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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Social And Individual-Level Identities And College Male Alcohol Use Behaviors: Examining The Utility Of Protective Behavioral Strategies, Robert Bearden Whitley Jul 2021

Social And Individual-Level Identities And College Male Alcohol Use Behaviors: Examining The Utility Of Protective Behavioral Strategies, Robert Bearden Whitley

Dissertations

Recent literature has consistently identified conformity to traditional masculine norms as motivating hazardous drinking behaviors of college men. Given the high prevalence of hazardous drinking among college men and the particular negative consequences that emerge secondary to it, additional research is needed in this area to better identify possible intervention targets. The present study sought to better elucidate the proximity of male norm conformity to drinking behaviors through including a specific identity factor related to alcohol use: drinking identity. Secondary to this goal, this study also sought to examine how these factors of identity predicted the safe drinking behaviors of ...


Student-Athlete Success: An Examination Of Parenting, Grit, Academic Success, And Mental Health Outcomes, Jackson Howard Aug 2020

Student-Athlete Success: An Examination Of Parenting, Grit, Academic Success, And Mental Health Outcomes, Jackson Howard

Dissertations

Factors such as poor adjustment, substance misuse, and mental health concerns have been found to be detrimental to college student success. Considering this, researchers have focused on investigating protective factors, which may enhance performance in higher education. Specifically, non-cognitive traits, such as grit, or an ability to maintain determination and passion for long-term goals in the face of adversity, and positive parenting strategies, such as psychological autonomy granting, have been tied to positive outcomes for college students in higher education. Conversely, overparenting behaviors and negative outcomes, such as burnout, have been found to be damaging to student success. Student-athletes are ...


Romantic Relational Aggression Among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Study Of Attachment Style, Romantic Jealousy, Mate Value, And Relationship Investment, Skylar Hicks Aug 2020

Romantic Relational Aggression Among College Students: A Moderated Mediation Study Of Attachment Style, Romantic Jealousy, Mate Value, And Relationship Investment, Skylar Hicks

Dissertations

Most of the research on intimate partner violence has concentrated on overt physical and verbal aggression, and less is known about relational aggression in the framework of romantic relationships. Relational aggression is more prevalent in college students’ romantic relationships compared to physical aggression and may be a risk factor for intimate partner violence. Additionally, a number of adverse correlates have been associated with romantic relational aggression, suggesting that it is worthy of study independent of its association with intimate partner violence. The present study explored the relationships among adult attachment, romantic jealousy, mate value, relationship investment, and romantic relational aggression ...


Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms And Alcohol Outcomes: The Mediating Role Of Drinking Motives And Protective Behavioral Strategies, Hallie R. Jordan Aug 2020

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms And Alcohol Outcomes: The Mediating Role Of Drinking Motives And Protective Behavioral Strategies, Hallie R. Jordan

Dissertations

The present study evaluated the sequentially mediating role of drinking motives (i.e. social, enhancement, coping, conformity) and alcohol protective behavioral strategy (PBSA) subtypes (i.e. serious harm reduction [SHR], stopping/limiting drinking [SLD], manner of drinking [MOD]) on the relationships posttraumatic stress symptoms had with hazardous drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences in college students. Participants were 492 (50.8% men) traditional age (i.e. 18 to 25 years old) college students reporting past 30 day alcohol consumption and the experience of at least one potentially traumatic event over their lifetime. Participants reported their gender and completed measures of posttraumatic ...


A Parametric Analysis Of Opportunities To Respond On Academically Engaged Behavior, Morgan G. Mccargo Aug 2020

A Parametric Analysis Of Opportunities To Respond On Academically Engaged Behavior, Morgan G. Mccargo

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequate rate of opportunities to respond (OTR) to provide to students that would result in the highest rates of Academically Engaged Behavior. This study utilized a parametric analysis to evaluate and assess the effects of altering the number of OTR provided per minute (i.e., 1, 3, 5) on academically engaged behavior, disruptive behavior, and passive off-task, as an antecedent intervention in a general education elementary school setting. An alternating treatments design was utilized with three treatment conditions. All treatment conditions were implemented in a predetermined pattern, meeting the standards of ...


The Mediating Effects Of Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy On The Associations Between Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies And Alcohol Use Outcomes, Kray Scully Aug 2020

The Mediating Effects Of Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy On The Associations Between Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies And Alcohol Use Outcomes, Kray Scully

Dissertations

Alcohol use continues to pose a serious public health problem at universities across the U.S., largely due to the extent of consumption and frequency of negative consequences experienced among college students. Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS-A) are an empirically supported repertoire of safe drinking behaviors college students can use to monitor and control their alcohol consumption as well as limit harm while drinking. However, there remains a need to better understand how cognitive mechanisms, such as drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), help explain college student safe alcohol use behaviors to enhance evidenced-based intervention and prevention efforts. Recently, studies that examined ...


