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Western Michigan University

2003

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Articles 1 - 30 of 193

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Three Essays On Financial Intermediation, Capital Formation, And Economic Growth And Development, Md. Habibur Rahman Dec 2003

Three Essays On Financial Intermediation, Capital Formation, And Economic Growth And Development, Md. Habibur Rahman

Dissertations

This dissertation contains three essays on financial intermediation, capital formation, and economic growth and development. The first essay presents a theoretical model explaining the role of financial intermediation in capital formation and economic growth. It outlines a model of search and matching equilibrium in financial economies where a lender owns capital and an entrepreneur owns entrepreneurial skill and output is produced when search generates a meeting between a lender and an entrepreneur. It is shown that investment in capital and skill is inefficient in autarky due to search frictions and an externality. We examine the autarkic equilibrium under bargaining-without-search and ...


Social Disorganization, Disorder, Social Cohesion, Informal Controls, And Crime: A Reformulation And Test Of Systemic Social Disorganization Theory, Gayle M. Rhineberger Dec 2003

Social Disorganization, Disorder, Social Cohesion, Informal Controls, And Crime: A Reformulation And Test Of Systemic Social Disorganization Theory, Gayle M. Rhineberger

Dissertations

The primary purpose of this dissertation is to modify and test the systemic social disorganization models of crime proposed by Bursik and Grasmick (1993) and Sampson, Raudenbush, and Earls (1997), and offer an empirical test of my hypothesized model. Specifically, the model includes traditional indicators of social disorganization (racial/ethnic heterogeneity, socioeconomic status, family disruption, residential stability) as exogenous variables; social and physical disorder, social cohesion, and three levels of informal social control (private, parochial, and public) as intervening mechanisms; and official crime counts and crime victimization as dependent variables.

The data used in this study come from the Project ...


Taylor-Based Monetary Policy Rules: Are They Forward-Looking, Data Congruent, And Asset Price Responsive?, Rajeev Sooreea Dec 2003

Taylor-Based Monetary Policy Rules: Are They Forward-Looking, Data Congruent, And Asset Price Responsive?, Rajeev Sooreea

Dissertations

This dissertation presents three essays to analyze a class of Taylor-based monetary policy rules that forms the basis of contemporary monetary policy decisions. The first essay examines whether policy rules are forward-looking. It proposes the methodology that, if the parameters of the Taylor rule change when the mechanism generating inflation changes, that is the Lucas critique applies, then inflation is not superexogenous for the parameters of the rule. In this case where superexogeneity fails, the rule is forward-looking. However, the results indicate that, although there is structural break in the inflation volatility process as evidenced by a model of heteroskedastic ...


Culture And The Effectiveness Of Supplier Diversity Programs: A Test Of Predictors, Gwendolyn Whitfield Dec 2003

Culture And The Effectiveness Of Supplier Diversity Programs: A Test Of Predictors, Gwendolyn Whitfield

Dissertations

Increased globalization and diversity has brought with it unique interdependencies. As we experience demographical shifts unlike any other in U.S. history, the growth rate of minority-owned businesses may represent unprecedented opportunity for corporate buyers to partner with minority suppliers. According to the Minority Business Development Agency, the minority population will represent 37.4 percent of the total U.S. population by the year 2020, and will yield purchasing power of $3 trillion. Moreover, it is estimated that between the years 2000 and 2050 the majority of new business starts will originate in the minority business community (U.S. Small ...


Essays On Monetary Policy In Bangladesh, Sayera Younus Dec 2003

Essays On Monetary Policy In Bangladesh, Sayera Younus

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Classifying Forest Composition Using Fractal Dimension As An Index Of Image Texture, Fitria Latifah Wahid Dec 2003

Classifying Forest Composition Using Fractal Dimension As An Index Of Image Texture, Fitria Latifah Wahid

Master's Theses

In this study, Landsat imagery from June (summer) and October (autumn senescence) 2000 of the area of Fort Custer Training Center in Kalamazoo and Calhoun Counties, Michigan, were analyzed for forest classification accuracies. The use of fractal analysis to improve forest classification, particularly to distinguish among northern hardwood species, was examined. Using moving windows with different sizes, measurement of local fractal dimension and spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I) were performed on the NDVIs and the panchromatic images. The measurement products were combined with Landsat TM bands as additional layers in supervised maximum- Iikelihood multispectral classifications. The accuracy for multispectral classification ...


