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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Effectiveness Of Oral Retelling As A Reading Comprehension Strategy For Elementary Students With Reading Delays, Brandi Michelle Fontenot Dec 2019

The Effectiveness Of Oral Retelling As A Reading Comprehension Strategy For Elementary Students With Reading Delays, Brandi Michelle Fontenot

Dissertations

Comprehension is an essential component of reading proficiency that produces long-term gains for learners. However, many upper elementary school-age children struggle with reading comprehension. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a self-monitoring intervention on reading comprehension for three elementary school-age children with reading delays. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, behavioral skills training was used to teach participants the elements of a story retell and how-to self-monitor their own story retells. In Study 2, a multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of self-monitoring on four dependent variables: a ...


The Impact Of A Multisensory Stimulation Environment Within A Memory Care Assisted Living Facility, Dana M. Prince Dec 2019

The Impact Of A Multisensory Stimulation Environment Within A Memory Care Assisted Living Facility, Dana M. Prince

Dissertations

The use of Multisensory Stimulation Environments (MSSE) has grown increasingly more common in the United States (U.S.) as a nonpharmacological intervention for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD). However, typical MSSE designs require a secluded room isolated from outside stimulation and demand direct supervision from the care provider during treatment. Due to projected shortages in the clinical workforce and the population of older adults on the rise, a study was designed to reveal the effectiveness of an open-floorplan MSSE to reduce the demand of care providers during the use of the MSSE while allowing subjects diagnosed with dementia ...


Comparing The Results Of And Evaluating Preferences For Functional Analyses And Concurrent Operant Analyses, Marrisa B. Allen Dec 2019

Comparing The Results Of And Evaluating Preferences For Functional Analyses And Concurrent Operant Analyses, Marrisa B. Allen

Dissertations

It is recommended that a functional analysis (FA) be conducted before treating serious problem behaviors. However, it is not always feasible or desirable to do so. For example, the problem behavior may be too dangerous, or the setting may not allow procedures that evoke problem behavior. An alternative solution may be to identify reinforcers for adaptive behavior in order to develop a treatment plan to reduce problem behavior by increasing socially appropriate/adaptive behavior. Berg et al. (2007) evaluated whether the same social events identified as reinforcers for adaptive behavior by a concurrent operant (i.e., choice) analysis (COA) would ...


Attempts To Reduce Elopement Using Blocking, A Time-Out Procedure, And Differential Reinforcement, Sydney M. Harbaugh Dec 2019

Attempts To Reduce Elopement Using Blocking, A Time-Out Procedure, And Differential Reinforcement, Sydney M. Harbaugh

Dissertations

The current study was designed to replicate and extend the results of Harbaugh, Kohler & Malott, 2016, to decrease elopement and flopping by a child diagnosed with autism. The intervention in the present study consisted of a package combining differential reinforcement, response blocking, and a time-out procedure. Following successful reduction in the rate of elopement, a Behavioral Skills Training program was implemented with the child’s family to ensure generalization and maintenance of appropriate walking.


The Effects Of Self-Observation On Implementation Of Direct Instruction Reading Curricula, Katherine Mahaffy Dec 2019

The Effects Of Self-Observation On Implementation Of Direct Instruction Reading Curricula, Katherine Mahaffy

Dissertations

The current study evaluated the effects of structured self-observations on the rate and accuracy of learn unit presentations by graduate student tutors in a reading program. Four graduate students were trained to implement reading curricula using instructions, modeling, and the training manuals for reading curricula. Dependent variables were accuracy of antecedents, accuracy of consequences, and rate of learn units for the lesson. A secondary dependent variable was the rate of contingent social praise and token delivery during the lesson. During the intervention, tutors learned how to record learn units using the Teacher Performance Rate and Accuracy Scale (TPRA) and then ...


