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Articles 1 - 30 of 3049
Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences
Peer-Mediated Tootling With A Standardized Form And A Mystery Motivator In High School Classrooms, Sarah J. Wright
Peer-mediated tootling with a standardized procedure was implemented along with a mystery motivator component to determine the effects on academically engaged and disruptive behavior in three general education high school classrooms. The intervention used an A/B/A/B design across all classrooms. The goal of the study was to determine if these components would increase academically engaged behavior and decrease disruptive behavior. Students were trained on tootling procedures with a standardized format, which included reporting on peers’ positive, prosocial behavior on a premade tootling slip with various behaviors that they could select as being observed, reading five random slips ...
Overparenting And Young Adult Narcissism: Psychological Control And Interpersonal Dependency As Mediators, Nathan Alexander Winner
Overparenting, or “helicopter parenting,” is a unique style of parenting characterized by parents’ well-intentioned but age-inappropriate over-involvement and intrusiveness in their children’s lives. Recent research has linked overparenting to the development of narcissistic traits in young adults, although the mechanisms of this relationship remain unclear. Two plausible mechanisms include the parenting behavior of psychological control and the increased interpersonal dependency of the child. Psychological control is a construct that overlaps with overparenting and has been linked to both dependent and narcissistic traits. Similarly, interpersonal dependency is a key predictor of narcissistic traits. Therefore, the present study sought to examine ...
Weeding Through College Drinking: The Moderating Role Of Marijuana Use On Alcohol Use, Protective Behavioral Strategies, And Negative Consequences, Mallorie Carroll
Rates of alcohol (60% monthly) and marijuana (20% monthly) use among college students remain a concern given students experience a wide range of negative consequences related to their use, especially hazardous use. Research supports the theory that protective behavioral strategies are effective strategies that one can use while engaging in alcohol and marijuana use to minimize the experience of negative consequences. However, research regarding protective behavioral strategies for marijuana is fairly new and the findings are inconsistent. Given the limited research regarding alcohol-use behaviors among college students who report alcohol and marijuana use, the purpose of this study was to ...
Profiles Of Interest In Holland's Theory In Relation To Personality And Sex, Erica L. Mathis
The current study sought to expand the knowledge of latent profiles of vocational interest that are interpreted from a theory-driven perspective. The current study utilized a measure of Holland’s RIASEC interest types as a source of data to explore possible profiles through latent profile analysis. Using an MTurk sample of 303 adults, seven profiles were interpreted in the context of Holland’s theory, specifically using diagnostic signs of the theory to explain possible profile membership. The seven profiles were coined Low Profile Elevation, High Consistency SIA, Moderate Consistency Conventional Investigative, Undifferentiated, High Differentiation Conventional Dominant, High Consistency Investigative Artistic ...
Overparenting, Emotional Distress, And Subjective Well-Being: Facets Of Emotional Distress Tolerance As Mediators, Christopher M. Perez
Overparenting (OP) has been characterized by parental behaviors that encroach upon children’s ability to develop age-appropriate, autonomous emotional responses and behaviors. OP has been associated with poor mental health, decreased subjective well-being (SWB), and decreased emotional distress tolerance (EDT) in the emerging adult population. The present study investigated relationships between OP, EDT, emotional distress, and SWB. Additionally, the mediating role of EDT, as well as the parallel mediating roles of EDT facets (i.e., appraisal, absorption, tolerance, regulation), were assessed between OP and emotional distress, as well as SWB. Participants included 313 undergraduate psychology students from a mid-sized university ...
Merger And Acquisition Integration: Exploring Uncertainty From The Perspective Of The Middle Manager, Joseph J. Pazmany
Purpose. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore middle managers’ perceptions about how organizations managed job-related, structural, and strategic uncertainty during a merger and acquisition (M&A) integration process. Furthermore, this research investigated what strategies middle managers perceived effective and ineffective for managing uncertainty and recommendations for managing uncertainty during future integrations.
Methodology. This qualitative study utilized a phenomenological research design that collected data through open-ended interviews. Fifteen middle managers participated in the study and were asked 12 questions that explored their perceptions about managing uncertainty during an M&A integration.
