Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Have You Heard? The Role Of Rumour During Organisational Change Processes, Elizabeth Heathcote, Shane Dawson Jan 2008

Have You Heard? The Role Of Rumour During Organisational Change Processes, Elizabeth Heathcote, Shane Dawson

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This paper discusses the results of a study of communication and rumour among frontline staff during an arganisational change at a large Australian metropolitan university, and relates the findings to the literature and research surrounding rumour during organisational changes. Secondly, it describes the measures undertaken in a second organisational change, as a result of these lessons learned, to minimise the amount of rumour circulating and address their basic content.


Deficiency Of Th17 Cells In Hyper Ige Syndrome Due To Mutations In Stat3, Cindy S. Ma, Gary Y. J Chew, Nicholas Simpson, Archana Priyadarshi, Melanie Wong, Bodo Grimbacher, David A. Fulcher, Stuart Tangye, Matthew C. Cook Jan 2008

Deficiency Of Th17 Cells In Hyper Ige Syndrome Due To Mutations In Stat3, Cindy S. Ma, Gary Y. J Chew, Nicholas Simpson, Archana Priyadarshi, Melanie Wong, Bodo Grimbacher, David A. Fulcher, Stuart Tangye, Matthew C. Cook

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) is a primary immune deficiency characterized by abnormal and devastating susceptibility to a narrow spectrum of infections, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Recent investigations have identified mutations in STAT3 in the majority of HIES patients studied. Despite the identification of the genetic cause of HIES, the mechanisms underlying the pathological features of this disease remain to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate a failure of CD4+ T cells harboring heterozygous STAT3 mutations to generate interleukin 17-secreting (i.e., T helper [Th]17) cells in vivo and in vitro due to a failure to express sufficient ...


Geometrical And Structural Parameterization Of Forest Canopy Radiative Transfer By Lidar Measurements, Lucia Yanez-Rausell, Lucie Homolova, Zbynek Malenovky, Michael E. Schaepman Jan 2008

Geometrical And Structural Parameterization Of Forest Canopy Radiative Transfer By Lidar Measurements, Lucia Yanez-Rausell, Lucie Homolova, Zbynek Malenovky, Michael E. Schaepman

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

A forest canopy is a complex system with a highly structural multi-scale architecture. Physical based radiative transfer (RT) modelling has been shown to be an effective tool for retrieval of vegetation canopy biochemical/physical characteristics from optical remote sensing data. A high spatial resolution RT through a forest canopy requires several geometrical and structural parameters of trees and understory to be specified with an appropriate accuracy. Following attributes on forest canopy are required: i) basic tree allometric parameters (i.e., tree height, stem diameter and length, crown length and projection,simplified crown shape, etc.),ii)parameters describing distribution of green ...


Towards Remote Sensing Of Vegetation Processes, Alexander Ac, Julie Olejnickova, Kumud Bandhu Mishra, Zbynek Malenovky, Jan Hanus, Martin Trtilek, Ladislav Nedbal, Michal Marek Jan 2008

Towards Remote Sensing Of Vegetation Processes, Alexander Ac, Julie Olejnickova, Kumud Bandhu Mishra, Zbynek Malenovky, Jan Hanus, Martin Trtilek, Ladislav Nedbal, Michal Marek

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The latest advances in imaging spectroscopy of vegetation enabled remote sensing (RS) of plant reflected or emitted signals associated with photosynthetic processes as the photoprotective transformation of xanthophyll pigments or the chlorophyll fluorescence (Chl-F). A potential future European Space Agency (ESA) satellite mission FLEX is expected to sense, apart from other parameters, so-called steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence (Chl-FS) signal, which may be potentially used for monitoring of photosynthesis (vegetation canopy carbon assimilation rate). Nevertheless, geometric complexity of plant canopies and signal disturbing atmospheric factors require a proper approach for scaling the information of a single leaf optical properties up to the ...