The Effects Of Energy Dashboards And Competition Programming On Cyclic Electricity Consumption On A College Campus, Katherine Jane-Binder Martini Dec 2019

The Effects Of Energy Dashboards And Competition Programming On Cyclic Electricity Consumption On A College Campus, Katherine Jane-Binder Martini

Dissertations

This report examined issues pertaining to the efficacy and cost effectiveness of energy dashboards in the effort to influence electricity-related behavior change on college campuses. Given the increasing popularity of energy dashboards along with a lack of data to support their effectiveness, more rigorous research to evaluate the efficacy of this technology is necessary. An intervention including the installation of physical and internet based energy dashboards along with an energy reduction competition was evaluated. A literature review and long term cyclical data on energy use is included that provides arguments against the potential for long-term effectiveness of these interventions despite ...


Check-In/Check-Out With High School Students, Ashley Murphy Aug 2019

Check-In/Check-Out With High School Students, Ashley Murphy

Dissertations

Check-in/Check-out (CICO) has been shown effective in reducing problem behavior (PB) and increasing academically engaged behaviors (AEB) for elementary and middle school students (Mitchell, Adamson, & McKenna, 2017); however limited research has included high school students. The current study sought to evaluate the effectiveness and social validity of CICO for four high school students in a general education setting. During the initial intervention phase, two students refused to participate in the CICO process (i.e., did not attend check-ins or check-outs despite multiple efforts); therefore, CICO was ineffective for these students. For two other students, CICO was ineffective for improving behavioral performance ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Sustained Silent Reading And Reciprocal Reading On Reading Motivation For Middle School Students With Reading Delays, Margaret Uwayo Aug 2019

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Sustained Silent Reading And Reciprocal Reading On Reading Motivation For Middle School Students With Reading Delays, Margaret Uwayo

Dissertations

Research suggests that secondary students with reading delays may lack reading motivation, which can be defined as the temporal reinforcement value of texts for an individual. However, reading motivation may be a critical component of their acquisition of reading proficiency. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of two research-based reading interventions - sustained silent reading and modified reciprocal reading - on the reading motivation of middle school students with reading delays. Participants were four 6th-grade students who were grouped into dyads in a reading intervention classroom. The primary dependent variable was book engagement under pairing and test ...


The Use Of Vouchers To Negatively Reinforce Number Of Weeks Compliant Among Clients In A Mental Health Court, Michele Nicole Murdock Jul 2019

The Use Of Vouchers To Negatively Reinforce Number Of Weeks Compliant Among Clients In A Mental Health Court, Michele Nicole Murdock

Dissertations

The literature is sparse on the use of contingency management procedures in a mental health court (MHC). The purpose of this study was to examine the use of negative reinforcement for behavioral changes in a MHC. Specifically, the present study explored whether a voucher-based contingency management intervention improved the number of weeks compliant on MHC probation and whether participants were more externally than internally motivated to comply with MHC probation requirements. Vouchers were given for compliance with MHC probation requirements. The vouchers allowed participants to miss a future court date. It was hypothesized that participants who received the voucher would ...


Examining Protective Factors That Promote Resilience Among Children With An Incarcerated Parent, Celeste A. Jackson Jun 2019

Examining Protective Factors That Promote Resilience Among Children With An Incarcerated Parent, Celeste A. Jackson

Dissertations

Children of incarcerated parents (CIP) represent one of the most vulnerable, at-risk populations in the United States (Johnston, 1995). Best estimates suggests there are 2.7 million children with an incarcerated parents and African-American children are disproportionately represented at a figure of 1 in 9 children (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008). Much of the research attempting to understand this population and guide intervention efforts has employed a deficit-based approach, highlighting the plethora of adverse risk factors and negative outcomes associated with being the child of an incarcerated parent. This approach fails to acknowledge the presence of resilience inherent in these youth. The ...


Functional Assessment And Treatment Of Elopement Occasioned By Transitions, Denice Rios Mojica Jun 2019

Functional Assessment And Treatment Of Elopement Occasioned By Transitions, Denice Rios Mojica

Dissertations

Elopement is a dangerous behavior in children with developmental disabilities because it greatly increases the risk of accidents that lead to serious injury or death. The dangers of elopement are especially high during transitions because these situations increase the chance that a child will gain unsupervised access outside, where the most serious accidents typically occur. Despite its severity, assessment methodologies that specifically evaluate the contextual variables found during transitions are not available. Additionally, treatment for elopement during transitions typically involves antecedent interventions which do not address function. Continued research on effective and efficient means for the assessment and treatment of ...


