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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles In Cohesionless Soil, Wei-Dong Guo Jan 2008

Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles In Cohesionless Soil, Wei-Dong Guo

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this paper, limiting force profile for laterally loaded rigid piles in sand and is differentiated from the on-pile force profile, from which elastic-plastic solutions are established and presented in explicity expressioins. Nonlinear responses of the piles are characterized by slip depths mobilized from mudline and the pile-tip. At the states of tip-yield and rotation point yield, expressions for some critical depths are developed, which allow the on-pile force profiles to be constructed. The solutions and the expressions are developed concerning a constant subgrade modulus (k) and a linearly incresing modulus with depth (Gibson k), respectively. capitalized on three measurable ...


A Best-First Anytime Algorithm For Computing Optimal Coalition Structures, Chattrakul Sombattheera, Aditya K. Ghose Jan 2008

A Best-First Anytime Algorithm For Computing Optimal Coalition Structures, Chattrakul Sombattheera, Aditya K. Ghose

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This work presents a best-first anytime algorithm for computing optimal coalition structures. The approach is novel in that it generates coalition structures based on coalition values, while existing algorithms base their generation on the structure (members and configurations) of coalitions. With our algorithm, coalition structures are generated by repeatedly choosing the best coalition, as determined using a novel metric called agent's contribution to coalition structure that we define. We have compared the performance of our algorithm against that of Rahwan et al [5] using 20 data distributions. Our results show that our algorithm almost always converges on an optimal ...


The Evolution In Coal Mine Gas Extraction - A Response To Economic, Environmental And Community Pressures, Dennis John Black, Naj Aziz Jan 2008

The Evolution In Coal Mine Gas Extraction - A Response To Economic, Environmental And Community Pressures, Dennis John Black, Naj Aziz

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Effective gas management is vital to the success of the longwall mines operating in the Bulli seam, located in the Southern Sydney Basin, Australia. High gas emissions are characteristic of the region with specific gas emissions typically in the order of 30-45 m3/t. The mines that operate in this area have, since 1980, relied on the use of extensive underground to inseam (UIS) drilling to drain gas both ahead of advancing roadway development and following longwall coal extraction. With the ever increasing production capacity of modern mining machinery the UIS methods are struggling to drain sufficient gas from the ...


Reducing Diffusible Hydrogen Contents Of Shielded Metal Arc Welds Through Addition Of Flux-Oxidizing Ingedients, John Du Plessis, Madeleine Du Toit Jan 2008

Reducing Diffusible Hydrogen Contents Of Shielded Metal Arc Welds Through Addition Of Flux-Oxidizing Ingedients, John Du Plessis, Madeleine Du Toit

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This investigation examined the feasibility of using flux modification in the form of the addition of oxidizing ingredients to reduce the as-deposited hydrogen content of basic-type shielded metal arc welds. Additions of up to 16.3% micaceous iron oxide (MIO) to the flux formulation of an E7018-1 type electrode lowered the diffusible weld hydrogen content by approximately 70%. This can be attributed to the formation of oxygen, which lowers the partial pressure of hydrogen in the arc atmosphere, and the reaction of FeO (formed on dissociation of MIO) with hydrogen. The partitioning of deoxidizing elements (manganese and silicon) between the ...


Perelman's L-Distrance, V.-M Wheeler Jan 2008

Perelman's L-Distrance, V.-M Wheeler

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This talk is a preparation of the necessary tools for proving the non-collapsing results. The L-length defined by Perelman is the analog of an energy path, but defined in a Riemannian manifold context. The length is used to define the l reduced distance and later on, the reduced volume. So far the properties of the l-length have two applications in the proof of the Poincare conjecture. Associated with the notion of reduced volume, they are used to prove non-collapsing results and also to study the K- solutions.


