes.


"Use Salt And Foods High In Salt Sparingly": A Food-Based Dietary Guideline For South Africa, E Wentzel-Viljoen, K Steyn, E Ketterer, K E. Charlton Jan 2013

"Use Salt And Foods High In Salt Sparingly": A Food-Based Dietary Guideline For South Africa, E Wentzel-Viljoen, K Steyn, E Ketterer, K E. Charlton

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Increased salt intake leads to an increase in blood pressure and decreased sodium intake relative to the usual or increased intake results in lowered blood pressure in adults, with or without hypertension. Blood pressure is a strong proxy indicator for the risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and strokes. Hypertension is estimated to have caused 9% of all deaths in South Africa in 2000. In 2008, 42% of men and 34% of women aged 35-44 years, and 60% of men and 50% of women aged 45-54 years, were hypertensive. More than 70% of both men and women older than ...


Making Things In A High-Dollar Australia: The Case Of The Surfboard Industry, Andrew Warren, Chris Gibson Jan 2013

Making Things In A High-Dollar Australia: The Case Of The Surfboard Industry, Andrew Warren, Chris Gibson

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

In August 2011 the announcement by Bluescope Steel of mass layoffs at its Port Kembla steelworks, in the Illawarra region, sparked renewed public debate and media commentary on the future of manufacturing in Australia. The debate has since spread to cars, aluminium smelting - even Mortein fly spray - and has quickly coalesced around the unprecedented high Australian dollar, its impacts on exports, and the prospects of the production of goods shifting overseas. As Australian mining magnates such as Clive Palmer, Gina Rinehart and Twiggy Forrest attempt to remould Australia around their 'quarry vision' (Pearse, 2009) of extractive minerals exports, a high ...


A Food Photograph Series For Identifying Portion Sizes Of Culturally Specific Dishes In Rural Areas With High Incidence Of Oesophageal Cancer, Martani Lombard, Nelia Steyn, Hester-Mari Burger, Karen Charlton, Marjanne Senekal Jan 2013

A Food Photograph Series For Identifying Portion Sizes Of Culturally Specific Dishes In Rural Areas With High Incidence Of Oesophageal Cancer, Martani Lombard, Nelia Steyn, Hester-Mari Burger, Karen Charlton, Marjanne Senekal

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Rural areas of the Eastern Cape (EC) Province, South Africa have a high incidence of squamous cell oesophageal cancer (OC) and exposure to mycotoxin fumonisin has been associated with increased OC risk. However, to assess exposure to fumonisin in Xhosas—having maize as a staple food—it is necessary to determine the amount of maize consumed per day. A maize-specific food frequency questionnaire (M-FFQ) has recently been developed. This study developed a food photograph (FP) series to improve portion size estimation of maize dishes. Two sets of photographs were developed to be used alongside the validated M-FFQ. The photographs were ...


Segregation Of A Latent High Adiposity Phenotype In Families With A History Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Implicates Rare Obesity-Susceptibility Genetic Variants With Large Effects In Diabetes-Related Obesity, Arthur B. Jenkins, Marijka Batterham, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Katherine Tonks, Jerry R. Greenfield, Lesley V. Campbell Jan 2013

Segregation Of A Latent High Adiposity Phenotype In Families With A History Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Implicates Rare Obesity-Susceptibility Genetic Variants With Large Effects In Diabetes-Related Obesity, Arthur B. Jenkins, Marijka Batterham, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Katherine Tonks, Jerry R. Greenfield, Lesley V. Campbell

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Background We recently reported significantly greater weight gain in non-diabetic healthy subjects with a 1st degree family history (FH+) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than in a matched control group without such history (FH−) during voluntary overfeeding, implying co-inheritance of susceptibilities to T2DM and obesity. We have estimated the extent and mode of inheritance of susceptibility to increased adiposity in FH+.

Methods Normoglycaemic participants were categorised either FH+ (≥1 1st degree relative with T2DM, 50F/30M, age 45±14 (SD) yr) or FH− (71F/51M, age 43±14 yr). Log-transformed anthropometric measurements (height, hip and waist circumferences) and lean ...