Functional Analysis Of Excessive Crying In Infancy: Two Empirical Case Studies, Jamie L. Hirsh Apr 2019

Functional Analysis Of Excessive Crying In Infancy: Two Empirical Case Studies, Jamie L. Hirsh

Dissertations

Excessive crying and infantile colic account for a significant percentage of caregivers’ calls and visits to the pediatrician early in infancy. Despite myriad research studies across medical and psychological disciplines over the years, there is no conclusive evidence regarding a cause for excessive crying in early infancy; as a result, there is no gold standard for treatment. The goal of this study is to develop and test an experimental functional analysis methodology to determine a cause for excessive crying in infants. The study involves the development of an interview and paper-based functional assessment tool for excessive crying in infancy, as ...


A Systematic Comparison Of Functional Assessment Outcomes In Organizational Behavior Management, Nathan T. Bechtel Dec 2018

A Systematic Comparison Of Functional Assessment Outcomes In Organizational Behavior Management, Nathan T. Bechtel

Dissertations

The primary purpose of this study was to compare the recommendation outcomes of two commonly utilized functional assessment tools in the field of Organizational Behavior Management (OBM): the Performance Diagnostic Checklist (PDC) and the Performance Flowchart. Recommendations made using these tools fell into one of three categories: antecedent-based, consequence-based, and uncategorized interventions. In order to assess the recommendations resulting from each of these tools, participants were trained to either (a) play the role of a manager with an organizational issue, or (b) play the role of a performance consultant. A between-groups design was utilized in which performance consultants used either ...


The Effects Of Decoding Instruction On Oral Reading Fluency For Older Students With Reading Delays, Gaige J. Johnson Aug 2018

The Effects Of Decoding Instruction On Oral Reading Fluency For Older Students With Reading Delays, Gaige J. Johnson

Dissertations

Struggling older readers often have difficulty with early decoding skills (Tolman, 2005; Toste, Williams, & Capin, 2017). If they are unable to master decoding, they may have difficulty with more complex skills, such as passage reading fluency. The current study extends research on reading fluency for older students by evaluating the combined effects of a phonics procedure and a fluency-building strategy on their reading fluency. Participants were older students with below grade level reading performance who had deficits in oral reading fluency and decoding. Dependent variables were the number of correctly sorted word patterns and the number of correct words per ...


Demonstrating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy As An Independent Variable In Efficacy Research: A New Measure Of Treatment Fidelity, Lindsey E. Knott Aug 2018

Demonstrating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy As An Independent Variable In Efficacy Research: A New Measure Of Treatment Fidelity, Lindsey E. Knott

Dissertations

Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a contextual behavior therapy that takes an in session, in vivo focus to improve client outcomes. This in vivo (IV) focus is distinctive of FAP and involves the therapist utilization of contingencies in session to decrease problematic response classes and increase more adaptive response classes (i.e., a differential reinforcement procedure). This contingent responding is proposed to be FAP’s mechanism of action leading to client change. FAP efficacy research mainly consists of small n single-case studies or group designs combing FAP with another CBT intervention. Maitland & Gaynor (2012) offered recommendations for increasing FAP efficacy research, including the development of a reliable measure to determine whether a therapist implemented the distinguishing features of FAP. Maitland and Gaynor (2016) developed a 10-item fidelity measure, called the FAP Adherence Form (FAP-AF), to assess for aspects of FAP across 5 items and distinguish it from supportive listening (SL) assessed over 4 items. The measure was used in two FAP outcome studies (Maitland & Gaynor, 2016; Maitland et al., 2016) and it distinguished FAP ...


