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Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Activity

Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Impact Of Climate Change And Human Activity On Soil Landscapes Over The Past 12,300 Years, Leo Rothacker, Anthony Dosseto, Alexander Francke, Allan Chivas, Nathalie Vigier, Anna M. Kotarba-Morley, Davide Menozzi Jan 2018

Impact Of Climate Change And Human Activity On Soil Landscapes Over The Past 12,300 Years, Leo Rothacker, Anthony Dosseto, Alexander Francke, Allan Chivas, Nathalie Vigier, Anna M. Kotarba-Morley, Davide Menozzi

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Soils are key to ecosystems and human societies, and their critical importance requires a better understanding of how they evolve through time. However, identifying the role of natural climate change versus human activity (e.g. agriculture) on soil evolution is difficult. Here we show that for most of the past 12,300 years soil erosion and development were impacted differently by natural climate variability, as recorded by sediments deposited in Lake Dojran (Macedonia/Greece): short-lived ( < 1,000 years) climatic shifts had no effect on soil development but impacted soil erosion. This decoupling disappeared between 3,500 and 3,100 years ago, when the sedimentary record suggests an unprecedented erosion event associated with the development of agriculture in the region. Our results show unambiguously how differently soils evolved under natural climate variability (between 12,300 and 3,500 years ago) and later in response to intensifying human impact. The transition from natural to anthropogenic landscape started just before, or at, the onset of the Greek 'Dark Ages' (~3,200 cal yr BP). This could represent the earliest recorded sign of a negative feedback between civilization and environmental impact, where the development of agriculture impacted soil resources, which in turn resulted in a slowdown of civilization expansion.


Earliest Known Hominin Activity In The Philippines By 709 Thousand Years Ago, Thomas Ingicco, Gerrit D. Van Den Bergh, C Jago-On, J-J Bahain, M G. Chacón, Noel Amano, H Forestier, C King, K Manalo, Sebastien Nomade, A Pereira, M C. Reyes, A M. Semah, Q Shao, P Voinchet, C Falgueres, P C.H Albers, M Lising, George A. Lyras, Dida Yurnaldi, P Rochette, Angel Bautista, John De Vos Jan 2018

Earliest Known Hominin Activity In The Philippines By 709 Thousand Years Ago, Thomas Ingicco, Gerrit D. Van Den Bergh, C Jago-On, J-J Bahain, M G. Chacón, Noel Amano, H Forestier, C King, K Manalo, Sebastien Nomade, A Pereira, M C. Reyes, A M. Semah, Q Shao, P Voinchet, C Falgueres, P C.H Albers, M Lising, George A. Lyras, Dida Yurnaldi, P Rochette, Angel Bautista, John De Vos

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Over 60 years ago, stone tools and remains of megafauna were discovered on the Southeast Asian islands of Flores, Sulawesi and Luzon, and a Middle Pleistocene colonization by Homo erectus was initially proposed to have occurred on these islands. However, until the discovery of Homo floresiensis in 2003, claims of the presence of archaic hominins on Wallacean islands were hypothetical owing to the absence of in situ fossils and/or stone artefacts that were excavated from well-documented stratigraphic contexts, or because secure numerical dating methods of these sites were lacking. As a consequence, these claims were generally treated with scepticism ...


Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Is Associated With Liver Insulin Sensitivity In Obese Non-Diabetic Men, Daniel L.T Chen, Rachael Brown, Carsten Liess, Anne Poljak, Aimin Xu, Jialiang Zhang, Michael Trenell, Arthur Jenkins, Donald B. Chisholm, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Vaughan G. Macefield, Jerry R. Greenfield Jan 2017

Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Is Associated With Liver Insulin Sensitivity In Obese Non-Diabetic Men, Daniel L.T Chen, Rachael Brown, Carsten Liess, Anne Poljak, Aimin Xu, Jialiang Zhang, Michael Trenell, Arthur Jenkins, Donald B. Chisholm, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Vaughan G. Macefield, Jerry R. Greenfield

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Introduction: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may play a role in insulin resistance in obesity. However, the direction and nature of the relationship between MSNA and insulin resistance in obesity remain unclear. We hypothesized that resting MSNA would correlate inversely with both muscle and liver insulin sensitivity and that it would be higher in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive subjects.

Materials and methods: Forty-five non-diabetic obese subjects were studied. As no significant relationships were found in women, the data presented in on 22 men aged 48 ± 12 years. Two-step (15 and 80 mU/m2/min) hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed using deuterated glucose ...