Findings. Overall, participants perceived strategic uncertainty was ...
Exploring Temperament In Beluga Whale Calves (Delphinapterus Leucas), Beri Brown
Studies of personality and temperament in humans span many disciplines, although animal research is still relatively undeveloped. Research investigating stable individual differences in marine mammals has been limited, and to date there have not been any studies with beluga whales. As an ongoing longitudinal study, seven beluga calves, housed at SeaWorld San Antonio, were videotaped throughout their first two years of life. Four videos were selected from archived video recordings for each calf from the following nine phases: newborn phase (month 1), Q1 (month 2-3), Q2 (month 4-6), Q3 (month 7-9), Q4 (month 10-12), Q5 (month 13-15), Q6 (month 16-18 ...
Diffusion, Adoption, And Network Constraint: Can Understanding Personal Networks Of Afghan Women Improve The Adoption 0f Agricultural Innovations, Clair Wilcox
A plethora of case studies conducted in myriad locations find that factors influencing the adoption of agricultural innovation are different, emphasizing the need for locality specific understanding (Waddingon 2014). The diffusion of agricultural innovations may be influenced by the structure of the social system in which that diffusion is taking place. This study investigates the social structure of rural Afghan women, in an effort to determine how they interact and exchange information, and how the personal network structure, and the nature of the women’s interaction influences adoption of innovations. With the objective of framing rural development programs targeting women ...
Esprit De Marine Corps: The Making Of The Modern Marine Corps Through Public Relations, 1898-1945, Colin Colbourn
Between the Spanish-American War and World War II, the United States Marine Corps institutionalized the use of public relations and publicity to craft an elite military identity and to endear the Corps to the American public. The Marine Corps adapted this approach in the wake of threats to its existence and as the service benefited from the power of a sensationalist press in the early twentieth century. Fundamental to the Corps’ public relations strategy from 1898 to 1945 was the employment of community-level public relations through the use of “human interest” stories, a practice that brought the stories of Marines ...
How School Counselors Cope With Student Suicide: A Qualitative Study, Sara Carpenter
Recognizing that school counselors will likely encounter the tragedy of youth suicide, many counselor educator programs focus on identification of suicidal ideation and prevention, but the field of school counseling remains largely under-equipped regarding how to cope with the aftermath of student suicide. In an effort to expand the qualitative research within the profession on how best to educate, support, and implement suicide postvention strategies, there remained a need to explore the experience of the school counselor in the aftermath of such tragedy. This study addressed how school counselors who were trained in CACREP-accredited programs experience the response to student ...
The Dreaded Performance Appraisal: Can The Process Ever Be Comfortable?, Lauren Labat
Previous research has indicated that individuals dislike and resist the performance appraisal process. Fewer studies have examined reasoning for unintentional rating distortion that may result from a lack of training and clear understanding of how to effectively evaluate behaviors. Researchers have shown that the appraisal process is uncomfortable for raters, but empirical studies have yet to explore how to reduce this discomfort. Rater training research has revealed that trained raters have improved observational skills, a more precise vocabulary to describe behaviors, and improved rating accuracy. This research explored the relationship between performance appraisal discomfort and trait motivational factors (i.e ...
Understanding Micro-Spatial Crime Patterns: A Comprehensive Trajectory Analysis Of Violent Crime At Street Segments In St. Louis, Mo, Aaron Levin
Spatial crime studies have existed for over a century, but the last 20 years have seen a turn in focus toward micro-spatial units such as street blocks and street segments. A particular subfield of this modern micro-spatial perspective is called crime trajectory analysis, which can isolate patterns of crime at small spatial units over time. Though several crime trajectory analyses have been conducted for coastal cities, the technique has never been applied to Midwestern data. This project fills that research gap by using the group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) algorithm to uncover patterns of violent crime at street segments in St ...