Monotonicity Of Reduced Volume; Local Non-Collapsing, V.-M Wheeler Jan 2008

Monotonicity Of Reduced Volume; Local Non-Collapsing, V.-M Wheeler

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The talk is divided in two parts. In the first one we give the definition of the reduced volume and by means of reduced length we prove it to be non-increasing in backwards time.


Two Colour Nonlocal Vector Solitary Waves With Angular Momentum In Nematic Liquid Crystals, Gaetano Assanto, Noel F. Symth, A. L. Worthy Jan 2008

Two Colour Nonlocal Vector Solitary Waves With Angular Momentum In Nematic Liquid Crystals, Gaetano Assanto, Noel F. Symth, A. L. Worthy

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The propagation and interaction of two solitary waves with angular momentum in bulk nematic liquid crystals, termed nematicons, have been studied in the nonlocal limit. These two spinning solitary waves are based on two different wavelengths of light and so are referred to as two-color nematicons. Under suitable boundary conditions, the two nematicons can form a bound state in which they spin about each other. This bound state is found to be stable to the emission of diffractive radiation as the nematicons evolve. In addition this bound state shows walk-off due to dispersion. Using an approximate method based on the ...


A Low-Complexity Iterative Channel Estimation And Detection Technique For Doubly Selective Channels, Qinghua Guo, Li Ping Jan 2008

A Low-Complexity Iterative Channel Estimation And Detection Technique For Doubly Selective Channels, Qinghua Guo, Li Ping

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this paper, we propose a low-complexity iterative joint channel estimation, detection and decoding technique for doubly selective channels. The key is a segment-by-segment frequency domain equalization (FDE) strategy under the assumption that channel is approximately static within a short segment. Guard gaps (for cyclic prefixing or zero padding) are not required between adjacent segments, which avoids the power and spectral overheads due to the use of cyclic prefix (CP) in the conventional FDE technique. A low-complexity bi-directional channel estimation algorithm is also developed to exploit correlation information of time-varying channels. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of ...


Impact Of Signaling Schemes On Iterative Linear Minimum-Mean-Square-Error Detection, Li Ping, Jun Tong, Xiaojun Yuan, Qinghua Guo Jan 2008

Impact Of Signaling Schemes On Iterative Linear Minimum-Mean-Square-Error Detection, Li Ping, Jun Tong, Xiaojun Yuan, Qinghua Guo

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this paper, we study the iterative detection problem for a coded system with multi-ary modulation. We show that, with iterative linear minimum-mean-square-error (LMMSE) detection, superposition coded modulation (SCM) can provide performance superior to that with other traditional signaling schemes used in trellis coded modulation (TCM) and bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM). This finding provides a useful guideline for system design considering inter-symbol interference (ISI) and other forms of interference. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the iterative LMMSE detection with different signaling schemes. © 2008 IEEE.


Single- And Multi-Carrier Idma Schemes With Cyclic Prefixing And Zero Padding Techniques, Qinghua Guo, Xiaojun Yuan, Li Ping Jan 2008

Single- And Multi-Carrier Idma Schemes With Cyclic Prefixing And Zero Padding Techniques, Qinghua Guo, Xiaojun Yuan, Li Ping

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this paper, we investigate single-carrier (SC) and multi-carrier IDMA schemes with cyclic prefixing (CP) and zero padding (ZP) techniques. These schemes are called SC-IDMA-CP, SC-IDMA-ZP, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-IDMA-CP and OFDM-IDMA-ZP, respectively. By exploiting the circulant property of channel matrices, the multi-user detection of these schemes can be efficiently realised with per-user complexity independent of the number of users and the length of inter-symbol interference (ISI) channels. We show the potential advantages of ZP-based schemes in power efficiency and convergence speed. Simulation results are provided to compare the four schemes. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Lmmse Turbo Equalization Based On Factor Graphs, Qinghua Guo, Li Ping Jan 2008

Lmmse Turbo Equalization Based On Factor Graphs, Qinghua Guo, Li Ping

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this paper, a vector-form factor graph representation is derived for intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. The resultant graphs have a tree-structure that avoids the short cycle problem in existing graph approaches. Based on a joint Gaussian approximation, we establish a connection between the LLR (log-likelihood ratio) estimator for a linear system driven by binary inputs and the LMMSE (linear minimum mean-square error) estimator for a linear system driven by Gaussian inputs. This connection facilitates the application of the recently proposed Gaussian message passing technique to the cycle-free graphs for ISI channels. We also show the equivalence between the proposed approach ...