Scaling Spectroscopic Approaches - From Leaf Albedo To Ecosystems Mapping, Michael E. Schaepman, Mathias Kneubuhler, Harm Bartholomeus, Zbynek Malenovky, Alexander Damm, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub, Andreas Hueni Jan 2008

Scaling Spectroscopic Approaches - From Leaf Albedo To Ecosystems Mapping, Michael E. Schaepman, Mathias Kneubuhler, Harm Bartholomeus, Zbynek Malenovky, Alexander Damm, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub, Andreas Hueni

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Field based spectroscopy for ecological and environmental monitoring has become an indispensable part of complete observational systems as defined in GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems). Spectral scaling approaches are currently ranging from molecular to ecosystem or even biome scales. We discuss the use of field spectroscopy in relation to supporting large-scale ecosystem and ecotone inventorying, in particular the retrieval of biochemical and structural attributes of vegetation. First, attention will be put on using an object-relational database for the structured compilation of field spectral measurements and corresponding metadata. Spectral libraries have been collected over a wide variety of natural ...


Protein Dynamics And Stability: The Distribution Of Atomic Fluctuations In Thermophilic And Mesophilic Dihydrofolate Reductase Derived Using Elastic Incoherent Neutron Scattering, Lars Meinhold, David Clement, Moeava Tehei, Roy Daniel, John L. Finney, Jeremy C. Smith Jan 2008

Protein Dynamics And Stability: The Distribution Of Atomic Fluctuations In Thermophilic And Mesophilic Dihydrofolate Reductase Derived Using Elastic Incoherent Neutron Scattering, Lars Meinhold, David Clement, Moeava Tehei, Roy Daniel, John L. Finney, Jeremy C. Smith

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The temperature dependence of the dynamics of mesophilic and thermophilic dihydrofolate reductase is examined using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. It is demonstrated that the distribution of atomic displacement amplitudes can be derived from the elastic scattering data by assuming a (Weibull) functional form that resembles distributions seen in molecular dynamics simulations. The thermophilic enzyme has a significantly broader distribution than its mesophilic counterpart. Furthermore, although the rate of increase with temperature of the atomic mean-square displacements extracted from the dynamic structure factor is found to be comparable for both enzymes, the amplitudes are found to be slightly larger for the ...


Tumor Suppressor P53 Slides On Dna With Low Friction And High Stability, Anahita Tafvizi, Fang Huang, Jason S. Leith, Alan R. Fersht, Leonid A. Mirny, Antoine M. Van Oijen Jan 2008

Tumor Suppressor P53 Slides On Dna With Low Friction And High Stability, Anahita Tafvizi, Fang Huang, Jason S. Leith, Alan R. Fersht, Leonid A. Mirny, Antoine M. Van Oijen

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The p53 protein, a transcription factor of key importance in tumorigenesis, is suggested to diffuse one-dimensionally along DNA via its C-terminal domain, a process that is proposed to regulate gene activation both positively and negatively. There has been no direct observation of p53 moving along DNA, however, and little is known about the mechanism and rate of its translocation. Here, we use single-molecule techniques to visualize, in real time, the one-dimensional diffusion of p53 along DNA. The one-dimensional diffusion coefficient is measured to be close to the theoretical limit, indicative of movement along a free energy landscape with low activation ...


Modelling Digestive Constraints In Non-Ruminant And Ruminant Foregut-Fermenting Mammals, Adam Munn, W Jürgen Streich, Jurgen Hummel, Marcus Clauss Jan 2008

Modelling Digestive Constraints In Non-Ruminant And Ruminant Foregut-Fermenting Mammals, Adam Munn, W Jürgen Streich, Jurgen Hummel, Marcus Clauss

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

It has been suggested that large foregut-fermenting marsupial herbivores, the kangaroos and their relatives, may be less constrained by food intake limitations as compared with ruminants, due mainly to differences in their digestive morphology and management of ingesta particles through the gut. In particular, as the quality Of forage declines with increasing contents of plant fibre (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin; measured as neutral-detergent fibre, NDF), the tubiform foregut of kangaroos may allow these animals to maintain food intakes more so than ruminants like sheep, which appear to be limited by fibrous bulk filling the foregut and truncating further ingestion. Using ...


