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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Promoting Square Feet With Character: The Influence Of Fantasy On Meetings And Conventions At Walt Disney World, Christopher W. Tremblay Dec 1994

Promoting Square Feet With Character: The Influence Of Fantasy On Meetings And Conventions At Walt Disney World, Christopher W. Tremblay

Honors Theses

The Walt Disney World Resort is a unique setting for meetings and conventions because it offers the Disney theme parks, but more importantly, it offers the opportunity to incorporate fantasy components into convention activities. Since Walt Disney World opened, Disney has capitalized on its use of characters by designing theme park attractions based on those characters. The opportunity exists to incorporate Disney fantasy and characters into meetings and conventions, which impacts decisions by businesses and meeting planners to use Walt Disney World as a convention site. The purpose of this study is to look at the influence of the fantasy ...


It's The Budget, Stupid: A Policy Analysis Of Clinton's First Budget, James Max Fendrich, Jamie Miller, Tim Nickel Dec 1994

It's The Budget, Stupid: A Policy Analysis Of Clinton's First Budget, James Max Fendrich, Jamie Miller, Tim Nickel

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper analyzes President Clinton's first budget. Clinton's budget is his public policy. The budget is compared to Clinton's three stated objectives of stimulating the economy, investing in the future and reducing the deficit. His proposed budget and subsequent modifications are also compared to the budgets of previous administrations. In contrast to Reagan's first budget, which was a radical modification of public policy, Clinton's budget is only an incremental change from the public policies of the Reagan/Bush years.


Analyzing Administrative Experiences: Feminist, Labor, And Organizational Culture Perspectives, Joan L. Arches, Paula Schneider Dec 1994

Analyzing Administrative Experiences: Feminist, Labor, And Organizational Culture Perspectives, Joan L. Arches, Paula Schneider

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A framework is offered for making organizational assessment for change using feminist, labor, and organizational culture perspectives. A vision of a humane work environment is important. The labor literature provides the critical analysis, the feminist perspective provides alternatives, and the concept of organizational culture provides the tool for assessment. Based on an exploratory study with women administrators, the authors look at how differences in values are reflected in the administration and structure of feminist and traditional agencies.


Review Of Gangs: The Origins And Impact Of Contemporary Youth Gangs In The United States. Scott Cummings And Daniel J. Monti. Reviewed By James W. Callicut, The University Of Texas At Arlington., James W. Callicut Dec 1994

Review Of Gangs: The Origins And Impact Of Contemporary Youth Gangs In The United States. Scott Cummings And Daniel J. Monti. Reviewed By James W. Callicut, The University Of Texas At Arlington., James W. Callicut

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Scott Cummings and Daniel J. Monti (Eds). Gangs: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993. $59.50 hardcover; $19.95 papercover.


Review Of New Foundations For Scientific Social And Behavioral Research: The Heuristic Paradigm. Katherine Tyson. Reviewed By Gary Mathews, Western Michigan University., Gary Mathews Dec 1994

Review Of New Foundations For Scientific Social And Behavioral Research: The Heuristic Paradigm. Katherine Tyson. Reviewed By Gary Mathews, Western Michigan University., Gary Mathews

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Katherine Tyson. New Foundations for Scientific Social and Behavioral Research: The Heuristic Paradigm. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1995. Hardcover. $48.00.


Women, Violence And Crime Prevention. Jalna Hanmer And Sheila Saunders. Dec 1994

Women, Violence And Crime Prevention. Jalna Hanmer And Sheila Saunders.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Jalna Hanmer and Sheila Saunders. Women, Violence and Crime Prevention. Aldershot, England: Avebury, 1993. $59.95. (Distributed in the United States by Ashgate Publishing Co., Old Post Road, Brookfield, VT 05036)


Review Of Juvenile Gangs. Herbert C. Covey, Scott Menard And Robert J. Franzese. Springfield, Il: Charles C. Thomas, 1992., James W. Callicut Dec 1994

Review Of Juvenile Gangs. Herbert C. Covey, Scott Menard And Robert J. Franzese. Springfield, Il: Charles C. Thomas, 1992., James W. Callicut

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Herbert C. Covey, Scott Menard and Robert J. Franzese. Juvenile Gangs. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992. $54.75 hardcover.


Contructionist Controversies. Gale Miller And James A. Holstein. Dec 1994

Contructionist Controversies. Gale Miller And James A. Holstein.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Gale Miller and James A. Holstein (Eds.). Constructionist Controversies. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 1993. $22.95 papercover. James A. Holstein and Gale Miller (Eds.). Reconsidering Social Constructionism. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de gruyter, 1993. $74.95 hardcover.


Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 21, No. 4 (December 1994) Dec 1994

Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 21, No. 4 (December 1994)

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • IT'S THE BUDGET, STUPID: A POLICY ANALYSIS OF CLINTON'S FIRST BUDGET - James Max Fendrich, Jamie Miller, Tim Nickel
  • STATE WELFARE REFORMS: TYPOLOGY AND ANALYSIS - Malinda B. Orlin
  • NEW OPPORTUNITIES, NEW RESPONSIBILITIES: WELFARE REFORM IN WYOMING - Mark W. Lusk, Joseph D. Nies
  • HOW TO HELP THE WORKING POOR DEVELOP ASSETS - John R. Belcher
  • ASSETS AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AMONG POOR HOUSEHOLDS IN EXTREME POVERTY NEIGHBORHOODS - Cathleen M. Finn, Paz M-B. Zorita, Claudia Coulton
  • ROOMS FOR THE MISBEGOTTEN: SOCIAL DESIGN AND SOCIAL DEVIANCE - Bruce A. Arrigo
  • SYMBOLIC VIOLENCE AND SOCIAL CONTROL IN THE POST-TOTAL INSTITUTION ERA - John W ...