Evolution Analysis Of Low-Cost Iterative Equalization In Coded Linear Systems With Cyclic Prefixes, Xiaojun Yuan, Qinghua Guo, Xiaodong Wang, Li Ping Jan 2008

Evolution Analysis Of Low-Cost Iterative Equalization In Coded Linear Systems With Cyclic Prefixes, Xiaojun Yuan, Qinghua Guo, Xiaodong Wang, Li Ping

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper is concerned with the low-cost iterative equalization/detection principles for coded linear systems with cyclic prefixes. Turbo frequency-domain-equalization (FDE) is applied to systems that may contain the joint effect of multiple-access interference (MAI), cross-antenna interference (CAI) and inter-symbol interference (ISI). We develop an SNK-variance evolution technique for the performance evaluation of the proposed systems. Numerical results in various channel environments demonstrate excellent agreement between the predicted and simulated system performance. © 2008 IEEE.


Performance Analysis Of Multi-Ary Systems With Iterative Linear Minimum-Mean-Square-Error Detection, Li Ping, Jun Tong, Xiaojun Yuan, Qinghua Guo Jan 2008

Performance Analysis Of Multi-Ary Systems With Iterative Linear Minimum-Mean-Square-Error Detection, Li Ping, Jun Tong, Xiaojun Yuan, Qinghua Guo

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper is concerned with coded multi-ary systems over linear channels. Based on a semi-analytical evolution technique, the impact of signaling schemes on the performance of low-cost iterative linear minimum-mean-square-error (LMMSE) detection is studied. It is shown that superposition coded modulation (SCM) maximizes the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of LMMSE detectors. Consequently, SCM may potentially outperform other conventional signaling schemes when LMMSE detectors are used. Numerical examples are provided to verify the theoretical analysis. © 2008 IEEE.


Implementing Analytical Geometric And Penetration Response Correction For Keel-Edge Pinhole Spect Image Reconstruction, Xuezhu Zhang, Qiusheng Dai, Yujin Qi Jan 2008

Implementing Analytical Geometric And Penetration Response Correction For Keel-Edge Pinhole Spect Image Reconstruction, Xuezhu Zhang, Qiusheng Dai, Yujin Qi

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The collimator response compensation is very important in high-resolution pinhole SPECT imaging for resolution recovery and quantitative imaging. In this study the pinhole collimator response of the keel-edge aperture was investigated in terms of the geometric response function and penetration response function (GPRF). An approximate numerical method was proposed to implement the geometric and penetration response correction (GPRC) for keel-edge pinhole SPECT image reconstruction. A lookup table for the GPRC was calculated and then was utilized in the 3D pinhole iterative OSEM reconstruction procedure. The performance of the image reconstruction with the GPRC was evaluated using both the phantom and ...


Performance Analysis Of Ofdm-Idma Systems With Peak-Power Limitation, Jun Tong, Qinghua Guo, Li Ping Jan 2008

Performance Analysis Of Ofdm-Idma Systems With Peak-Power Limitation, Jun Tong, Qinghua Guo, Li Ping

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper is concerned with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing interleave-division multiple-access (OFDM-IDMA) systems over frequency-selective fading channels. Deliberate clipping is applied to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of each user's transmitted signal. An iterative multiuser detection (MUD) technique is developed to recover the performance loss due to clipping. A semi-analytical signal-to- noise ratio (SNR) evolution technique is proposed, which can provide quick and accurate prediction of the iterative MUD performance. Numerical results show that the performance of OFDM-IDMA is not sensitive to the frequency selectivity of channels, and OFDM-IDMA is more power-efficient than other alternative multi-carrier transmission techniques. © 2008 ...


