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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Learning Set Representations For Lwir In-Scene Atmospheric Compensation, Nicholas M. Westing, Kevin C. Gross, Brett J. Borghetti, Jacob A. Martin, Joseph Meola Apr 2020

Learning Set Representations For Lwir In-Scene Atmospheric Compensation, Nicholas M. Westing, Kevin C. Gross, Brett J. Borghetti, Jacob A. Martin, Joseph Meola

Faculty Publications

Atmospheric compensation of long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imagery is investigated in this article using set representations learned by a neural network. This approach relies on synthetic at-sensor radiance data derived from collected radiosondes and a diverse database of measured emissivity spectra sampled at a range of surface temperatures. The network loss function relies on LWIR radiative transfer equations to update model parameters. Atmospheric predictions are made on a set of diverse pixels extracted from the scene, without knowledge of blackbody pixels or pixel temperatures. The network architecture utilizes permutation-invariant layers to predict a set representation, similar to the work performed ...


Charros: How Mexican Cowboys Are Remapping Race And American Identity, Andrew Sluyter Jan 2020

Charros: How Mexican Cowboys Are Remapping Race And American Identity, Andrew Sluyter

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Morphologic Adjustments Of Actively Evolving Highly Curved Neck Cutoffs, Derek Richards, Kory Konsoer Dec 2019

Morphologic Adjustments Of Actively Evolving Highly Curved Neck Cutoffs, Derek Richards, Kory Konsoer

Faculty Publications

Neck cutoffs and their resultant oxbow lakes are important and prominent features of riverine landscapes. Detailed field-based research focusing on the morphologic evolution of neck cutoffs is currently insufficient to fully characterize cutoff evolution. High-resolution bathymetric data were collected over 3 years for the purpose of determining channel morphology and morphologic change on three actively evolving neck cutoffs. Results indicate the following general trends in morphologic adjustment: (1) a longitudinal bar in the upstream meander limb that develops near the entrance to the abandoned bend; (2) a deep scour hole in the downstream meander limb immediately downstream of the cutoff ...


The Future Of Reef Ecosystems In The Gulf Of Mexico: Insights From Coupled Climate Model Simulations And Ancient Hot-House Reefs, Kristine L. Delong Nov 2019

The Future Of Reef Ecosystems In The Gulf Of Mexico: Insights From Coupled Climate Model Simulations And Ancient Hot-House Reefs, Kristine L. Delong

Faculty Publications

emperatures (SST), salinity, carbonate chemistry, and acidity. Over the last half-century, some reef communities have been disappearing at an alarming pace. This study focuses on the Gulf of Mexico, where the majority of shallow coral reefs are reported to be in poor or fair condition. We analyze the RCP8.5 ensemble of the Community Earth System Model v1.2 to identify monthly-to-decadal trends in Gulf of Mexico SST. Secondly, we examine projected changes in ocean pH, carbonate saturation state, and salinity in the same coupled model simulations. We find that the joint impacts of predicted higher temperatures and changes in ...


Pacts 1.0: A Crowdsourced Reporting Standard For Paleoclimate Data, Kristine Delong Oct 2019

Pacts 1.0: A Crowdsourced Reporting Standard For Paleoclimate Data, Kristine Delong

Faculty Publications

The progress of science is tied to the standardization of measurements, instruments, and data. This is especially true in the Big Data age, where analyzing large data volumes critically hinges on the data being standardized. Accordingly, the lack of community-sanctioned data standards in paleoclimatology has largely precluded the benefits of Big Data advances in the field. Building upon recent efforts to standardize the format and terminology of paleoclimate data, this article describes the Paleoclimate Community reporTing Standard (PaCTS), a crowdsourced reporting standard for such data. PaCTS captures which information should be included when reporting paleoclimate data, with the goal of ...