The Role Of Masculinity In The Development Of Capability For Suicide, Claire Houtsma Aug 2020

The Role Of Masculinity In The Development Of Capability For Suicide, Claire Houtsma

Dissertations

Males account for over two-thirds of suicide deaths annually. Additionally, more than 50% of American suicide deaths annually are firearm-related. Suicide risk is elevated within firearm owning households and men are more likely to own firearms, which suggests that male firearm owners are at disproportionate risk for suicide. Prior research has argued that certain stereotypically male traits (e.g., lack of help-seeking) may explain sex differences in suicide death; however, this remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Male gender norms (e.g. physical toughness, self-reliance) may contribute to the development or expression of capability for suicide, primarily through their impact on ...


Psychotherapy Model For The Training Of Counselors In India, Vini Kalra Jul 2020

Psychotherapy Model For The Training Of Counselors In India, Vini Kalra

Dissertations

Common mental disorders in India are on the rise and are adding to the national burden of mental health care on a day-to-day basis. The demand for treatment of mental illnesses has risen considerably, though there is a shortage of mental health professionals who can deliver counseling services. The Indian government has made efforts to improve the scalability of services by training lay health counselors to diagnose and conduct brief counseling with the mentally ill and those involved with their care. Despite efforts to scale up services, the treatment gap still exists, as mental health services are not uniformly distributed ...


Experiences Of Graduate Level Students Of Color With Race In Psychology Diversity Courses, Lakesha Winley Jul 2020

Experiences Of Graduate Level Students Of Color With Race In Psychology Diversity Courses, Lakesha Winley

Dissertations

The ethnoracial makeup of individuals entering fields of study such as psychology continues to change but the experiences of graduate level students of color in these programs is a phenomenon that has received little attention. When attempting to understand these experiences specific to racial content, the literature is almost nonexistent. This qualitative inquiry was designed in an attempt to understand, assess, and depict the experiences of students of color related to experiences of racial content in their American Psychological Association (APA) accredited graduate level diversity/multicultural psychology courses. The focus was on their reactions (e.g., emotional, physical, somatic) to ...


Community Violence, Protective Factors, And Resilience: Gender Differences In African American Youth, Kimberly Nelson-Arrington Jul 2020

Community Violence, Protective Factors, And Resilience: Gender Differences In African American Youth, Kimberly Nelson-Arrington

Dissertations


African American youth are exposed to community violence in varying degrees. Over the last few decades, much research has focused on the negative implications of such exposure. While it is helpful to explore the detrimental effects of community violence on this population, the factors that promote resilience, leading to favorable outcomes, should be explored with just as much fervency. The present study sought to explore the protective factors that contribute to resilience in African American youth exposed to community violence. While resilience is a multidimensional construct, this study focused on the participants’ psychological outlook, namely their sense of hopefulness and ...


Exploring The Impact Of Insecure Attachment Styles In Couple Adjustment Through The Lens Of Cluster B Pathology, Laura Bonnemort Jul 2020

Exploring The Impact Of Insecure Attachment Styles In Couple Adjustment Through The Lens Of Cluster B Pathology, Laura Bonnemort

Dissertations

The current body of research literature appears to lack adequate studies focused on individuals who possess an insecure attachment, potential cluster B personality pathology, and who are engaged in couple discord. The following clinical research project explored how insecure attachments impact the trajectory of both cluster B pathology and adult couples’ relationship discord. Studies reviewed included adults diagnosed with mood disorders, personality pathology, and those engaged in couples therapy due to dissatisfaction and discord. Developing an insecure attachment in childhood appears to place adults at risk for higher rates of personality pathology and risky romantic relationships fraught with discord. Evidence-based ...


Social-Ecological And Protective Factor Approach To Managing Parental Incarceration, Jacquelyn Harris Jun 2020

Social-Ecological And Protective Factor Approach To Managing Parental Incarceration, Jacquelyn Harris

Dissertations

Mass imprisonment does not only impact the incarcerated individual; it also affects approximately five million children in the United States. Researchers identified and compare the impact of parental incarceration on child development. They acknowledged the protective factors across the lifecycle from a social-ecological perspective and specifically related to parental incarceration. The comprehensive literature review inspired an innovative model, the social-ecological and protective factor approach to managing parental incarceration. The primary goal of this model is to combat the detrimental effects of parental incarceration by identifying protective factors across the lifecycle and throughout the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem. This model is ...