Cereal Fibre Intake In Australia: A Cross Sectional Analysis Of The 2011-12 National Nutrition And Physical Activity Survey, Eden Barrett, Yasmine Probst, Eleanor J. Beck Jan 2017

Cereal Fibre Intake In Australia: A Cross Sectional Analysis Of The 2011-12 National Nutrition And Physical Activity Survey, Eden Barrett, Yasmine Probst, Eleanor J. Beck

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Extensive evidence supports health benefits of cereal fibre, however globally no national intake data exists. This study aimed to determine estimates of intake and food sources of cereal fibre, and relationships to dietary fibre intake in an Australian sample population. A cereal fibre database was applied to dietary intake data from the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n ¼ 12,153). Usual intake based on 2-day intake data was weighted to infer population results. Median daily cereal fibre intake was 6.4 g/d (9.7 g/10 MJ/d) for adults (19-85 years) and 6.2 g ...


Antarctic Moss Biflavonoids Show High Antioxidant And Ultraviolet-Screening Activity, Melinda J. Waterman, Ari Satia Nugraha, Rudi Hendra, Graham E Ball, Sharon A. Robinson, Paul A. Keller Jan 2017

Antarctic Moss Biflavonoids Show High Antioxidant And Ultraviolet-Screening Activity, Melinda J. Waterman, Ari Satia Nugraha, Rudi Hendra, Graham E Ball, Sharon A. Robinson, Paul A. Keller

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Ceratodon purpureus is a cosmopolitan moss that survives some of the harshest places on Earth: from frozen Antarctica to hot South Australian deserts. In a study on the survival mechanisms of the species, nine compounds were isolated from Australian and Antarctic C. purpureus. This included five biflavonoids, with complete structural elucidation of 1 and 2 reported here for the first time, as well as an additional four known phenolic compounds. Dispersion-corrected DFT calculations suggested a rotational barrier, leading to atropisomerism, resulting in the presence of diastereomers for compound 2. All isolates absorbed strongly in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum, e.g ...


Diarylacylhydrazones: Clostridium-Selective Antibacterials With Activity Against Stationary-Phase Cells, Chao Chen, Naveen K. Dolla, Gabriele Casadei, John B. Bremner, Kim Lewis, Michael J. Kelso Jan 2014

Diarylacylhydrazones: Clostridium-Selective Antibacterials With Activity Against Stationary-Phase Cells, Chao Chen, Naveen K. Dolla, Gabriele Casadei, John B. Bremner, Kim Lewis, Michael J. Kelso

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Current antibiotics for treating Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), that is, metronidazole, vancomycin and more recently fidaxomicin, are mostly effective but treatment failure and disease relapse remain as significant clinical problems. The shortcomings of these agents are attributed to their low selectivity for C. difficile over normal gut microflora and their ineffectiveness against C. difficile spores. This Letter reports that certain diarylacylhydrazones identified during a high-throughput screening/counter-screening campaign show selective activity against two Clostridium species (C. difficile and Clostridium perfringens) over common gut commensals. Representative examples are shown to possess activity similar to vancomycin against clinical C. difficile strains and ...


Impact Of Community-Based Participatory Initiative On Children's Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity, Rahma Ajja, Rohan Shah, Falon Tilley, R Glenn Weaver, Daria Winnicka, Morgan Hughey, Collin A. Webster, Aaron Beighle, Russell R. Pate, Ruth Saunders, Michael W. Beets Jan 2013

Impact Of Community-Based Participatory Initiative On Children's Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity, Rahma Ajja, Rohan Shah, Falon Tilley, R Glenn Weaver, Daria Winnicka, Morgan Hughey, Collin A. Webster, Aaron Beighle, Russell R. Pate, Ruth Saunders, Michael W. Beets

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Abstract of poster that presented at 2013 AAHPERD National Convention & Exposition, Charlotte, NC , 23-27 April 2013.


A New Protoberberine Alkaloid From Meconopsis Simplicifolia (D. Don) Walpers With Potent Antimalarial Activity Against A Multidrug Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Strain, Phurpa Wangchuk, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne, Wilford Lie, Anthony C. Willis, Roonglawan Rattanajak, Sumalee Kamchonwongpaisan Jan 2013

A New Protoberberine Alkaloid From Meconopsis Simplicifolia (D. Don) Walpers With Potent Antimalarial Activity Against A Multidrug Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Strain, Phurpa Wangchuk, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne, Wilford Lie, Anthony C. Willis, Roonglawan Rattanajak, Sumalee Kamchonwongpaisan

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Ethnopharmacological relevance The aerial components of Meconopsis simplicifolia (D. Don) Walpers are indicated in Bhutanese traditional medicine for treating malaria, coughs and colds, and the infections of the liver, lung and blood. This study is to validate the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant and also identify potent antimalarial drug leads through bioassays of its crude extracts and phytochemical constituents.