Response Cost In The Treatment Of Lunging In Dogs, Jennifer L. Sobie Dec 2003

Response Cost In The Treatment Of Lunging In Dogs, Jennifer L. Sobie

Master's Theses

Contemporary professional applied animal behavior management employs a diagnostic and treatment approach for unwanted pet behavior that incorporates ethology-based causal factors. As in behavior therapy for humans, behavioral assessment includes descriptive functional analysis when possible to determine relevant contingency variables. But this information is then considered in the context of an appropriate motivational classification, such as social or prey-directed motivation or fear-motivated, and treatments are designed accordingly. A different view is that behavior can be treated effectively without a presumption of the motivation through analysis of the manifestation of the behavior itself. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of ...


Psychophysically Derived Work Frequencies Associated With Roof Shingling Operations Involving Change In Grade, Sang Dae Choi Dec 2003

Psychophysically Derived Work Frequencies Associated With Roof Shingling Operations Involving Change In Grade, Sang Dae Choi

Dissertations

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of roof slope on psychophysical roof shingling frequency. Twelve healthy males (21-30 years old) were used as participants. Experiment one was designed to determine Maximum Acceptable Roof Shingling Frequency (MARSF) for a workday period using psychophysical methodology. Results indicate that 198 shingles/hr is an acceptable roof shingling frequency for a workday. Furthermore, 2 hours is an acceptable testing period (equivalent to the workday). Postural sway and physiological variables support these findings. Experiment two was designed to study the effect of slope (18°, 26°, and 34°) on MARSF. Experiment two ...


Student Satisfaction With Michigan Community College Distance Education Courses, Eugene H. Mckay Iii Dec 2003

Student Satisfaction With Michigan Community College Distance Education Courses, Eugene H. Mckay Iii

Dissertations

Distance education courses offered by community colleges and other higher education institutions are becoming popular options for students who seek a more convenient method to obtain a college education. Community colleges are actively expanding their offerings of distance education courses, both nationally and in Michigan. Yet minimal research has been conducted on a large scale to discover the factors which contribute to satisfaction with distance education courses at community colleges.

This study consists of a cross-sectional survey of over 6000 Michigan community college students in Michigan, who completed a distance education courseduring the fall semester of 2002. Sixteen of Michigan ...


American Poverty As A Structural Failing: Evidence And Arguments, Mark R. Rank, Hong-Sik Yoon, Thomas A. Hirschl Dec 2003

American Poverty As A Structural Failing: Evidence And Arguments, Mark R. Rank, Hong-Sik Yoon, Thomas A. Hirschl

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Empirical research on American poverty has largely focused on individual characteristicst o explain the occurrence and patternso f poverty. The argument in this article is that such an emphasis is misplaced. By focusing upon individual attributes as the cause of poverty, social scientists have largely missed the underlying dynamic of American impoverishment. Poverty researchers have in effect focused on who loses out at the economic game, rather than addressing the fact that the game produces losers in the first place. We provide three lines of evidence to suggest that U.S. poverty is ultimately the result of structural failings at ...


Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 30, No. 4 (December 2003) Dec 2003

Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 30, No. 4 (December 2003)

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • AMERICAN POVERTY AS A STRUCTURAL FAILING: EVIDENCE AND ARGUMENTS - Mark R. Rank, Hong-Sik Yoon, & Thomas A. Hirschl
  • SHIFT WORK AND NEGATIVE WORK-TO-FAMILY SPILLOVER - Blanche Grosswald
  • BECAUSE A BETTER WORLD IS POSSIBLE: WOMEN CASINO WORKERS, UNION ACTIVISM AND THE CREATION OF A JUST WORKPLACE - Susan Chandler & Jill Jones
  • RESILIENCY FACTORS RELATED TO SUBSTANCE USE/RESISTANCE: PERCEPTIONS OF NATIVE ADOLESCENTS OF THE SOUTHWEST - Margaret A. Waller, Scott K. Okamoto, Bart Miles, & Donna E. Hurdle
  • A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF SEX AND RACE INEQUITIES IN UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE BENEFITS - Melissa Latimer
  • FINDING AND KEEPING AFFORDABLE HOUSING: ANALYZING THE EXPERIENCES OF SINGLE-MOTHER FAMILIES ...


Resiliency Factors Related To Substance Use/Resistance: Perceptions Of Native Adolescents Of The Southwest, Margaret A. Waller, Scott K. Okamoto, Bart Miles, Donna E. Hurdle Dec 2003

Resiliency Factors Related To Substance Use/Resistance: Perceptions Of Native Adolescents Of The Southwest, Margaret A. Waller, Scott K. Okamoto, Bart Miles, Donna E. Hurdle

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This exploratory, qualitative study examined risk and protective factors influencing drug and alcohol use and/or resistance of Native youth in the Southwest. Thirty-two Native middle school students participated in 10 focus groups that explored their experiences with alcohol and drugs in their school and reservation communities. The findings indicate a complex interaction of both risk and protective factors related to substance use. Respondents' cousins and siblings, in particular, played a key role in their decisions to use or resist drugs. Implications for social work practice are discussed.


A Comprehensive Analysis Of Sex And Race Inequities In Unemployment Insurance Benefits, Melissa Latimer Dec 2003

A Comprehensive Analysis Of Sex And Race Inequities In Unemployment Insurance Benefits, Melissa Latimer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This research makes a unique contribution to the growing body of literature on the welfare system by examining the relationship between sex, race, and social insurance benefits in a rural state. Using data from the West Virginia Unemployment Compensation Program, this research investigates sex and race differences in (1) monetary disqualifications for unemployment insurance (UI) benefits and (2) separation issue and nonseparation issue disqualifications of UI benefits. The analyses indicate that unemployed women, people of color, younger, and low income workers are the most likely to fail the monetary qualifications for UI benefits and to lose qualified weeks of UI ...


Finding And Keeping Affordable Housing: Analyzing The Experiences Of Single-Mother Families In North Philadelphia, Susan Clampet-Lundquist Dec 2003

Finding And Keeping Affordable Housing: Analyzing The Experiences Of Single-Mother Families In North Philadelphia, Susan Clampet-Lundquist

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The location, availability, and quality of housing shapes one's social networks, affects access to jobs, and impacts on social relations within the housing unit. However, access to affordable housing is limited for a significant portion of the population in the urban United States. In this study, I interviewed eighteen African-American and Puerto Rican single mothers in two low-income neighborhoods of Philadelphia about how they create and maintain their housing arrangements. Within the constraints of an affordable housing shortage, women told me how they struggle to share housing with others, rehab abandoned properties, live in substandard housing, and remain in ...


Participants' Perceptions Of The Childcare Subsidy System, Sue Pearlmutter, Elizabeth E. Bartle Dec 2003

Participants' Perceptions Of The Childcare Subsidy System, Sue Pearlmutter, Elizabeth E. Bartle

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper presents a focus group study of perceptions of cash assistance participants in Cuyahoga County, Ohio and the San Fernando Valley in California regarding childcare subsidy use, choices of care, and perceptions of quality. TANF participants discuss experiences in the subsidy system and indicate needs and preferences for childcare. Advocates, policy makers, and parents recognize the need for suitable childcare so that TANF recipients can go to work. However, discussants' comments demonstrate one result of a changing, but not yet changed, social safety net. The authors explore strategies to address participants' concerns-childcare systems that neither function as promised, nor ...