Women's Expereinces Of Internalized Sexism, Syeda Rahmani Jun 2020

Women's Expereinces Of Internalized Sexism, Syeda Rahmani

Dissertations

This study involved exploring the lived experiences of women with sexism and its internalization. Ten women participated in the study to share their experiences through personal narratives. The study was qualitative in nature and results yielded coded phenomenological themes related to the experiences of sexism and how it can become internalized. The study’s results are divided into themes and subthemes and supported by direct quotes from the participants. Themes included development & socialization across a range of environments, gender expectations, family of origin, intergenerational sexism, relationship conflict, sexism at work, career expectations, loss of income, intersectional experience of discrimination, appearance ...


Exploration Of Physician Attitudes About Self-Care And Personal Mental Health: Possible Barriers To Physician Well Being, Candich Farrar Jun 2020

Exploration Of Physician Attitudes About Self-Care And Personal Mental Health: Possible Barriers To Physician Well Being, Candich Farrar

Dissertations

The present study was designed to examine physicians’ mental health, attitudes, and behaviors toward self-care and the utilization of mental health services. As the medical field can be very demanding and exhausting, it is believed that many physicians suffer from mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression. However, it was theorized that many physicians do not engage in adequate self-care regimes or seek support and suppress their symptoms, which may further exacerbate their illnesses. A thorough literature review was performed to explore the following: possible barriers to physicians seeking mental health services to address high rates of mental illnesses, physicians ...


The Relationship Between Neuropsychological Functioning, Biomarker Av-1451, And Subjective Memory Impairment In A Cognitively Normal Sample, Amberrose Reale-Caldwell Jun 2020

The Relationship Between Neuropsychological Functioning, Biomarker Av-1451, And Subjective Memory Impairment In A Cognitively Normal Sample, Amberrose Reale-Caldwell

Dissertations

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often a prodromal stage for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) development, with those diagnosed with MCI at increased risk for developing AD. The present study aimed to provide data to support a prodromal stage of MCI via analysis utilizing the neuropsychological domain of memory, subjective memory impairment (SMI), and the PET tau biomarker, AV-1451. It was hypothesized that individuals with SMI would differ significantly from participants without SMI (nSMI) on measures of memory and level of tau binding in the entorhinal cortices and the hippocampi. It was further hypothesized that differences in memory would be mediated ...


An Interoperative Phenomenological Analysis Of Hindu Psychologists And The Impact Of Hinduism On Their Clinical Work, Kinjal Panchal Jun 2020

An Interoperative Phenomenological Analysis Of Hindu Psychologists And The Impact Of Hinduism On Their Clinical Work, Kinjal Panchal

Dissertations

This study was an exploration of spirituality, cultural upbringing, and deeply rooted Eastern philosophy and their conscious and unconscious impact on the way Hindu psychologists practice in the field. The purpose was to take into consideration the four major theories of Hinduism and to assess whether psychologists of Hindu origin integrated them into their clinical work. The study used qualitative methods, specifically interpretative phenomenological analysis, as the main strategy of inquiry for data collection and analysis. The goal was to broaden the understanding of how spiritual beliefs can inform a psychologist’s clinical approach and lead to a better understanding ...


Exploration Of Factors That Influence The Use Of Psychological Testing In The Treatment And Evaluation Of Children: Development Of A Clinical Decision-Marking Model, Joy Bui Jun 2020

Exploration Of Factors That Influence The Use Of Psychological Testing In The Treatment And Evaluation Of Children: Development Of A Clinical Decision-Marking Model, Joy Bui

Dissertations

Mental health disorders are on the rise among children. Within the field of clinical psychology, psychological testing is considered a professional competency and a formative diagnostic tool. Simultaneously, testing can help clarify differential diagnosis, guide treatment for both medical and mental health conditions, and provide accurate monitoring of treatment over time. Although there is substantial evidence supporting the use of testing in practice, there is limited scientific data linking these same benefits to the assessment process. One explanation for this is that studying psychological assessments is a challenging task, given the complexities of the process. Subsequently, many have described conducting ...


Navy Seals - Crossing Cultures: Cross-Cultural Competence And Decision Styles, Robert Newson May 2020

Navy Seals - Crossing Cultures: Cross-Cultural Competence And Decision Styles, Robert Newson

Dissertations

U.S. military cross-cultural competence is currently deficient, as Special Operations Forces (SOF) personnel assessments fail to explicitly consider aspects related to cross-cultural competence and lack processes specifically tailored to cross-cultural personnel assignments. Researchers, however, have identified eleven attributes that contribute to military cross-cultural competence; this study uses these attributes to explore whether decision styles and demographics correlate with cross-cultural competence. Building on existing work on the attributes of military cross-cultural competence (defined in this study as the ability to quickly and accurately assess, then effectively act, in a culturally complex environment to achieve mission results), I first examined the ...