Understanding The Spatiotemporal Development Of Human Settlement In Hurricane-Prone Areas On The Us Atlantic And Gulf Coasts Using Nighttime Remote Sensing, Xiao Huang, Cuizhen Wang, Junyu Lu Oct 2019

Understanding The Spatiotemporal Development Of Human Settlement In Hurricane-Prone Areas On The Us Atlantic And Gulf Coasts Using Nighttime Remote Sensing, Xiao Huang, Cuizhen Wang, Junyu Lu

Faculty Publications

Hurricanes, as one of the most devastating natural hazards, have posed a great threat to people in coastal areas. A better understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of human settlement in hurricane-prone areas largely benefits sustainable development. This study uses the nighttime light (NTL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) to examine human settlement development in areas with different levels of hurricane proneness from 1992 to 2013. The DMSP/OLS NTL data from six satellites were intercalibrated and desaturated with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) optical ...


Understanding The Spatiotemporal Development Of Human Settlement In Hurricane-Prone Areas On The Us Atlantic And Gulf Coasts Using Nighttime Remote Sensing, Xiao Huang, Cuizhen Wang, Junyu Lu Oct 2019

Understanding The Spatiotemporal Development Of Human Settlement In Hurricane-Prone Areas On The Us Atlantic And Gulf Coasts Using Nighttime Remote Sensing, Xiao Huang, Cuizhen Wang, Junyu Lu

Faculty Publications

Hurricanes, as one of the most devastating natural hazards, have posed a great threat to people in coastal areas. A better understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of human settlement in hurricane-prone areas largely benefits sustainable development. This study uses the nighttime light (NTL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) to examine human settlement development in areas with different levels of hurricane proneness from 1992 to 2013. The DMSP/OLS NTL data from six satellites were intercalibrated and desaturated with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) optical ...


Shelf Inputs And Lateral Transport Of Mn, Co, And Ce In The Western North Pacific Ocean, Peter L. Morton, William M. Landing, Alan M. Shiller, Thomas D. Kelly, Michael Bizimis, John R. Donat, Eric H. De Carlo, Joseph Shacat Sep 2019

Shelf Inputs And Lateral Transport Of Mn, Co, And Ce In The Western North Pacific Ocean, Peter L. Morton, William M. Landing, Alan M. Shiller, Thomas D. Kelly, Michael Bizimis, John R. Donat, Eric H. De Carlo, Joseph Shacat

Faculty Publications

The margin of the western North Pacific Ocean releases redox-active elements like Mn, Co, and Ce into the water column to undergo further transformation through oxide formation, scavenging, and reductive dissolution. Near the margin, the upper ocean waters enriched in these elements are characterized by high dissolved oxygen, low salinity, and low temperature, and are a source of the North Pacific Intermediate Water. High dissolved concentrations are observed across the Western Subarctic Gyre, with a rapid decrease in concentrations away from the margin and across the subarctic-subtropical front. The particulate concentrations of Mn, Co, and Ce are also high in ...


Benefit Sharing In The Arctic: A Systematic View, Andrey Petrov, Maria S. Tysiachniouk Sep 2019

Benefit Sharing In The Arctic: A Systematic View, Andrey Petrov, Maria S. Tysiachniouk

Faculty Publications

Benefit sharing is a key concept for sustainable development in communities affected by the extractive industry. In the Arctic, where extractive activities have been growing, a comprehensive and systematic understanding of benefit sharing frameworks is especially critical. The goal of this paper is to develop a synthesis and advance the theory of benefit sharing frameworks in the Arctic. Based on previously published research, a review of literature, a desktop analysis of national legislation, as well as by capitalizing on the original case studies, this paper analyzes benefit sharing arrangements and develops the typology of benefit sharing regimes in the Arctic ...


Assessing Natural And Mechanical Dune Performance In A Post-Hurricane Environment, Jean T. Ellis, Mayra Alejandra Roman-Rivera May 2019

Assessing Natural And Mechanical Dune Performance In A Post-Hurricane Environment, Jean T. Ellis, Mayra Alejandra Roman-Rivera

Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study is to document the geomorphic evolution of a mechanical dune over approximately one year following its installation and compare it to the recovery of a natural dune following the impact of Hurricane Matthew (2016). During the study period, the dunes’ integrity was tested by wave and wind events, including king tides, and a second hurricane (Irma, 2017), at the end of the study period. Prior to the impact of the second hurricane, the volumetric increase of the mechanical and natural dune was 32% and 75%, respectively, suggesting that scraping alone is not the optimal protection ...