Characterization Of Swine Production Using Measurements Collected Via Indoor Positioning System, Shaun Perisho May 2018

Characterization Of Swine Production Using Measurements Collected Via Indoor Positioning System, Shaun Perisho

Dissertations

Legislative and market initiatives are requiring that gestating sows move from individual housing to group settings. Little information is known about coping styles of individual sows in these more socially complex environments and thus the impact of different behavioral strategies on sow reproductive success and efficiency was investigated. The movements of 70 sows during periods of reintroduction into large pen gestational housing following insemination was measured with a commercially available system that tracked animal location and accelerations. Principle component analysis (PCA) was used to establish composite variables characterizing each animal’s behavioral response to social reintroduction and revealed the presence ...


The Predictors Of Juvenile Recidivism: Testimonies Of Adult Students 18 Years And Older Exiting From Alternative Education, La Toshia Palmer Apr 2018

The Predictors Of Juvenile Recidivism: Testimonies Of Adult Students 18 Years And Older Exiting From Alternative Education, La Toshia Palmer

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to identify and describe the importance of the predictors of juvenile recidivism and the effectiveness of efforts to prevent/avoid juvenile recidivism as perceived by previously detained, arrested, convicted, and/or incarcerated adult students 18 years of age and older exiting from alternative education in Northern California. A second purpose was to explore the types of support provided by alternative schools and the perceived importance of the support to avoid recidivism according to adult students 18 years of age and older exiting from alternative education.

Methodology: This qualitative, descriptive research design ...


Web-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment And Reinforcer Assessments For Videos, Hugo Curiel Apr 2018

Web-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment And Reinforcer Assessments For Videos, Hugo Curiel

Dissertations

Stimulus preference assessments and reinforcer assessments are integral components of positive reinforcement-based interventions. Web-based brief multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessments have recently been shown to be effective in identifying preference hierarchies for videos (Curiel, Curiel, Li, Deochand, & Poling, 2018). The purpose of the current studies was to replicate Curiel et al.’s web-based MSWO assessment and assess the reinforcing function of the highest and lowest identified stimuli using novel web-based reinforcer assessments. Study 1 employed single-operant arrangements (SOAs) and Study 2 employed concurrent-operants arrangements (COAs) to assess the absolute and relative reinforcing function of the identified stimuli, respectively. The ...


Investigating Generalization Of Motorist Yielding To The Gateway Prompt From The Treated Leg Of The Intersection To The Untreated Adjacent Leg, Brian J. Crowley-Koch Apr 2018

Investigating Generalization Of Motorist Yielding To The Gateway Prompt From The Treated Leg Of The Intersection To The Untreated Adjacent Leg, Brian J. Crowley-Koch

Dissertations

Pedestrian safety continues to be an important research topic, especially since recent data show a small increase in pedestrian fatalities (USGAO, 2015). There have been several interventions that prompt pedestrians, but especially motorists, to yield properly at uncontrolled crosswalks (Van Houten, 1988; Van Houten & Malenfant, 1992; Nasar, 2003; Crowley-Koch, Van Houten & Lim, 2008). One low-cost intervention that has been successful is the R1-6 in road yielding sign (Kannel, Souleyrette, & Tenges, 2003). When this sign is laid out purposefully across a crosswalk (called a gateway), it has resulted in substantial increases in yielding compared to baseline conditions. In addition to being an effective ...


Further Development Of A Supervision System For Behavior Analysts To Support Evidence-Based Supervision Practices, Katie Lynn Garza Apr 2018

Further Development Of A Supervision System For Behavior Analysts To Support Evidence-Based Supervision Practices, Katie Lynn Garza

Dissertations

Effective supervision for individuals seeking certification from the Behavior Analyst Certification Board® (BACB) has been a recent focus in the field of behavior analysis (BACB, 2012). While the organizational behavior management (OBM) literature is rich with evidence for specific performance-improvement techniques, there is a lack of research on supervision systems specifically for supervising individuals seeking to obtain the Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) credential. Furthermore, studies to date have not examined what it takes for systems to meet their missional objectives while simultaneously providing training and supervision to trainees. This descriptive, process-oriented study sought to analyze the disconnects within a ...