Real Simulation, Andrew Bland, Angela Hope, Stephen Prescott, A Sutton, Julie Williams Jan 2008

Real Simulation, Andrew Bland, Angela Hope, Stephen Prescott, A Sutton, Julie Williams

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The use of simulation is gaining momentum in nurse education across the UK. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) has recently investigated the use of simulation in pre-registration nursing.


Rural Cultural Studies: Introduction, David Carter, Kate Darian-Smith, Andrew W. Gorman-Murray Jan 2008

Rural Cultural Studies: Introduction, David Carter, Kate Darian-Smith, Andrew W. Gorman-Murray

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This themed section of Australian Humanities Review seeks to establish the emerging field of 'rural cultural studies' firmly on the agenda of the contemporary humanities and social sciences. This is a timely intervention as rural Australia has featured increasingly over the last decade and especially over the last few years as a topic of national policy attention, public commentary and social analysis. If the notion of a crisis in rural Australia has become something of a one-sided cliché, the changes being faced in non-urban-rural, remote and regional-Australia are nonetheless significant, complex and widespread. For example, one of the topics for ...


Mkikgr, A Monomeric Photoswitchable Fluorescent Protein, Satoshi Habuchi, Hidekazu Tsutsui, Anna B. Kochaniak, Atsushi Miyawaki, Antoine M. Van Oijen Jan 2008

Mkikgr, A Monomeric Photoswitchable Fluorescent Protein, Satoshi Habuchi, Hidekazu Tsutsui, Anna B. Kochaniak, Atsushi Miyawaki, Antoine M. Van Oijen

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The recent demonstration and utilization of fluorescent proteins whose fluorescence can be switched on and off has greatly expanded the toolkit of molecular and cell biology. These photoswitchable proteins have facilitated the characterization of specifically tagged molecular species in the cell and have enabled fluorescence imaging of intracellular structures with a resolution far below the classical diffraction limit of light. Applications are limited, however, by the fast photobleaching, slow photoswitching, and oligomerization typical for photoswitchable proteins currently available. Here, we report the molecular cloning and spectroscopic characterization of mKikGR, a monomeric version of the previously reported KikGR that displays high ...


Art Nurses - Making An Impact, Judith Applegarth, Trudy Dwyer, Lorna Moxham Jan 2008

Art Nurses - Making An Impact, Judith Applegarth, Trudy Dwyer, Lorna Moxham

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Fertility awareness and treatment is becoming an increasing focus in contemporary society. One in six Australian couples experience fertility problems that will impact their ability to conceive. The Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) nurse plays a fundamental role in optimising quality of care and outcomes for clients accessing ART services in Australia. The ART industry in Australia is required to function within the Reproductive Technology Accreditation Committee Code of Practice. From a nursing perspective, one of the key elements of the Code is competence in relation to the management and coordination of ART treatment cycles. This paper examines the literature in ...


Development And Validation Of A Short Questionnaire To Assess Sodium Intake, Karen E. Charlton, Krisela Steyn, Naomi Levitt, Deborah Jonathan, Jabuliswe Zulu, Johanna Nel Jan 2008

Development And Validation Of A Short Questionnaire To Assess Sodium Intake, Karen E. Charlton, Krisela Steyn, Naomi Levitt, Deborah Jonathan, Jabuliswe Zulu, Johanna Nel

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objectives: To develop and validate a short, food frequency questionnaire to assess habitual dietary salt intake in South Africans and to allow classification of individuals according to intakes above or below the maximum recommended intake of 6 g salt/day. Design: Cross-sectional validation study in 324 conveniently sampled men and women. Methods: Repeated 24-hr urinary Na values and 24-hr dietary recalls were obtained on three occasions. Food items consumed by > 5% sample and which contributed e 50 mg Na/serving were included in the questionnaire in 42 categories. A scoring system was devised, based on Na content of one index ...