Materials and methods Meconopsis simplicifolia (D. Don) Walpers was collected from Bhutan and its crude MeOH extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation. Through repeated extractions, separations and spectroscopic analysis, the alkaloids obtained were identified and tested for their antimalarial and cytotoxicity ...


A Comprehensive Coordinated Approach To Increasing Physical Activity In Afterschool Programs, Morgan Hughey, R Glenn Weaver, Falon Tilley, Rahma Ajja, Rohan Shah, Daria Winnicka, Collin A. Webster, Aaron Beighle, Russell R. Pate, Ruth Saunders, Michael W. Beets Jan 2013

A Comprehensive Coordinated Approach To Increasing Physical Activity In Afterschool Programs, Morgan Hughey, R Glenn Weaver, Falon Tilley, Rahma Ajja, Rohan Shah, Daria Winnicka, Collin A. Webster, Aaron Beighle, Russell R. Pate, Ruth Saunders, Michael W. Beets

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Abstract of poster that presented at 2013 AAHPERD National Convention & Exposition, Charlotte, NC , 23-27 April 2013.


Competency-Based Professional Development Training Impact On Physical Activity Promotion, R Glenn Weaver, Falon Tilley, Rahma Ajja, Rohan Shah, Daria Winnicka, Morgan Hughey, Collin A. Webster, Aaron Beighle, Russell R. Pate, Ruth Saunders, Michael W. Beets Jan 2013

Competency-Based Professional Development Training Impact On Physical Activity Promotion, R Glenn Weaver, Falon Tilley, Rahma Ajja, Rohan Shah, Daria Winnicka, Morgan Hughey, Collin A. Webster, Aaron Beighle, Russell R. Pate, Ruth Saunders, Michael W. Beets

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Abstract of poster that presented at 2013 AAHPERD National Convention & Exposition, Charlotte, NC , 23-27 April 2013.


Bioregional Assessment Project: Sydney Metropolitan, Southern Rivers And Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchments: Data Collation Phase To Study The Impact Of Mining Activity And Coal Seam Gas On Environmental Assets, John Bradd, Tim Cohen, Sam Marx, Sol Buckman, Emma Burkhardt, A Clarke, Nicole Cook, Stephen Cullen, James Daley, Alexi Gavin, Ren Hu, Emma Kiekebosch-Fitt, Matt Lemcke, Andrew Lowe, Thomas Mcmahon, Luke Mcneilage, Kaitlyn O'Mara, Garth Nagle, Sam Robson, Carolyn Silveri, Joe Stammers Jan 2012

Bioregional Assessment Project: Sydney Metropolitan, Southern Rivers And Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchments: Data Collation Phase To Study The Impact Of Mining Activity And Coal Seam Gas On Environmental Assets, John Bradd, Tim Cohen, Sam Marx, Sol Buckman, Emma Burkhardt, A Clarke, Nicole Cook, Stephen Cullen, James Daley, Alexi Gavin, Ren Hu, Emma Kiekebosch-Fitt, Matt Lemcke, Andrew Lowe, Thomas Mcmahon, Luke Mcneilage, Kaitlyn O'Mara, Garth Nagle, Sam Robson, Carolyn Silveri, Joe Stammers

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This study was commissioned by the Hawkesbury-Nepean (HNCMA), Sydney Metropolitan (SMCMA) and Southern Rivers (SRCMA) Catchment Management Authorities and undertaken by the University of Wollongong to collate existing data and to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential impacts of coal seam gas (CSG) and coal mining activities on environmental assets within the three CMA regions, where environmental assets were defined under three broad themes; water, land and biodiversity. This study formed part of the Australian Federal Government’s Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (SEWPaC) Bioregional Assessment initiative within regions potentially affected by CSG and coal mining ...