Monitoring 40-Year Lake Area Changes Of The Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau, Using Landsat Time Series, Huiying Li, Dehua Mao, Xiaoyan Li, Zongming Wang, Cuizhen Wang Feb 2019

Monitoring 40-Year Lake Area Changes Of The Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau, Using Landsat Time Series, Huiying Li, Dehua Mao, Xiaoyan Li, Zongming Wang, Cuizhen Wang

Faculty Publications

Areal changes of high-altitude inland lakes on the Qaidam Basin (QB) of the Tibetan Plateau are reliable indicators of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. Due to the physical difficulties to access, our knowledge of the spatial patterns and processes of climatic and human impacts on the Basin has been limited. Focusing on lake area changes, this study used long-term Landsat images to map the patterns of lakes and glaciers in 1977, 1990, 2000, and 2015, and to monitor the spatially explicit changes of lakes between 1977 and 2015. Results revealed that the total number of lakes (area > 0.5 km2 ...


Review Of The Herds Shot Round The World: Native Breeds And The British Empire, 1800—1900, By Rebecca Woods, Andrew Sluyter Jan 2019

Review Of The Herds Shot Round The World: Native Breeds And The British Empire, 1800—1900, By Rebecca Woods, Andrew Sluyter

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Student Led Area Measurement Assessments Using Virtual Globes And Pictometry Web-Based Interface Within An Undergraduate Spatial Science Curriculum, David Kulhavy, I-Kuai Hung, Daniel Unger, Yanli Zhang Jan 2019

Student Led Area Measurement Assessments Using Virtual Globes And Pictometry Web-Based Interface Within An Undergraduate Spatial Science Curriculum, David Kulhavy, I-Kuai Hung, Daniel Unger, Yanli Zhang

Faculty Publications

The use of Virtual Globes and Pictometry continues to expand and develop in undergraduate spatial science education. Spatial science undergraduates measured the area of 30 rectangles on the earth’s surface and compared them to Pictometry hyperspectral imagery measurements within a web-based interface and the Google Earth interface compared to ArcGIS Explorer, Map Developers and ArcMap using the ArcMap 10.5.2 interface. An analysis of variance of the absolute mean area errors (p-value of 0.009271) concluded the accuracy of the five area measurements were statistically different at the 95% confidence interval. A Tukey pair-wise test found that the ...


Mapping Soil Alkalinity And Salinity In Northern Songnen Plain, China With The Hj-1 Hyperspectral Imager Data And Partial Least Squares Regression, Lin Bai, Cuizhen Wang, Shuying Zang, Changshan Wu, Jinming Luo, Yuexiang Wu Nov 2018

Mapping Soil Alkalinity And Salinity In Northern Songnen Plain, China With The Hj-1 Hyperspectral Imager Data And Partial Least Squares Regression, Lin Bai, Cuizhen Wang, Shuying Zang, Changshan Wu, Jinming Luo, Yuexiang Wu

Faculty Publications

In arid and semi-arid regions, identifying and monitoring of soil alkalinity and salinity are in urgently need for preventing land degradation and maintaining ecological balances. In this study, physicochemical, statistical, and spectral analysis revealed that potential of hydrogen (pH) and electrical conductivity (EC) characterized the saline-alkali soils and were sensitive to the visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) wavelengths. On the basis of soil pH, EC, and spectral data, the partial least squares regression (PLSR) models for estimating soil alkalinity and salinity were constructed. The R2 values for soil pH and EC models were 0.77 and 0.48, and ...