High Muscle Mitochondrial Volume And Aerobic Capacity In A Small Marsupial (Sminthopsis Crassicaudata) Reveals Flexible Links Between Energy-Use Levels In Mammals, Terence Dawson, Koa Webster, Enhua Lee, William A. Buttemer Dec 2012

High Muscle Mitochondrial Volume And Aerobic Capacity In A Small Marsupial (Sminthopsis Crassicaudata) Reveals Flexible Links Between Energy-Use Levels In Mammals, Terence Dawson, Koa Webster, Enhua Lee, William A. Buttemer

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

We investigated the muscle structure–function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacity of an insectivorous, small (~15 g) marsupial, Sminthopsis crassicaudata (Family: Dasyuridae), to obtain further insight into energy use patterns in marsupials relative to those in placentals, their sister clade within the Theria (advanced mammals). Disparate hopping marsupials (Suborder Macropodiformes), a kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata), show aerobic capabilities as high as those of ‘athletic’ placentals. Equivalent muscle mitochondrial volumes and cardiovascular features support these capabilities. We examined S. crassicaudata to determine whether highly developed aerobic capabilities occur elsewhere in marsupials, rather than being restricted to ...


Hybrid Nanomembranes For High Power And High Energy Density Supercapacitors And Their Yarn Application, Jae Ah Lee, Min-Kyoon Shin, Seon Jeong Kim, Geoffrey Maxwell Spinks, Gordon G. Wallace, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Marcio D. Lima, Mikhail E. Kozlov, Ray H. Baughman Jan 2012

Hybrid Nanomembranes For High Power And High Energy Density Supercapacitors And Their Yarn Application, Jae Ah Lee, Min-Kyoon Shin, Seon Jeong Kim, Geoffrey Maxwell Spinks, Gordon G. Wallace, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Marcio D. Lima, Mikhail E. Kozlov, Ray H. Baughman

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Ultrathin (thicknessnm) electrically conducting membranes can be used as electrodes for sensors, actuators, optical devices, fuel cells, scaffolds for assembling nanoparticles, and separation of biological macromolecules.1-6 Various approaches have been suggested for the fabrication of free-standing nanomembranes based on organic polymers and/or inorganic materials: spin-casting of films,7 layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers,8 cross-linking of self-assembled monolayers,9 and assembly of triblock copolymers.10,11 Loading materials such as gold nanoparticles12 or carbon nanotubes13 make membranes robust and electrically conductive. However, these methods are often time-consuming and have some limitations in terms of achievable electrical and electrochemical ...


Using A Micro-Uav For Ultra-High Resolution Multi-Sensor Observations Of Antarctic Moss Beds, Arko Lucieer, Sharon Robinson, Darren Turner, Steve Harwin, Josh Kelcey Jan 2012

Using A Micro-Uav For Ultra-High Resolution Multi-Sensor Observations Of Antarctic Moss Beds, Arko Lucieer, Sharon Robinson, Darren Turner, Steve Harwin, Josh Kelcey

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This study is the first to use an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for mapping moss beds in Antarctica. Mosses can be used as indicators for the regional effects of climate change. Mapping and monitoring their extent and health is therefore important. UAV aerial photography provides ultra-high resolution spatial data for this purpose. We developed a technique to extract an extremely dense 3D point cloud from overlapping UAV aerial photography based on structure from motion (SfM) algorithms. The combination of SfM and patch-based multi-view stereo image vision algorithms resulted in a 2 cm resolution digital terrain model (DTM). This detailed topographic ...