An Examination Of Gaming Environments In Dungeons And Dragons Groups, Joe Lasley May 2020

An Examination Of Gaming Environments In Dungeons And Dragons Groups, Joe Lasley

Dissertations

Tabletop Role-Playing Games (TRPG) like Dungeons & Dragons are unique phenomena within the topics of game-based learning and gamification of leadership development. Games in general are used for both game-based learning (learning from playing games) and as sources of inspiration for gamification: the application of game design elements in non-game contexts like business or education. Many potential benefits of playing TRPGs have been observed including transformative experiences linked to collective creativity. Knowing more about the transformative potential of TRPGs can inform facilitation of creative learning environments and guide the use of TRPGs for leadership development.

The concept of a holding environment ...


Exploring Intergenerational Value Changes Across Three Generations Of Emirati Women Using Focused Ethnography, Ebtesam Ali Alteneiji May 2020

Exploring Intergenerational Value Changes Across Three Generations Of Emirati Women Using Focused Ethnography, Ebtesam Ali Alteneiji

Dissertations

Intergenerational value change, influenced by technological advancements, economic development, formal education, and urbanization, becomes especially complex when it occurs in times of rapid changes, as in the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Through the lens of social change and human development theory, heavily constructed in the Gemeinschaft/Gesellschaft paradigm, this focused ethnography explored the push and pull of traditional boundaries within a collectivist society and the necessary navigation of infused Westernized philosophies promoting individualism and autonomy. Participants in this study (N = 24) were members of 8 family triads of grandmothers, mothers, and daughters who represented 8 different Emirati ...


La Maestra’S Circle Of Care: Studying The Impact Of An Integrated Service Model On The Health And Well-Being Of Vulnerable Populations, Zara Marselian May 2020

La Maestra’S Circle Of Care: Studying The Impact Of An Integrated Service Model On The Health And Well-Being Of Vulnerable Populations, Zara Marselian

Dissertations

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to reform the health care delivery system in the United States, as recognized through current bipartisan efforts. Society’s vulnerable populations especially need health care reform as health care outcomes are the poorest among disadvantaged populations. Moreover, vulnerable populations are twice as likely to develop chronic diseases than the general population and they remain ill due to other contextual, societal factors affecting their ability to achieve health and well-being. This population is subjected to adverse life events that suggest a more comprehensive approach to health and well-being is called for.

The Circle of Care ...


Emotional Intelligence Methods Utilized By Successful Major League Baseball Closers To Perform Successfully In High Pressure Situations, Joshua Rosenthal Apr 2020

Emotional Intelligence Methods Utilized By Successful Major League Baseball Closers To Perform Successfully In High Pressure Situations, Joshua Rosenthal

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative case study is to understand the similarities that exist in the descriptions of emotional intelligence methods utilized by retired successful Major League Baseball closers to appraise, express, regulate, and utilize their emotions to perform successfully in high pressure situations.

Methodology: The dissertation was a qualitative case study. Twelve of the top 50 retired save leaders in Major League Baseball were interviewed to understand the similarities in the descriptions of emotional intelligence methods used to perform successfully in high pressure situations. This study attempted to understand what exactly elite closers did to utilize emotional intelligence ...


Impulsivity As A Trait Predictor In Baccalaureate Nursing Students, Jennifer Bertucci Apr 2020

Impulsivity As A Trait Predictor In Baccalaureate Nursing Students, Jennifer Bertucci

Dissertations

Impulsive personality traits have been linked to pathological decision making in individuals who possess the trait. Impulsive pathological decision making may include acts of aggression, divergence, risky behavior, lack of self-care, etc. The purpose of this study was to examine impulsive personality traits among nursing students. Traditional students are defined by the following characteristics: earns a high school diploma, enrolls full time immediately after finishing high school, are financially dependent on parents, and either do not work during the school year or works part-time (the exception to the rule) (Choy, 2002). A non-traditional nursing student is defined as students who ...


Political Public Relations Agenda-Building: A Content Analysis Of The Us 2016 Presidential Campaign Speeches, Tweets And News Stories, Emmanuel Nwachukwu Apr 2020

Political Public Relations Agenda-Building: A Content Analysis Of The Us 2016 Presidential Campaign Speeches, Tweets And News Stories, Emmanuel Nwachukwu

Dissertations

This study investigated the role of political agenda building of political speech and tweet in the 2016 US presidential elections and the relationships between the campaign messages and the news cycle during the election campaign period. It also used functional theory of political campaign discourse to evaluate the speech and tweets of the presidential candidates. The study utilized content analysis and analyzed 5303 units of speech, tweets, TV (CNN, FOX and NBC news) clips and news stories from New York Times and Washington Post to derive its conclusions.