Sacrificial Dynamite: The Convergence Of Developed Empathy And Ongoing Relational Experience With God: A Grounded Theory, Toran Scott Apr 2018

Sacrificial Dynamite: The Convergence Of Developed Empathy And Ongoing Relational Experience With God: A Grounded Theory, Toran Scott

Dissertations

This grounded theory study examined how participants described and reflected on their lives and what led them to choose sacrifice. The study was grounded in a Christian understanding of sacrifice, defined as the willful giving up of one’s positions or possessions for the sake of serving others. Using in-depth, open-ended interviews and follow-up interviews to co-construct meaning, participants were asked to reflect on their childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood to reflect on and describe any messages, relationships, or experiences that they thought contributed to their eventual choice to sacrifice. The interviews were free-flowing and filled with beautiful and engaging ...


Application Of Response-To-Intervention In A Pre-Kindergarten Special Education Classroom, Justin J. Daigle Apr 2018

Application Of Response-To-Intervention In A Pre-Kindergarten Special Education Classroom, Justin J. Daigle

Dissertations

Lovaas (1987) applied behavior analysis to the treatment of autism and demonstrated a 47% “recovery” rate. He also reported that around 10% of the population that received his services made little-to-no improvement. The present study used a response-to-intervention framework to systematically identify and treat students in an early childhood, special-education classroom who were in danger of falling within that 10%. This study set out to identify, classify, and differentiate the treatment based on the student’s response to the standard classroom intervention. Improvements in multiple students’ rates of acquisition based on this system were recorded. This indicated a possibility of ...


Using Video Modeling To Teach Vocational Skills To Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Karl Schoenherr Feb 2018

Using Video Modeling To Teach Vocational Skills To Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Karl Schoenherr

Dissertations

This study evaluated the effectiveness of video self-modeling as a method for teaching two young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) how to perform job-related skills in a vocational setting. Prior to intervention, videos were recorded of the participants as they performed single steps of novel tasks at their jobsites. The researcher created video self-models by combining and editing the recordings of the single tasks into a video that depicted the participants performing all the steps of the task in succession. The videos included written instructions and voiceovers of the instructions. The videos were uploaded to Box, an app that ...


Teaching Students Who Have Difficulty Mastering Lmitation, Jennifer Mrljak Dec 2017

Teaching Students Who Have Difficulty Mastering Lmitation, Jennifer Mrljak

Dissertations

Some children with autism are unable to acquire imitation despite receiving early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) meant to teach that and other important skills. Many EIBI programs use physical-prompting hierarchies either as a component of the discriminative stimulus or the correction procedure following an error (Lovaas, 1981; Maurice, Green, & Luce, 1996). But even after lengthy exposure to these teaching techniques, some children still do not acquire imitative repertoires. In the present study, working with students who were not acquiring imitative repertoires, we started with shaping the initial imitative responses as a method to gain stimulus control and then introduced physical ...


An Examination Of Behavior Analysts' Treatment Selection Behavior For Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior, Rebecca Eldridge Dec 2017

An Examination Of Behavior Analysts' Treatment Selection Behavior For Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior, Rebecca Eldridge

Dissertations

The advent of functional analysis procedures has helped identify reinforcers for problem behavior; however, the behavior analyst is then faced with the task of selecting an appropriate treatment for problem behavior. When selecting treatments, in addition to behavioral function, behavior analysts also need to consider contextual variables, such as current client repertoires, setting conditions, time and resources of current caregivers, as well as client and caregiver goals (Benazzi, Horner, & Good, 2006). Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) must consider these factors when developing treatment according to their ethical code (Behavior Analyst Certification Board [BACB]’s Professional and Ethical Compliance Code [PECC ...