Variation In Seagrass Biomass Estimates In Low And High Density Settings: Implications For The Selection Of Sample Size, Mustafa K. Hossain, Kerrylee Rogers, Neil Saintilan Jan 2010

Variation In Seagrass Biomass Estimates In Low And High Density Settings: Implications For The Selection Of Sample Size, Mustafa K. Hossain, Kerrylee Rogers, Neil Saintilan

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Few seagrass biomass monitoring studies have considered the adequacy of monitoring intensity in their design. Power analysis is now widely used in ecological monitoring to determine sample size (replication) and the power (probability of not making a Type II error) of the monitoring design to detect change (effect size). We investigated seasonal variation of above-ground biomass of Zostera species at Woolooware Bay, Botany Bay, NSW and Ukerebagh Channel, Tweed River, NSW to show that seagrass biomass varies significantly between sites and seasonally. By conducting preliminary power analysis at each study site we found that our sampling design would only detect ...


Conjugated Linoleic Acid Versus High-Oleic Acid Sunflower Oil: Effects On Energy Metabolism, Glucose Tolerance, Blood Lipids, Appetite And Body Composition In Regularly Exercising Individuals, Estelle V. Lambert, Julia H. Goedecke, Kerrie Bluett, Kerry Heggie, Amanda Claassen, Dale E. Rae, Sacha West, Jonathan Dugas, Lara Dugas, Shelly Meltzer, Karen E. Charlton, Inge Mohede Jan 2007

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Versus High-Oleic Acid Sunflower Oil: Effects On Energy Metabolism, Glucose Tolerance, Blood Lipids, Appetite And Body Composition In Regularly Exercising Individuals, Estelle V. Lambert, Julia H. Goedecke, Kerrie Bluett, Kerry Heggie, Amanda Claassen, Dale E. Rae, Sacha West, Jonathan Dugas, Lara Dugas, Shelly Meltzer, Karen E. Charlton, Inge Mohede

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The aim of this study was to measure the effects of 12 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, RER, RMR, blood lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and appetite in exercising, normal-weight persons. In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, sixty-two non-obese subjects (twenty-five men, thirty-seven women) received either 3.9 g/d CLA or 3.9 g high-oleic acid sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Prior to and after 12 weeks of supplementation, oral glucose tolerance, blood lipid concentrations, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerised tomography scans), RMR, resting and exercising RER and appetite were measured. There were ...


High Prevalence Of Hepatozoon Spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) Infection In Water Pythons (Liasis Fuscus) From Tropical Australia, Beata Ujvari, Thomas Madsen, Mats Olsson Jan 2004

High Prevalence Of Hepatozoon Spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) Infection In Water Pythons (Liasis Fuscus) From Tropical Australia, Beata Ujvari, Thomas Madsen, Mats Olsson

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Molecular methods were used to identify blood parasites frequently observed in blood smears of water pythons (Liasis fuscus) captured in our study area in the Northern Territory of Australia. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers amplifying the 18s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) nuclear gene resulted in a short PCR product (180 bp) matching this region in the genus Hepatozoon. However, because of the short sequence obtained. 2 new primers were designed based on 18s rRNA sequences of 3 Hepatozoon taxa available in GenBank. Using these primers, approximately 600 bp of the parasite's 18s rRNA gene was amplified successfully ...


Positionally Dependent 15n Fractionation Factors In The Uv Photolysis Of N2o Determined By High Resolution Ftir Spectroscopy, Fred Turatti, D W. T Griffith, Stephen Wilson, Michael Esler, T Rahn, H Zang, G A. Blake Jan 2000

Positionally Dependent 15n Fractionation Factors In The Uv Photolysis Of N2o Determined By High Resolution Ftir Spectroscopy, Fred Turatti, D W. T Griffith, Stephen Wilson, Michael Esler, T Rahn, H Zang, G A. Blake

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Positionally dependent fractionation factors for the photolysis of isotopomers of N2O in natural abundance have been determined by high resolution FTIR spectroscopy at three photolysis wavelengths. Fractionation factors show clear 15N position and photolysis wavelength dependence and are in qualitative agreement with theoretical models but are twice as large. The fractionation factors increase with photolysis wavelength from 193 to 211 nm, with the fractionation factors at 207.6 nm for 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O and 14N14N18O equal to −66.5±5‰,−27.1±6 ...