C-Amp Dependent Protein Kinase A Inhibitory Activity Of Six Algal Extracts From South Eastern Australia And Their Fatty Acid Composition, Ana Zivanovic, Danielle Skropeta Jan 2012

C-Amp Dependent Protein Kinase A Inhibitory Activity Of Six Algal Extracts From South Eastern Australia And Their Fatty Acid Composition, Ana Zivanovic, Danielle Skropeta

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

c-AMP dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) is an important enzyme involved in the regulation of an increasing number of physiological processes including immune function, cardiovascular disease, memory disorders and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PKA inhibitory activity of a range of algal extracts, along with their fatty acid composition. Six algal species were investigated including two Chlorophyta (Codium dimorphum and Ulva lactuca), two Phaeophyta (Phyllospora comosa and Sargassum sp.) and two Rhodophyta (Prionitis linearis and Corallina vancouveriensis), with the order of PKA inhibitory activity of their extracts identified as follows: brown seaweeds > red ...


Enzyme Activity And Flexibility At Very Low Hydration, V Kurkal, R M. Daniel, John L. Finney, Moeava Tehei, R V. Dunn, Jeremy C. Smith Jan 2005

Enzyme Activity And Flexibility At Very Low Hydration, V Kurkal, R M. Daniel, John L. Finney, Moeava Tehei, R V. Dunn, Jeremy C. Smith

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Recent measurements have demonstrated enzyme activity at hydrations as low as 3%. This raises the question of whether hydration-induced enzyme flexibility is important for activity. Here, to address this, picosecond dynamic neutron scattering experiments are performed on pig liver esterase powders at 0%, 3%, 12%, and 50% hydration by weight and at temperatures ranging from 120 to 300 K. At all temperatures and hydrations, significant quasielastic scattering intensity is found in the protein, indicating the presence of anharmonic, diffusive motion. As the hydration increases, a temperature-dependent dynamical transition appears and strengthens involving additional diffusive motion. The implication of these results ...


Replication Termination In Escherichia Coli: Structure And Anti-Helicase Activity Of The Tus-Ter Complex, Cameron Neylon, Andrew V. Kralicek, Thomas M. Hill, Nicholas E. Dixon Jan 2005

Replication Termination In Escherichia Coli: Structure And Anti-Helicase Activity Of The Tus-Ter Complex, Cameron Neylon, Andrew V. Kralicek, Thomas M. Hill, Nicholas E. Dixon

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The arrest of DNA replication in Escherichia coli is triggered by the encounter of a replisome with a Tus protein-Ter DNA complex. A replication fork can pass through a Tus-Ter complex when traveling in one direction but not the other, and the chromosomal Ter sites are oriented so replication forks can enter, but not exit, the terminus region. The Tus-Ter complex acts by blocking the action of the replicative DnaB helicase, but details of the mechanism are uncertain. One proposed mechanism involves a specific interaction between Tus-Ter and the helicase that prevents further DNA unwinding, while ...


Geomagnetic Activity Forcing Of The Northern Annular Mode Via The Stratosphere, Daniel Palamara, Edward Bryant Jan 2004

Geomagnetic Activity Forcing Of The Northern Annular Mode Via The Stratosphere, Daniel Palamara, Edward Bryant

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

We consider various aspects of the link between solar-modulated geomagnetic activity and the Northern Annular Mode (NAM). Our results indicate that the geomagnetic forcing of atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere is temporally and seasonally restricted, modulated by the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), and reliant on stratosphere-troposphere coupling. When the data are restricted to January values after 1965, for years in which the January QBO is eastwards, the correlation coefficient between the geomagnetic AA index and the NAM is 0.85. These results can account for many of the enigmatic features of Northern Hemisphere circulation.


Physical Activity, Change In Blood Pressure And Predictors Of Mortality In Older South Africans - A 2-Year Follow-Up Study, Karen E. Charlton, Estelle V. Lambert, Judith Kreft Jan 1997

Physical Activity, Change In Blood Pressure And Predictors Of Mortality In Older South Africans - A 2-Year Follow-Up Study, Karen E. Charlton, Estelle V. Lambert, Judith Kreft

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objective. A 2-year follow-up study of a cohort of 200 historically disadvantaged older South Africans was conducted to: (i) characterise current levels of habitual physical activity; (ii) relate physical activity to current risk factors for chronic disease; and (iii) identify risk factors associated with 2-year mortaJity. The baseline sample, drawn in 1993, was found to have a high prevalence of hypertension (71.7%). Research design. Retrospective cohort study. Methods. A baseline sample of 200 persons aged ;:;.. 65 years, resident in the Cape Peninsula, was randomly drawn by means of a two-stage cluster design. Baseline measurements included: anthropometry, waist/hip ratio ...