What About Us? For Girls Between Worlds: How Black Girls Navigate White High Schools, Cryslynn C. Billingsley
What About Us? For Girls Between Worlds: How Black Girls Navigate White High Schools, Cryslynn C. Billingsley
This qualitative study is about the experiences and challenges Black girls have while attending predominantly White high schools and what they are doing to navigate that particular space. The purpose of this study was to explore and understand more about how Black girls navigate White space as minority members of a system that was not originally intended for them. Through semi-structured interviews, Black girls were asked directly to share their lived experiences. This study hopes to illuminate and amplify the voices of Black girls and help others see them by giving them a platform to discuss and tell their stories ...
Finding Hope In Chaos: The Development Of A Tool To Identify Key Factors That College Students Use To Effectively Deal With Adversity, Joetta Harlow Kelly
The purpose of this study is to identify techniques that could be developed into a resource for counselors and other professionals who assist college students in dealing effectively with adversity. In a series of four surveys, 200 people were asked to participate. These included professional counselors and ministers both on and off campus, as well as directors in Student Affairs, such as those in student support services and student life. To accomplish this, questionnaires were developed to identify and allow for tabulation of the counseling techniques most commonly used for students dealing with adversity by those working with college students ...
Parent Perception Of The Working Alliance, Parent Self-Efficacy, And Parent Locus Of Control As Predictors Of Child Therapy Outcome, Christopher Glenn Chandler
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that parent-therapist working alliance, parent self-efficacy, and parent locus of control have on child therapy outcomes. Bordin’s model of the working alliance provides a framework for measuring the collaboration between the parents and therapists while Social Cognitive Theory informs the decision to assess parent self-efficacy and parent locus of control.
The research questions were as follows: 1) Does a strong parent and therapist working alliance, as perceived by the parent, predict improved outcomes in child counseling? 2) Does parent self-efficacy predict outcomes in child counseling? 3) Does parent locus ...
Refugee Resettlement And Perceptions Of Insecurity: A Comparative Study Of The United States And Canada, Erik Amundson
In the United States and Canada, refugee resettlement has been the subject of extensive scrutiny and political debate, particularly since the November 2015 terrorist attacks carried out by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) against targets in Paris. While public opinion polls have shown increasingly negative attitudes toward refugees, existing survey questionnaires only provide a limited understanding of what shapes these views. As such, this study focuses on two important factors that influence attitude formation toward refugees, pre-existing levels of knowledge and contact with minority groups. Using a comparative case study approach, this research examines how refugee resettlement ...
Command Climate And Ethical Behavior: Perspectives From The Commandant's Of The Marine Corps, Brian Kerl
Marine Corps commanding officers today face challenges aggravated by the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, strategic uncertainty, and societal changes that carry over to the military such as women serving in infantry roles and the use of social media. These challenges are exacerbated by the stressors unique to the military such as lengthy separations from loved ones and multiple relocation moves, which underscore the significance of command climate and its influence on ethical behavior. Importantly, the consequences of a command climate not focused on ethics may negatively affect combat readiness and warfighting effectiveness. To date, however, little scholarly work, if ...
A Case Study Of Strategic Governance In The Implementation Of Guided Pathways At Scale At California Community Colleges, Hayley Ashby
Purpose: Community colleges across the United States are implementing systemic change models such as guided pathways to increase student success. The purpose of this multiple case study was to describe the role of strategic governance in the implementation of guided pathways at scale at California community colleges.
Methodology: This phenomenological qualitative study used a multiple-case embedded case study methodology to collect data aligned with the four imperatives of strategic governance theory. Semistructured interviews were conducted with campus leaders involved in guided pathways implementation at three California community colleges. Archival records and documentation were used to triangulate the data.
Findings: Colleges ...
Career Coaching: A Study Of Veterans Health Administration (Vha) Leaders', Jerelyn Dugas
Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore and describe the impact of career coaching on the career performance growth and retention as perceived by healthcare’s emerging leaders who participated in selected coaching program institutes for a minimum of 1 year at VHA hospitals in Southern California.
Methodology: The researcher selected a qualitative multiple case study to explore and describe VHA leaders’ perceived impact of coaching on their career performance growth and retention. Further, the researcher conducted semi-structured, interviews with 15 participants to gain a better understanding of the lived experiences of the participants at ...