Review Of Settlement Houses Under Siege: The Struggle To Sustain Community Organizations In New York City. Michael Fabricant And Robert Fisher. Reviewed By Bill Buffum., Bill Buffum Dec 2003

Review Of Settlement Houses Under Siege: The Struggle To Sustain Community Organizations In New York City. Michael Fabricant And Robert Fisher. Reviewed By Bill Buffum., Bill Buffum

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Michael Fabricant and Robert Fisher, Settlement Houses Under Siege: The Struggle to Sustain Community Organizations in New York City. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. $49.50 hardcover, $23.40 papercover.


Review Of Faithful Angels: Portraits Of International Social Work Notables. James O. Billups, (Ed.). Reviewed By Lynne M. Healy., Lynne M. Healy Dec 2003

Review Of Faithful Angels: Portraits Of International Social Work Notables. James O. Billups, (Ed.). Reviewed By Lynne M. Healy., Lynne M. Healy

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of James O. Billups, (Ed.), Faithful Angels: Portraits of International Social Work Notables. Washington, DC: NASW Press, 2002. $34.99 paperback.


Review Of Workfare: Why Good Ideas Go Bad. Maeve Quaid. Reviewed By Colita Nichols Fairfax., Colita Nichols Fairfax Dec 2003

Review Of Workfare: Why Good Ideas Go Bad. Maeve Quaid. Reviewed By Colita Nichols Fairfax., Colita Nichols Fairfax

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Maeve Quaid, Workfare: Why Good Ideas Go Bad. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002. $60.00 hardcover, $24.95 papercover.


Review Of A Sealed And Sacred Kinship: The Culture Of Policies And Practices In American Adoption. Judith S. Modell. Reviewed By Dorinda N. Noble., Dorinda N. Noble Dec 2003

Review Of A Sealed And Sacred Kinship: The Culture Of Policies And Practices In American Adoption. Judith S. Modell. Reviewed By Dorinda N. Noble., Dorinda N. Noble

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Judith S. Modell, A Sealed and Sacred Kinship: The Culture of Policies and Practices in American Adoption. New York: Berghahn, 2002. $49.95 hardcover.


Review Of From Immigration Controls To Welfare Controls. Steve Cohen, Beth Humphries, & Ed Mynott (Eds.). Reviewed By Miriam Potocky-Tripodi., Miriam Potocky-Tripodi Dec 2003

Review Of From Immigration Controls To Welfare Controls. Steve Cohen, Beth Humphries, & Ed Mynott (Eds.). Reviewed By Miriam Potocky-Tripodi., Miriam Potocky-Tripodi

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Steve Cohen, Beth Humphries and Ed Mynott (Eds.), From Immigration Controls to Welfare Controls. New York: Routledge, 2002. $90.00 hardcover, $28.95 papercover.


Review Of Working Parents And The Welfare State: Family Change And Policy Reform In Scandinavia. Arnlaug Leira. Inventing The Needy: Gender And The Politics Of Welfare In Hungary. Lynne Haney. Reviewed By Rebecca A. Van Voorhis., Rebecca A. Van Voorhis Dec 2003

Review Of Working Parents And The Welfare State: Family Change And Policy Reform In Scandinavia. Arnlaug Leira. Inventing The Needy: Gender And The Politics Of Welfare In Hungary. Lynne Haney. Reviewed By Rebecca A. Van Voorhis., Rebecca A. Van Voorhis

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Arnlaug Leira, Working Parents and the Welfare State: Family Change and Policy Reform in Scandinavia. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. $65.00. & Lynne Haney, Inventing the Needy: Gender and the Politics of Welfare in Hungary. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. $24.95 papercover.


Globalization And Human Welfare. Vic George & Paul Wilding. Dec 2003

Globalization And Human Welfare. Vic George & Paul Wilding.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book note for Vic George and Paul Wilding, Globalization and Human Welfare. New York: Palgrave, 2002. $75.00 hardcover, $25.00 papercover.


Life Support: The Environment And Human Health. Michael Mccally. Dec 2003

Life Support: The Environment And Human Health. Michael Mccally.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book note for Michael McCally, Life Support: The Environment and Human Health. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002. $19.95. papercover.