Prediction Of Soil Formation As A Function Of Age Using The Percolation Theory Approach, Markus Egli, Allen G. Hunt, Dennis Dahms, Gerald Raab, Curdin Derungs, Salvatore Raimondi, Fang Yu Sep 2018

Prediction Of Soil Formation As A Function Of Age Using The Percolation Theory Approach, Markus Egli, Allen G. Hunt, Dennis Dahms, Gerald Raab, Curdin Derungs, Salvatore Raimondi, Fang Yu

Faculty Publications

Recent modeling and comparison with field results showed that soil formation by chemical weathering, either from bedrock or unconsolidated material, is limited largely by solute transport. Chemical weathering rates are proportional to solute velocities. Nonreactive solute transport described by non-Gaussian transport theory appears compatible with soil formation rates. This change in understanding opens new possibilities for predicting soil production and depth across orders of magnitude of time scales. Percolation theory for modeling the evolution of soil depth and production was applied to new and published data for alpine and Mediterranean soils. The first goal was to check whether the empirical ...


Impacts Of Agricultural Expansion (1910s-2010s) On Water Cycle In The Songneng Plain, Northeast China, Lijuan Zhang, Cuizhen Wang, Xiaxiang Li, Hongwen Zhang, Wenliang Li, Lanqi Jiang Jul 2018

Impacts Of Agricultural Expansion (1910s-2010s) On Water Cycle In The Songneng Plain, Northeast China, Lijuan Zhang, Cuizhen Wang, Xiaxiang Li, Hongwen Zhang, Wenliang Li, Lanqi Jiang

Faculty Publications

Agricultural expansion is one of the primary land use changes on the Earth’s surface. The Songnen Plain in Northeast China is renowned for its Black Soil and is one of the most important agricultural regions of this country. In the last century, its population increased 20-fold and excessive areas of grassland were cultivated. Based on a series of decadal land use/land cover data sets in the plain (1910s–2010s), this study simulated the water balance in each decade using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and assessed the water effects of centurial agricultural expansion. Six variables were ...


Non-Gnss Smartphone Pedestrian Navigation Using Barometric Elevation And Digital Map-Matching, Daniel Broyles, Kyle J. Kauffman, John F. Raquet, Piotr Smagowski Jul 2018

Non-Gnss Smartphone Pedestrian Navigation Using Barometric Elevation And Digital Map-Matching, Daniel Broyles, Kyle J. Kauffman, John F. Raquet, Piotr Smagowski

Faculty Publications

Pedestrian navigation in outdoor environments where global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are unavailable is a challenging problem. Existing technologies that have attempted to address this problemoften require external reference signals or specialized hardware, the extra size,weight, power, and cost of which are unsuitable for many applications. This article presents a real-time, self-contained outdoor navigation application that uses only the existing sensors on a smartphone in conjunction with a preloaded digital elevation map. The core algorithm implements a particle filter, which fuses sensor data with a stochastic pedestrian motion model to predict the user’s position. The smartphone’s barometric ...


Spatial Assessment Of Water Quality With Urbanization In 2007-2015, Shanghai, China, Huixuan Li, Cuizhen Wang, Xiao Huang, Andrew Hug Jun 2018

Spatial Assessment Of Water Quality With Urbanization In 2007-2015, Shanghai, China, Huixuan Li, Cuizhen Wang, Xiao Huang, Andrew Hug

Faculty Publications

Shanghai, as one of the megacities and economic centers of China, is facing critical water quality challenges. This study analyzed the impact of urbanization on the water quality in Shanghai, from 2007 to 2015, using remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Five measurements of water quality were employed: total discharged wastewater volume, general water quality levels, dissolved oxygen (DO), permanganate, and ammonia nitrogen. The impacts of urban land-use changes on water quality were examined. An urban index was extracted from satellite image classification and was used to quantify the anthropogenic activities. In the watershed level, unit watersheds ...


Assessing Relevance Of Tweets For Risk Communication, Xiaohui Liu, Bandana Kar, Chaoyang Zhang, David M. Cochran Jun 2018

Assessing Relevance Of Tweets For Risk Communication, Xiaohui Liu, Bandana Kar, Chaoyang Zhang, David M. Cochran

Faculty Publications

Although Twitter is used for emergency management activities, the relevance of tweets during a hazard event is still open to debate. In this study, six different computational (i.e. Natural Language Processing) and spatiotemporal analytical approaches were implemented to assess the relevance of risk information extracted from tweets obtained during the 2013 Colorado flood event. Primarily, tweets containing information about the flooding events and its impacts were analysed. Examination of the relationships between tweet volume and its content with precipitation amount, damage extent, and official reports revealed that relevant tweets provided information about the event and its impacts rather than ...