Low-Complexity Iterative Detection In Multi-User Mimo Isi Channels, Xiaojun Yuan, Qinghua Guo, Li Ping Jan 2008

Low-Complexity Iterative Detection In Multi-User Mimo Isi Channels, Xiaojun Yuan, Qinghua Guo, Li Ping

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

We propose a low-cost detection strategy for multi-user multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems with inter-symbol interference (ISI). The cyclic prefix (CP) technique is assumed. The proposed detection algorithm is derived in a very concise manner based on some elegant properties of circulant matrices. We show that multi-user detection and equalization can be carried out jointly and efficiently. © 2007 IEEE.


Network Structure, Ict Use And Performance Attitudes Of Knowledge Workers, Kon Shing Kenneth Chung, Liaquat Hossain Jan 2008

Network Structure, Ict Use And Performance Attitudes Of Knowledge Workers, Kon Shing Kenneth Chung, Liaquat Hossain

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this study, we examine the effect of social network structure and information and communication technologies (ICT) use on performance attitudes of knowledge-intensive workers in dispersed occupational communities. We first develop a theoretical framework and use it to develop a valid and reliable survey instrument. Secondly, we apply structural hole measures (constraint and efficiency) for exploring the association with ICT use and attitudes to performance. Empirical results suggest that density of knowledge workers' professional network is positively associated with ICT use whereas network efficiency is negatively correlated with ICT use at both task and communication-structure level. The findings show that ...


On Generalization Of Constitutive Models From Two Dimensions To Three Dimensions, N Khalili, M D. Liu Jan 2008

On Generalization Of Constitutive Models From Two Dimensions To Three Dimensions, N Khalili, M D. Liu

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this paper, a study is made of the generalization of constitutive models for geomaterials from two-dimensional stress and strain states to three-dimensional stress and strain states. Existing methods of model generalization are reviewed and their deficiencies are highlighted. A new method is proposed based on geometries of the model imprints on two normal planes. Using the proposed method, various three dimensional failure criterions suitable for geomaterials are implemented directly into a two dimensional model and the generalized model is identical to its original form for the axially symmetric condition. To demonstrate the application of the proposed method, the Modified ...


Joint Linear Interleaver Design For Concatenated Zigzag Codes, D S. Lin, S Tong, S Q. Li Jan 2008

Joint Linear Interleaver Design For Concatenated Zigzag Codes, D S. Lin, S Tong, S Q. Li

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The design of a class of well-structured low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, namely linear interleaver based concatenated zigzag (LICZ) codes, is investigated. With summary distances as the design metric, short LICZ codes with large minimum distances can be constructed. Moreover, an efficient cycle-based method is proposed to compute the minimum distances of LICZ codes. Simulation results show that LICZ codes outperform both CZ codes with random interleavers and LDPC codes by the progressive edge growth algorithm.


Tangential Sphere Bounds On The Ensemble Performance Of Ml Decoded Gallager Codes Via Their Exact Ensemble Distance Spectrum, Sheng Tong Jan 2008

Tangential Sphere Bounds On The Ensemble Performance Of Ml Decoded Gallager Codes Via Their Exact Ensemble Distance Spectrum, Sheng Tong

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

An efficient numerical approach to the exact ensemble distance spectrum of Gallager codes has been developed by evaluating powers of polynomials. With the exact ensemble distance spectrum of Gallager codes, tangential sphere upper bounds on their maximum likelihood (ML) decoding performance over binary input AWGN channels are investigated. Numerical results indicate improved bounds have been obtained, better than Sason and Shamai's results (which are based on Gallager's upper bound on the ensemble distance spectrum), especially in the error floor region. Furthermore, some critical properties of Gallager codes, including typical minimum distance and the performance tradeoff in the waterfall ...