Work Ethic, Turnover, And Performance: An Examination Of Predictive Validity For Entry-Level Employees, Christina Banister Sep 2017

Work Ethic, Turnover, And Performance: An Examination Of Predictive Validity For Entry-Level Employees, Christina Banister

Dissertations

Work ethic is continually cited as a top factor in hiring new employees (Flynn, 1994; Shimko, 1990; VanNess, Melinsky, Buff, & Seifert, 2010). Research on the relationship between work ethic and job performance has typically shown positive results in a variety of contexts (Meriac & Gorman, 2017; Miller et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to examine dimensions of work ethic and its relationship with turnover and contextual performance in an often-neglected segment of the workforce: entry-level employees. Data were collected from a large fast food franchise, including work ethic, turnover data, and supervisor-rated job performance. In Study 1, the relationships between the work ethic dimensions and turnover were examined. In Study 2, the relationships between work ethic dimensions and performance outcomes were examined through ...


The Good Behavior Game: Effects On And Maintenance Of Behavior In Middle-School Classrooms Using Class Dojo, Komila Dadakhodjaeva Aug 2017

The Good Behavior Game: Effects On And Maintenance Of Behavior In Middle-School Classrooms Using Class Dojo, Komila Dadakhodjaeva

Dissertations

Classroom management is one of the key components for successful instruction and affects both instructors and learners. Although most frequent discipline strategies in schools involve punitive actions, research suggests that using positive statements to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors is more appropriate and effective. A form of a group-oriented contingency that focuses on desirable behaviors is a positive variation of the Good Behavior Game (GBG). The GBG has been used widely in its original form, focusing on undesirable behaviors, and more research is needed on its positive version. Another strategy that can be used within classrooms is Class Dojo, a ...


An Evaluation Of Behavioral Skills Training On The Implementation Of Peer-Mediated Discrete Trial Training, Christopher M. Furlow Aug 2017

An Evaluation Of Behavioral Skills Training On The Implementation Of Peer-Mediated Discrete Trial Training, Christopher M. Furlow

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of behavioral skills training on the implementation of an evidence-based teaching method by student interventionists for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three elementary school students were trained to use an applied behavior analysis (ABA) based instructional method, known as discrete trial training (DTT), to teach academic skills to children with ASD. A multiple baseline across individuals was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the behavioral skills training and peer-mediated DTT procedures. Generalization of the interventionist’s ability to teach new, previously untrained target behaviors was assessed by conducting generalization ...


Evaluation Of A Positive Version Of The Good Behavior Game Utilizing Classdojo Technology In Secondary Classrooms, William Blake Ford Aug 2017

Evaluation Of A Positive Version Of The Good Behavior Game Utilizing Classdojo Technology In Secondary Classrooms, William Blake Ford

Dissertations

Appropriate and effective classroom management skills are critical in supporting students’ academic, social, and behavior development in schools; however, teachers often cite needing help with classroom management as their greatest need. Given this concern, school psychologists need effective and efficient strategies to offer to teachers and school staff dealing with classwide behavioral difficulties. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is an empirically supported interdependent group contingency intervention providing explicit classroom management techniques aimed at improving student behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a positive version of the GBG utilizing ClassDojo technology on classwide academically engaged ...


Self-Management As A Class-Wide Intervention: An Evaluation Of The “Self & Match” System Embedded Within A Dependent Group Contingency, Andrew J. Bulla Jun 2017

Self-Management As A Class-Wide Intervention: An Evaluation Of The “Self & Match” System Embedded Within A Dependent Group Contingency, Andrew J. Bulla

Dissertations

The U.S. Department of Education (2015) indicated that about 95% of students with special education eligibility receive some form of education in the general education setting. Students with disabilities tend to engage in more disruptive behaviors than their non-disabled peers (e.g., Murphy, Beadle-Brown, Wing, Gould, Shah, & Homes, 2005). If teachers are spending more time managing disruptive behaviors, time allocated to instruction is lost. Self-management is one evidence-based intervention that has shown consistent effects on increasing on-task behavior and decreasing disruptive behaviors. Although feasible at the individual level, previous research has identified that class-wide self-management interventions may be efficacious ...