Remote Sensing Of Soil Alkalinity And Salinity In The Wuyu’Er-Shuangyang River Basin, Northeast China, Lin Bai, Cuizhen Wang, Shuying Zang, Yuhong Zhang, Qiannan Hao, Yuexiang Wu Feb 2018

Remote Sensing Of Soil Alkalinity And Salinity In The Wuyu’Er-Shuangyang River Basin, Northeast China, Lin Bai, Cuizhen Wang, Shuying Zang, Yuhong Zhang, Qiannan Hao, Yuexiang Wu

Faculty Publications

The Songnen Plain of the Northeast China is one of the three largest soda saline-alkali regions worldwide. To better understand soil alkalinization and salinization in this important agricultural region, it is vital to explore the distribution and variation of soil alkalinity and salinity in space and time. This study examined soil properties and identified the variables to extract soil alkalinity and salinity via physico-chemical, statistical, spectral, and image analysis. The physico-chemical and statistical results suggested that alkaline soils, coming from the main solute Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 in parent rocks, characterized the study area. The pH and ...


The Political Biogeography Of Migratory Marine Predators, Autumn-Lynn Harrison, Daniel Costa, Arliss Winship, Scott Benson, Steven Bograd, Michelle Antolos, Aaron Carlisle, Heidi Dewar, Peter Dutton, Salvador Jorgensen, Suzanne Kohin, Bruce Mate, Patrick Robinson, Kurt Schaefer, Scott A. Shaffer, George Shillinger, Samantha Simmons, Kevin Weng, Kristina Gjerde, Barbara Block Jan 2018

The Political Biogeography Of Migratory Marine Predators, Autumn-Lynn Harrison, Daniel Costa, Arliss Winship, Scott Benson, Steven Bograd, Michelle Antolos, Aaron Carlisle, Heidi Dewar, Peter Dutton, Salvador Jorgensen, Suzanne Kohin, Bruce Mate, Patrick Robinson, Kurt Schaefer, Scott A. Shaffer, George Shillinger, Samantha Simmons, Kevin Weng, Kristina Gjerde, Barbara Block

Faculty Publications

During their migrations, marine predators experience varying levels of protection and face many threats as they travel through multiple countries’ jurisdictions and across ocean basins. Some populations are declining rapidly. Contributing to such declines is a failure of some international agreements to ensure effective cooperation by the stakeholders responsible for managing species throughout their ranges, including in the high seas, a global commons. Here we use biologging data from marine predators to provide quantitative measures with great potential to inform local, national and international management efforts in the Pacific Ocean. We synthesized a large tracking data set to show how ...


Conceived Versus Lived Social Spaces And The Transformation Of The Morro Da Providência Favela Of Rio De Janeiro Since 2008, Jamie Worms, Andrew Sluyter Jan 2018

Conceived Versus Lived Social Spaces And The Transformation Of The Morro Da Providência Favela Of Rio De Janeiro Since 2008, Jamie Worms, Andrew Sluyter

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Sustaining Suburbia Through New Urbanism: Toward Growing, Green, And Just Suburbs?, Dan Trudeau Jan 2018

Sustaining Suburbia Through New Urbanism: Toward Growing, Green, And Just Suburbs?, Dan Trudeau

Faculty Publications

This article examines the governance dynamics surrounding the development of sustainable neighborhoods in United States metropolitan contexts characterized as suburban sprawl. Drawing on original case study research of three distinct applications of New Urbanism design principles, the article argues for understanding the relative power of municipal authorities to incorporate social justice imperatives into the practice of sustainable development in suburban contexts. Moreover, key to prioritizing social imperatives is the way in which development processes respond to the “suburban ideal”, which is a view of suburbs as an exclusive bourgeois utopia that constrains the ability to connect so-called sustainable development with ...