The Role Of Career Optimism And Perceived Barriers In College Students’ Academic Persistence: A Social Cognitive Career Theory Approach, Ben H. Wu
Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) suggests that one’s self-efficacy beliefs, one’s outcome expectations, and salient contextual influences impact the development of interests, goals, and goal-oriented behaviors. Additionally, initial support has been found in the SCCT literature to indicate that outcome expectations may mediate the relationship between self-efficacy and goals while contextual influences may moderate the relationship between self-efficacy and goals. By examining conditional indirect effects between academic self-efficacy, career optimism (an outcome expectation), perceived carrier barriers (a contextual influence), and intention to persist toward graduation (a goal) in a college student sample, this project aimed to further understand ...
Disability-Related Factors And Perceived Stigma: A Closer Examination Of Suicidality In Individuals With Physical Disabilities, Lauren Khazem
Previous research has indicated an association between physical disability and suicidal ideation. However, the mechanisms contributing to the development of suicidal ideation in this population have remained largely unstudied within an empirically supported theoretical framework. The current study expands upon previous research by examining the relationship between different facets of physical disability and suicidal ideation intensity through the indirect effect of perceived stigmatization and interactions with mental states described within the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, namely perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Furthermore, this research aims to examine these potential relationships in a nonclinical sample of adults with physical disabilities ranging ...
Psychopathic Traits, Substance Use, And Motivation To Change: The Effectiveness Of Motivational Interviewing With At-Risk Adolescents, Christopher Thomas Alan Gillen
The current study is the first known study to investigate the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) as a motivational enhancement intervention in at-risk adolescents with psychopathic traits and substance use (SU) problems. Further, it examined whether such an intervention can improve problematic behavior (i.e., aggression, delinquency) and treatment responsivity deficits (i.e., motivation to change) associated with psychopathy and SU. The effectiveness of MI was examined using a randomized treatment-control design in which adolescents were assigned to either a three-session group-based MI intervention and a residential treatment or a group receiving only the residential treatment without the MI component ...
Primary Care Physician Delivered Brief Behavioral Intervention For Adult Obesity And Associated Health Conditions, Julia C. Huston
Obesity is a chronic health condition with prevalence rates that have continued to rise steadily over the past 30 years to the point that it has now been declared a global epidemic and a serious public health concern. Obesity is associated with significant physical and economic costs, primarily resulting from co-occurring health conditions that increase the risk of morbidity including type II diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, coronary heart disease, and respiratory problems. Despite the dissemination of several obesity treatments, including pharmacotherapy, lifestyle modification, and bariatric surgery, the prevalence and severity of obesity continues to rise. Federal guidelines recommend the use ...
Qualitative Analogue Study On Student Therapist’S Reactions To Client Suicidality, Cynthia A. Beevers
Suicidal clients are a reality for both professional and student therapists providing counseling (Chemtob et al., 1988; Dexter-Mazza & Freeman, 2003; Goodman, 1995; Howard, 2000; Jacobson, Ting, Sanders, & Harrington, 2004; Kleespies, Penk, & Forsyth, 1993; Kleespies, Smith, & Becker, 1990; Mackelprang, Karle, & Cash, 2014; McAdams & Foster, 2000). Previous research has investigated the experiences of professional therapists working with suicidal clients, but little is known about student therapists’ experiences with suicidal clients. Only two studies were found investigating the experiences of student therapists working with suicidal clients (Kleespies et al., 1993; Kleespies et al., 1990). However, in the two studies explicitly focusing on student therapists’ experiences with suicidal clients, participants were doctoral students from clinical or counseling psychology programs that were in their pre-doctoral internship. No information was found regarding the experiences of student therapists currently attending a master’s degree program. Further, both studies exploring the experiences of doctoral students working with suicidal clients used a retrospective design ...