The result of the study showed how tweets shaped the media agenda ...


The Influence Of Emotional Intelligence Training On College Student Employee Workforce Readiness, Wynde Jones Apr 2020

The Influence Of Emotional Intelligence Training On College Student Employee Workforce Readiness, Wynde Jones

Dissertations

Working while enrolled in college has become routine for the Millennial college student (Riggert, Boyle, Petrosko, Ash, & Rude-Parkins, 2006). Approximately 14 million students in the United States work and attend college simultaneously (Carnevale, Smith, Melton, & Price, 2015). Millennials graduate and infiltrate the workforce, now composing half of the U. S. labor market (Calk & Patrick, 2017). Yet, a mismatch between employer and new graduate’s competencies occurs in the workplace. While Millennials view themselves as workforce ready, employers see them as unprepared and lacking the necessary skills for success in the workplace (Jaschik, 2015). Many Millennial college graduates do not possess ...


Regional Differences In Wild North American River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Behavior And Communication, Sarah Walkley Apr 2020

Regional Differences In Wild North American River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Behavior And Communication, Sarah Walkley

Dissertations

This study focuses on the vocalization repertoires of wild North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in New York and California. Although they are the same species, these two established populations of river otters are separated by a significant distance and are distinct from one another. River otters are semi-aquatic social predators that can be found throughout North America. This is the first study to examine the vocalizations of wild river otters, and results are compared across field sites in the different regions. River otter vocalizations and behaviors in New York were recorded using Bushnell Aggressor trail cameras that were placed ...


Agonistic Grooming In Multiple Lemur Species, Jennie L. Christopher Apr 2020

Agonistic Grooming In Multiple Lemur Species, Jennie L. Christopher

Dissertations

Social behaviors are represented in every animal species regardless of the level of sociability found in the species. At the very least, conspecifics must interact for the continuation of the species. Depending on species, social behavior could merely consist of mating and territorial disputes, it could consist of a multitude of social behaviors that provide a way of navigating a complex societal structure, or it could consist of any level of interaction between those extremes. However, the behaviors that make up these social repertoires are not universal across species. They could differ in either the form or function of the ...


Memories Of Emotions Of First Consensual Sexual Encounters, Mario Herrera Apr 2020

Memories Of Emotions Of First Consensual Sexual Encounters, Mario Herrera

Dissertations

Are people’s memories of their most intimate moments prone to memory distortions? There is some limited research that has found that to be the case—memories of past consensual sexual encounters have been prone to memory biases. However, no past research has looked into whether memory of emotions toward a person’s first consensual sexual encounter are malleable. A combination of reconstructive memory and appraisal theories would predict that memory for emotions are prone to distortions based on the changes in current appraisals of the event and/or person. In the current experiment, we investigated the effects of current ...


An Econometric Analysis Of Bilateral Import Demand In South Africa, Christopher Smith Apr 2020

An Econometric Analysis Of Bilateral Import Demand In South Africa, Christopher Smith

Dissertations

One of the most significant challenges facing any society is the allocation of scarce economic resources that have alternative uses. Though imports can streamline the allocation of scarce resources in an economy, the potency of a country’s import policies are subject to the magnitude of import elasticities with respect to income, domestic prices, foreign prices, and exchange rates. This research estimates the bilateral income, domestic price, import price, and exchange rate elasticities between South Africa and its five largest trading partners: China, Germany, the United States, India, and Saudi Arabia using quarterly data from 1998 – 2017. The bounds testing ...


A View From Above: Alternative Perspectives On Smallholder Livelihoods And Agrobiodiversity Conservation In Northern Ecuador, Chris Hair Apr 2020

A View From Above: Alternative Perspectives On Smallholder Livelihoods And Agrobiodiversity Conservation In Northern Ecuador, Chris Hair

Dissertations

Food security and deintensification of agriculture are serious concerns in Latin America. Agriculture, especially at small-scale subsistence levels, is hard work, and comes with some economic and physical risk. Transitions from traditional multi-cropping to mono-cropping systems introduce two particular risks that are new to most smallholders: (1) the loss of agricultural diversity and (2) the potential for widespread failure when focusing on the cultivation of a single crop. This research explores how Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS), or drones, can be used for rapid inventories of crop diversity and to enhance crop management techniques on small-scale farms. In the community ...