The Chern Character Of Semifinite Spectral Triples, Alan L. Carey, John Phillips, Adam C. Rennie, Fyodor A. Sukochev Jan 2008

The Chern Character Of Semifinite Spectral Triples, Alan L. Carey, John Phillips, Adam C. Rennie, Fyodor A. Sukochev

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In previous work we generalised both the odd and even local index formula of Connes and Moscovici to the case of spectral triples for a ∗-subalgebra A of a general semifinite von Neumann algebra. Our proofs are novel even in the setting of the original theorem and rely on the introduction of a function valued cocycle (called the resolvent cocycle) which is 'almost' a (b,B)-cocycle in the cyclic cohomology of A. In this paper we show that this resolvent cocycle 'almost' represents the Chern character, and assuming analytic continuation properties for zeta functions, we show that the associated ...


Orbifolds Are Not Commutative Geometries, Adam C. Rennie, Joseph C. Varilly Jan 2008

Orbifolds Are Not Commutative Geometries, Adam C. Rennie, Joseph C. Varilly

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this note we show that the crucial orientation condition for commutative geometries fails for the natural commutative spectral triple of an orbifold M/G.


Regularized Discriminative Direction For Shape Difference Analysis, Luping Zhou, Richard Hartley, Lei Wang, Paulette Lieby, Nick Barnes Jan 2008

Regularized Discriminative Direction For Shape Difference Analysis, Luping Zhou, Richard Hartley, Lei Wang, Paulette Lieby, Nick Barnes

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The "discriminative direction" has been proven useful to re- veal the subtle difference between two anatomical shape classes. When a shape moves along this direction, its deformation will best manifest the class difference detected by a kernel classifier. However, we observe that such a direction cannot maintain a shape's "anatomical" correctness, in- troducing spurious difference. To overcome this drawback, we develop a regularized discriminative direction by requiring a shape to conform to its population distribution when it deforms along the discriminative direction. Instead of iterative optimization, an analytic solution is pro- vided to directly work out this direction. Experimental ...


Psdboost: Matrix-Generation Linear Programming For Positive Semidefinite Matrices Learning, Chunhua Shen, Alan Welsh, Lei Wang Jan 2008

Psdboost: Matrix-Generation Linear Programming For Positive Semidefinite Matrices Learning, Chunhua Shen, Alan Welsh, Lei Wang

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this work, we consider the problem of learning a positive semidefinite matrix. The critical issue is how to preserve positive semidefiniteness during the course of learning. Our algorithm is mainly inspired by LPBoost [1] and the general greedy convex optimization framework of Zhang [2]. We demonstrate the essence of the algorithm, termed PSDBoost (positive semidefinite Boosting), by focusing on a few different applications in machine learning. The proposed PSDBoost algorithm extends traditional Boosting algorithms in that its parameter is a positive semidefinite matrix with trace being one instead of a classifier. PSDBoost is based on the observation that any ...


Numerical Analysis Of Roll Deflection For Sendzimir Mill, H L. Yu, X H. Liu, G T. Lee, X W. Li, H D. Park Jan 2008

Numerical Analysis Of Roll Deflection For Sendzimir Mill, H L. Yu, X H. Liu, G T. Lee, X W. Li, H D. Park

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The present work introduces a new type of numerical analyzing method: the contact element method with two relative coordinates (CEM). The main characteristic of the procedure is elements meshing on the basis of the contact length between objects and that each element has two relative coordinates. The ordinary expression of this procedure is DX[CXY(i)]=D Y[CYX(i)]. Through this method, the CEM function of the 20-high Sendzimir mill and the deflection function expression of every roll are obtained. A computational software SM4SM for the Sendzimir mill has been developed, by which the deflection condition of rolls S ...