The Effects Of Decoding Instruction On Oral Reading Fluency For Older Students With Reading Delays, Gaige J. Johnson
Struggling older readers often have difficulty with early decoding skills (Tolman, 2005; Toste, Williams, & Capin, 2017). If they are unable to master decoding, they may have difficulty with more complex skills, such as passage reading fluency. The current study extends research on reading fluency for older students by evaluating the combined effects of a phonics procedure and a fluency-building strategy on their reading fluency. Participants were older students with below grade level reading performance who had deficits in oral reading fluency and decoding. Dependent variables were the number of correctly sorted word patterns and the number of correct words per ...
Demonstrating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy As An Independent Variable In Efficacy Research: A New Measure Of Treatment Fidelity, Lindsey E. Knott
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a contextual behavior therapy that takes an in session, in vivo focus to improve client outcomes. This in vivo (IV) focus is distinctive of FAP and involves the therapist utilization of contingencies in session to decrease problematic response classes and increase more adaptive response classes (i.e., a differential reinforcement procedure). This contingent responding is proposed to be FAP’s mechanism of action leading to client change. FAP efficacy research mainly consists of small n single-case studies or group designs combing FAP with another CBT intervention. Maitland & Gaynor (2012) offered recommendations for increasing FAP efficacy research, including the development of a reliable measure to determine whether a therapist implemented the distinguishing features of FAP. Maitland and Gaynor (2016) developed a 10-item fidelity measure, called the FAP Adherence Form (FAP-AF), to assess for aspects of FAP across 5 items and distinguish it from supportive listening (SL) assessed over 4 items. The measure was used in two FAP outcome studies (Maitland & Gaynor, 2016; Maitland et al., 2016) and it distinguished FAP ...
Black Graduate Students’ Experiences Of Stress And Coping, Shealyn J. Blanchard
Black Graduate Students’ Experiences Of Stress And Coping, Shealyn J. Blanchard
The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of Black graduate students related to stress and coping. Specifically, this study seeks to further examine the concept of cognitive appraisal and help-seeking intentions among Black graduate students. Research has indicated that Black graduate students face unique stressors related to race, in addition to general stress demands that can be experienced in graduate education programs. Regarding help-seeking, the literature has tended to focus on psychological help-seeking attitudes with African American populations and undergraduate students. This present study utilizes theories from stress and coping, as well as help-seeking and planned behavior ...
Counselor Educators’ Perceptions Of Nontraditional Master’S-Level Counseling Students And How Those Perceptions Shape Teaching Practices, Pamela J. Jordan
Graduate students age 40 and older, defined as “nontraditional” for this study, consistently represent approximately 20% of the graduate student population (United States Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics, 2015). Master’s degree programs in counseling may attract a higher percentage of these students, as some studies suggest that careers in fields such as counseling are sought out by adults changing careers at midlife and later (Bluestone & Melnik, 2010; Schaefers, 2012). These nontraditional students bring to the classroom their own characteristics of age, life stage, and experience, and they have distinct strengths and challenges that set them apart from traditional ...
The Integration Of Creative And Expressive Arts In A Young Adult Problem-Solving Court, Ricky J. Pope
Interaction with the criminal justice system exacts substantial costs on human potential, and alternative practices are emerging to address this social issue. This research explores the integration of creative and expressive arts in a young adult problem-solving court. The Young Adult Diversion Court (YADC) was created to help young adults 17- 20 years of age complete requirements for probation. Successful completion of the program provides participants the opportunity for the initial criminal charge to be dismissed and made non-public on the criminal record. This qualitative study is informed by interpretive interactionism and narrative inquiry to provide a method to understand ...
Treatment Preference, Changes In Preference, And Quality Of Life, Chelsea Sage-Germain
Treatment Preference, Changes In Preference, And Quality Of Life, Chelsea Sage-Germain
The current study investigates whether treatment preferences prior to beginning treatment are different from treatment preferences at later points in treatment, and whether preferences are related to treatment outcome. While research to date supports the notion that matching clients to treatment in line with their preferences can improve retention and outcomes, results have been equivocal. Further, this research is typically conducted by measuring preferences just one time, prior to starting treatment. It is conceivable that preferences for treatment change over time as patients become more knowledgeable about their presenting problems and about the therapy process. A total of 969 participants ...