Surface And Boundary Layer Exchanges Of Volatile Organic Compounds, Nitrogen Oxides And Ozone During The Gabriel Campaign, L Ganzeveld, G Eerdekens, G Feig, H Fischer, H Harder, R Konigstedt, Dagmar Kubistin, M Martinez, F X. Meixner, H A. Scheeren, V Sinha, D Taraborrelli, J Williams, J Vila-Guerau De Arellano, J Lelieveld Jan 2008

Surface And Boundary Layer Exchanges Of Volatile Organic Compounds, Nitrogen Oxides And Ozone During The Gabriel Campaign, L Ganzeveld, G Eerdekens, G Feig, H Fischer, H Harder, R Konigstedt, Dagmar Kubistin, M Martinez, F X. Meixner, H A. Scheeren, V Sinha, D Taraborrelli, J Williams, J Vila-Guerau De Arellano, J Lelieveld

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

We present an evaluation of sources, sinks and turbulent transport of nitrogen oxides, ozone and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the boundary layer over French Guyana and Suriname during the October 2005 GABRIEL campaign by simulating observations with a single-column chemistry and climate model (SCM) along a zonal transect. Simulated concentrations of O3 and NO as well as NO2 photolysis rates over the forest agree well with observations when a small soil-biogenic NO emission flux was applied. This suggests that the photochemical conditions observed during GABRIEL reflect a pristine tropical low-NOx regime. The SCM uses a compensation point approach to ...


Nitric Oxide, A Survival Factor For Lens Epithelial Cells, Coral G. Chamberlain, Kylie Mansfield, Anna Cerra Jan 2008

Nitric Oxide, A Survival Factor For Lens Epithelial Cells, Coral G. Chamberlain, Kylie Mansfield, Anna Cerra

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO) is capable of promoting either cell death or cell survival depending on cell type and experimental conditions. In this study, the possible effects of NO on the viability of lens epithelial cells were investigated in an explant model used previously to identify cellular changes associated with posterior capsule opacification following cataract surgery.

Methods: Rat lens epithelial explants prepared from weanling rats were cultured in a serum-free medium for five days with or without the addition of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), using the inactive enantiomer D-NAME as a control. Alternatively ...


New 14c Ages On Cellulose From Diprotodon Gut Contents: Explorations In Oxidation Chemistry And Combustion, Richard Gillespie, L Keith Fifield, Vladimir Levchenko, Rob Wells Jan 2008

New 14c Ages On Cellulose From Diprotodon Gut Contents: Explorations In Oxidation Chemistry And Combustion, Richard Gillespie, L Keith Fifield, Vladimir Levchenko, Rob Wells

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

We report radiocarbon ages on cellulose isolated from the gut contents of a Diprotodon found at Lake Callabonna, South Australia. The maximum age obtained corresponds to a minimum age of >53,400 BP for this extinct giant marsupial. This is older than, and hence consistent with, the generally accepted Australian megafauna extinction window. We argue that dichromate and other strong oxidants are less selective than chlorite for lignin destruction in wood, and our results suggest that ages approaching laboratory background can be obtained using a repeated pretreatment sequence of chlorite-alkali-acid and measurement of the sometimes discarded 330 C combustion fraction.


A Smoking Cessation Program In The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Stephen Ling, Susanne Wooderson, Karen Rees, Rose Neild, Ian M. R Wright Jan 2008

A Smoking Cessation Program In The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Stephen Ling, Susanne Wooderson, Karen Rees, Rose Neild, Ian M. R Wright