Social Medicine And International Expert Networks In Latin America, 1930–1945, Eric D. Carter Jan 2018

Social Medicine And International Expert Networks In Latin America, 1930–1945, Eric D. Carter

Faculty Publications

This paper examines the international networks that influenced ideas and policy in social medicine in the 1930s and 1940s in Latin America, focusing on institutional networks organised by the League of Nations Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, and the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau. After examining the architecture of these networks, this paper traces their influence on social and health policy in two policy domains: social security and nutrition. Closer scrutiny of a series of international conferences and local media accounts of them reveals that international networks were not just ‘conveyor belts’ for policy ideas from the industrialised countries of the ...


Book Review Of Humboldt's Mexico: In The Footsteps Of The Illustrious German Scientific Traveller, By Myron Echenberg, Andrew Sluyter Jan 2018

Book Review Of Humboldt's Mexico: In The Footsteps Of The Illustrious German Scientific Traveller, By Myron Echenberg, Andrew Sluyter

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Book Review Of Cattle In The Backlands: Mato Grosso And The Evolution Of Ranching In The Brazilian Tropics, By Robert W. Wilcox., Andrew Sluyter Jan 2018

Book Review Of Cattle In The Backlands: Mato Grosso And The Evolution Of Ranching In The Brazilian Tropics, By Robert W. Wilcox., Andrew Sluyter

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Challenges Of Elephant Conservation: Insights From Oral Histories Of Colonialism And Landscape In Tsavo, Kenya, Peter Ngugi Kamau, Andrew Sluyter Jan 2018

Challenges Of Elephant Conservation: Insights From Oral Histories Of Colonialism And Landscape In Tsavo, Kenya, Peter Ngugi Kamau, Andrew Sluyter

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Accuracy Of Unmanned Aerial System (Drone) Height Measurements, Daniel Unger, I-Kuai Hung, David Kulhavy, Yanli Zhang, Kai Busch-Peterson Jan 2018

Accuracy Of Unmanned Aerial System (Drone) Height Measurements, Daniel Unger, I-Kuai Hung, David Kulhavy, Yanli Zhang, Kai Busch-Peterson

Faculty Publications

Vertical height estimates of earth surface features using an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) are important in natural resource management quantitative assessments. An important research question concerns both the accuracy and precision of vertical height estimates acquired with a UAS and to determine if it is necessary to land a UAS between individual height measurements or if GPS derived height versus barometric pressure derived height while using a DJI Phantom 3 would affect height accuracy and precision. To examine this question, height along a telescopic height pole on the campus of Stephen F. Austin State University (SFASU) were estimated at 2 ...


Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems To Measure Linear And Areal Features Into Undergraduate Forestry Education, Reid Viegut, David Kulhavy, Daniel Unger, I-Kuai Hung, Brian Humphreys Jan 2018

Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems To Measure Linear And Areal Features Into Undergraduate Forestry Education, Reid Viegut, David Kulhavy, Daniel Unger, I-Kuai Hung, Brian Humphreys

Faculty Publications

The use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in undergraduate forestry education continues to expand and develop. Accuracy of data collection is an important aspect of preparation for "society-ready" foresters to meet the complex sustainable environment managing for ecological, social and economic interests. Hands-on use of a DJI Phantom 4 Pro UAS by undergraduates to measure the length and area of 30 linear features and areal features on Earth's surface were estimated. These measurements were compared (measured within the ArcMap 10.5.2 interface) to hyperspectral Pictometry imagery measured on the web-based interface and the Google Earth Pro interface. Each ...


Student Led Campus Desire Path Evaluation Using Pictometry® Neighborhood Imagery, David Kulhavy, Daniel Unger, I-Kuai Hung Jan 2018

Student Led Campus Desire Path Evaluation Using Pictometry® Neighborhood Imagery, David Kulhavy, Daniel Unger, I-Kuai Hung

Faculty Publications

A student led evaluation of desire paths (e.g., paths created by pedestrians on an open landscape) across the Stephen F. Austin State University (SFASU) campus was performed within a senior level spatial science course in order to create a method for mitigation of desire paths and for campus beautification. Each desire path on campus was identified with the length of each path measured in the field and categorized by the condition of the path in order to assess and determine a necessary solution for each path identified. In addition, Pictometry® high spatial resolution digital imagery was used to determine ...