Analysis Of Roll Gap Pressure In Sendzimir Mill By Fem, Hai-Liang Yu, Xiang-Hua Liu, Chao Wang, Hae-Doo Park Jan 2008

Analysis Of Roll Gap Pressure In Sendzimir Mill By Fem, Hai-Liang Yu, Xiang-Hua Liu, Chao Wang, Hae-Doo Park

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The acting force on the roll system of Sendzimir mill was analyzed using 3D FEM. The roll gap pressure distribution and the acting force between rolls S and O, rolls O and I, rolls O and J, rolls I and A, rolls I and B, as well as rolls J and B were analyzed. The results showed that the roll gap pressure mainly affected the roll surface layer, 50 mm for backup rolls the roll gap pressure distribution is of double peaks among the work roll, the 1st intermediate roll (IMR), and the 2nd IMR; the maximum value of the ...


Adaboost With Svm-Based Component Classifiers, Xuchun Li, Lei Wang, Eric Sung Jan 2008

Adaboost With Svm-Based Component Classifiers, Xuchun Li, Lei Wang, Eric Sung

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The use of SVM (Support Vector Machine) as component classifier in AdaBoost may seem like going against the grain of the Boosting principle since SVM is not an easy classifier to train. Moreover, Wickramaratna et al. [2001. Performance degradation in boosting. In: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Multiple Classifier Systems, pp. 11-21] show that AdaBoost with strong component classifiers is not viable. In this paper, we shall show that AdaBoost incorporating properly designed RBFSVM (SVM with the RBF kernel) component classifiers, which we call AdaBoostSVM, can perform as well as SVM. Furthermore, the proposed AdaBoostSVM demonstrates better generalization ...


Semifinite Spectral Triples Associated With Graph C*-Algebras, Alan L. Carey, John Phillips, Adam Rennie Jan 2008

Semifinite Spectral Triples Associated With Graph C*-Algebras, Alan L. Carey, John Phillips, Adam Rennie

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

We review the recent construction of semifinite spectral triples for graph C^*-algebras. These examples have inspired many other developments and we review some of these such as the relation between the semifinite index and the Kasparov product, examples of noncommutative manifolds, and an index theorem in twisted cyclic theory using a KMS state.


A Novel Dynamic Absorber Using Enhanced Magnetorheological Elastomers For Powertrain Vibration Control, Nong Zhang, Nga Hoang, Haiping Du Jan 2008

A Novel Dynamic Absorber Using Enhanced Magnetorheological Elastomers For Powertrain Vibration Control, Nong Zhang, Nga Hoang, Haiping Du

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper presents a novel Adaptive Tuned Vibration Absorber (ATVA) using the enhanced magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) for powertrain vibration reduction. The MRE material used in this application includes micro-sized iron particles enhanced by adding nano-sized magnetic powders. With the enhancement, MRE's elastic modulus significantly increases due to the MR effect. In the new ATVA, the MRE plays a role as a torsional spring whose stiffness coefficient can be varied with an external magnetic field. Additionally, this ATVA could operate in shear-squeeze mode rather than shear mode. Thus, the frequency range is much wider than that of general MREs. Such ...


She-Pwm Switching Strategies For Active Neutral Point Clamped Multilevel Converters, Sridhar R. Pulikanti, Mohamed S. A Dahidah, Vassilios G. Agelidis Jan 2008

She-Pwm Switching Strategies For Active Neutral Point Clamped Multilevel Converters, Sridhar R. Pulikanti, Mohamed S. A Dahidah, Vassilios G. Agelidis

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The main drawback of the diode neutral-point-clamped (NPC) converter is the unequal loss distribution among the semiconductor devices which confines the maximum output power and the switching frequency. To address this drawback, switching state redundancy is required to evenly distribute the losses and can be achieved differently as the level of the converter changes. For instance, the three-level active NPC (3L-ANPC) converter has switching state redundancy and is derived from the 3L-NPC converter by adding an anti-parallel switch to the clamping diodes; in the 4L-ANPC converter, the combination of a 2L converter and a 3L-ANPC converter is used; in a ...