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Background: Parental smoking remains a significant risk to the preterm infant both pre and post delivery. Pharmacologically supported interventions have been previously contraindicated in this group during the perinatal period and during breastfeeding. We designed an evidence-based intervention for use in our high-risk population. This report assesses our outcomes after one year. Method: Questionnaire administered a median of 6 months after intervention. Results: There was no significant difference between those participants who returned the survey (n = 42) versus the group as a whole (n = 70). A total of 33% ceased smoking, p < .0001. If no nonresponders ceased smoking then this gives an overall success rate of 20%, p < .0001. Successful quitters had been smoking for a mean of 11 (SD = 7) years. Self-reported light smokers (< 10 cigarettes per day) were significantly more likely to quit (p < .01). Purchase of follow-on nicotine patches was a significant predictor of success in quitting (p = .02). If relapse occurred, it appeared to happen early and was mainly associated with current stressors. Conclusions: We have designed and applied a multidisciplinary intervention for parents and carers to be used in the perinatal period to decrease the postnatal risk for neonatal intensive care graduates. Our rates of successful smoking cessation are as good as, or better than, many published rates for opportunistic intervention. We suggest that randomised trials be focused on ways to further improve interventions at this time of opportunity for these infants and their families.


Bitou Bush Invasion Is Facilitated By Soil Chemistry Changes Which Inhibit The Growth Of Native Plants, Emilie-Jane Ens, Kris French, John B. Bremner Jan 2008

Bitou Bush Invasion Is Facilitated By Soil Chemistry Changes Which Inhibit The Growth Of Native Plants, Emilie-Jane Ens, Kris French, John B. Bremner

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Bitou bush is a weed of national significance and has been declared as a key threatening process in NSW. We aimed to strengthen the scientific understanding of the mechanisms of invasion by investigating potential allelopathy and indirect soil chemical effects. Our study compared whether extracts of bitou bush leaves, roots and soil had a different effect on the seedling growth of a range of native species compared to comparable extracts from an acacia, the native dominant in the non-invaded system. We found that bitou bush roots released significantly higher concentrations of sesquiterpenes into the soil, compared to the acacia. Corresponding ...


Medication Administration And Final Year Nursing Students, Kerry Reid-Searl, Lorna Moxham, Sandra Walker Jan 2008

Medication Administration And Final Year Nursing Students, Kerry Reid-Searl, Lorna Moxham, Sandra Walker

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The literature continues to report on medication errors occurring within Australian health care facilities every year. For this reason anyone who is admitted into a health care facility and is required to have medications is at risk of being the recipient of an unintentional medication error. Because nurses are primarily the health care professionals who administer medications to patients, students in undergraduate nursing programs are taught that this skill demands absolute vigilance in safety. This paper reports on a PhD study aimed at identifying the experiences of final year undergraduate nursing students when administering medications to patients in the clinical ...


By The Way ... Self-Confidence - The Key To Success?, Geraldine Neal, Teresa Moore, Lorna Moxham, Debbie Owens, Kristy Richardson Jan 2008

By The Way ... Self-Confidence - The Key To Success?, Geraldine Neal, Teresa Moore, Lorna Moxham, Debbie Owens, Kristy Richardson

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

In the past there has been an abundance of psychological theories suggesting women had an innate fear of success - that a lack of success was somehow inherent to their nature (Lips, 1997). These ideas have been totally discredited, but suspicion of woman's ability to achieve still seems to linger in some quarters - not least among women themselves. Women in a variety of educational and career situations continue to express a lack of confidence in their own abilities. Whether innate or constructed, the issues of women's selfbelief and self-confidence (and the closely related ability to easily move into or ...


Acinetobacter Baumannii Mediastinitis After Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Case Report And Literature Review, Elias Lachanas, Periklis Tomos, Nicolaos Sfyras, Spiros Miyakis, Alkiviadis Kostakis Jan 2008

Acinetobacter Baumannii Mediastinitis After Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Case Report And Literature Review, Elias Lachanas, Periklis Tomos, Nicolaos Sfyras, Spiros Miyakis, Alkiviadis Kostakis

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Background: Mediastinitis resulting from surgical site infection may occur in 1% of patients undergoing median sternotomy. Methods: Case report and review of the pertinent English-language literature. Results: We report a case of mediastinitis caused by Acinetobacter baumannii, in a patient with multiple comorbidities who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass. Successful treatment consisted of surgical debridement, reconstruction, and ampicillin-sulbactam. Conclusions: Acinetobacter baumannii should be recognized as a potential causative agent of severe postoperative mediastinitis.