Poverty Knowledge: Social Science, Social Policy And The Poor In Twentieth Century U.S. History. Alice O'Connor. Dec 2003

Poverty Knowledge: Social Science, Social Policy And The Poor In Twentieth Century U.S. History. Alice O'Connor.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book note for Alice O'Connor, Poverty Knowledge: Social Science, Social Policy and the Poor in Twentieth Century U. S. History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002. paper cover $22.50.


Organizational Factors Contributing To Worker Frustration: The Precursor To Burnout, Cathleen A. Lewandowski Dec 2003

Organizational Factors Contributing To Worker Frustration: The Precursor To Burnout, Cathleen A. Lewandowski

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examined the organizationalf actors that contribute to workers' frustration with their work situation. The sample included 141 service professionals who attended workshops on burnout in 2001. The purpose of the workshops was to increase awareness regarding the organizational factors that could contribute to burnout. Findings indicate that factors most directly affecting clients were predictive of frustration, rather than factors that may indirectly support service quality or factors impacting workers' professional autonomy. A sense of powerlessness and isolation was also predictive of frustration, suggesting that participants viewed workplace problems as a private rather than an organizational concern. To address ...


Because A Better World Is Possible: Women Casino Workers, Union Activism And The Creation Of A Just Workplace, Susan Chandler Dec 2003

Because A Better World Is Possible: Women Casino Workers, Union Activism And The Creation Of A Just Workplace, Susan Chandler

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Based on a re-analysis of data from a qualitative study of the work experience of 36 women casino workers, this article examines the contributions and personal characteristics of the 13 women in the sample who described themselves as committed union activists. These women, all leaders in the Hotel Employees, Restaurant Employees Union, were proud that collectively they had improved wages, benefits, and the conditions of work in Nevada casinos, and had created an environment that reinforced pride in a job well-done, provided job security, and promoted strong families and communities. These women's workplace experience serves as a reminder to ...


Financialization Of Daily Life. Randy Martin. Dec 2003

Financialization Of Daily Life. Randy Martin.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book note for Randy Martin, Financialization of Daily Life. Philadelpia, PA: Temple University Press, 2002. $59.50 hardcover, $19.95 papercover.


Shift Work And Negative Work-To-Family Spillover, Blanche Grosswald Dec 2003

Shift Work And Negative Work-To-Family Spillover, Blanche Grosswald

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A representative sample of the U.S. workforce from 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce data (Families & Work Institute, 1999) was examined to study the relationship between shift work and negative workto- family spillover. Negative spillover was measured by Likert-scale frequency responses to questions concerning mood, energy, and time for family as functions of one's job. Statistical analyses comprised t-tests, ANOVAs, and multiple regressions. Among wage earners with families (n = 2,429), shift work showed a significant, strong, positive relationship to high negative work-to-family spillover when controlling for standard demographic characteristics as well as education and occupation. Distinctions ...


Early Education Experiences & School-To-Work Program Participation, Richard K. Caputo Dec 2003

Early Education Experiences & School-To-Work Program Participation, Richard K. Caputo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study assesses the effects of Head Start participation and demonstrated academic ability during elementary school on School-to-Work (STW) program participation. The study sample comes from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort and comprises 4,370 adolescents who reported grades they received while in the 8th grade and whether or not they ever repeated a grade in grammar school. Findings indicate that STW programs attract disproportionate numbers of students with histories of marginal demonstrated academic ability. This is so because STW programs are also more likely to attract Head Starters. Demonstrated academic ability varies by race/ethnicity and ...


Single Mothers And The State: The Politics Of Care In Sweden And The United States. Cecilia Winkler. Dec 2003

Single Mothers And The State: The Politics Of Care In Sweden And The United States. Cecilia Winkler.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book note for Cecilia Winkler, Single Mothers and the State: The Politics of Care in Sweden and the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield, 2002, $69.00 hardcover.