Symbolic Violence And Social Control In The Post-Total Institution Era, John W. Murphy, John T. Pardeck, Woo Sik Chung, Jung Min Choi Dec 1994

Symbolic Violence And Social Control In The Post-Total Institution Era, John W. Murphy, John T. Pardeck, Woo Sik Chung, Jung Min Choi

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Subsequent to the passage of the Community Mental Health Act in 1963, the "Total Institutions" described by Goffman have for the most part disappeared. Nonetheless, many writers charge that social control is still the primary function of mental health programs, even those that are identified as community-based. The new methods of control have not received widespread attention. In community-based programs control is operationalized in the form of "symbolic violence." This paper examines the various factors that contribute to this style of violence.


An Extension To The Avc Discrimination Test By The Addition Of One Level Above Avc Level Vi, Charles P. Butler Dec 1994

An Extension To The Avc Discrimination Test By The Addition Of One Level Above Avc Level Vi, Charles P. Butler

Dissertations

Kerr, Meyerson and Flora (1977) devised a series of six small learning tasks that could be used to assess developmentally disabled individuals on the typical tasks to be performed in a school setting or sheltered workshop and required very simple equipment. The tasks were imitation, position discrimination, visual discrimination, match-to sample, auditory discrimination and combined auditory visual discrimination. Davinc (1990) suggested that there may be transitional skills between AVC levels IV and V not found by Kerr et al. Davine (1990), Wilson (1991) and Buder (1992) devised a series of experimental tasks designed to test this notion. All used nonidentity ...


The Effects Of A Problem-Solving And Imagery-Based Suggestion On Analgesic Responding In Low, Medium, And High Hypnotizable Females, Gloria Haddad Taggett Dec 1994

The Effects Of A Problem-Solving And Imagery-Based Suggestion On Analgesic Responding In Low, Medium, And High Hypnotizable Females, Gloria Haddad Taggett

Dissertations

This study assessed the effects of a problem-solving suggestion as compared with an imagery-based suggestion on analgesic responding in subjects scoring in the low, medium, and high ranges on scales of hypnotizability. Subjects were exposed at separate intervals to either an hypnotic suggestion patter containing specific imagery designed to enhance analgesic performance, or alternatively to a suggestion patter that provided only general problem-solving direction, but contained no specific imaginal guidance. Performance was assessed using two duration measures on a cold-pressor test. Specific measures included both the total time duration a subject held the target hand in cold water (tolerance) as ...


Revisiting The Issue Of Terrorism: An Institutional Analysis Of U.S. Sponsored Terrorism Directed Toward Cuba, Rick A. Matthews Dec 1994

Revisiting The Issue Of Terrorism: An Institutional Analysis Of U.S. Sponsored Terrorism Directed Toward Cuba, Rick A. Matthews

Master's Theses

Consistent with Herman's (1982) call to more critically examine state-sponsored terrorism, this study assesses the sociopolitical and economic context in which the U.S. has terrorized the nation-state of Cuba. While the definitional framework in which the U.S. has traditionally examined acts of terrorism excludes from it the possibility of self incrimination, this research uses a single standard and nondiscriminatory definition which examines the behavior in question and harms done, as opposed to a definition based on power considerations alone. The method in which this research is conducted is qualitative, consistent with the principles of a sociohistorical case ...


An Experimental Analysis Of Instructional Technologies Applied To The Three Contingency Model Of Performance Management, Judith S . Devoe Dec 1994

An Experimental Analysis Of Instructional Technologies Applied To The Three Contingency Model Of Performance Management, Judith S . Devoe

Dissertations

This research had four goals: (1) to refine the theory of performance management based on rule-governed behavior and refine the three-contingency model of performance. management, (2) to develop a university-level programmed instruction unit to teach the three-contingency model of performance management, (3) to test for functional independence between response classes—using concept-discrimination and concept-exemplification, and (4) to test a common assumption of programmed instruction— the necessity for active responding (this assumption was tested with both concept-discrimination training and concept-exemplification training).

Participants included fifty-nine undergraduates enrolled in a behavior analysis course. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1 ...


The Relationship Between Codependency And Kohlberg's Stages Of Moral Development, David L. Arkesteyn Dec 1994

The Relationship Between Codependency And Kohlberg's Stages Of Moral Development, David L. Arkesteyn

Dissertations

The phenomenon of codependency is currently under considerable scrutiny as to its actual meaning and whether the concept is biased against women, ignores normal psychological development, and is subject to the "Bamum effect". Codependent relationships are widely considered dysfunctional, yet normal psychological development may play a role in these relationships which is not dysfunctional. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between codependency and Kohlberg's stages of moral development It was proposed that codependency would be highly correlated with Kohlberg's interpersonal concordance orientation stage. The sample consisted of sixty adult subjects who were assessed as ...


Hiv Prevention And Heterosexual College Students: The Impact Of Video Instruction On The "Safer" Sexual Behaviors Of Sexually Active Men, Cheryl L. Knight Dec 1994

Hiv Prevention And Heterosexual College Students: The Impact Of Video Instruction On The "Safer" Sexual Behaviors Of Sexually Active Men, Cheryl L. Knight

Dissertations

Despite increasing evidence of the heterosexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among young adults, research with college students has been primarily restricted to descriptions of the levels of risky behavior and the correlates of that behavior. To date, few experimentally validated HIV prevention programs have been reported. Furthermore, the existing experimental investigations have seldom based an intervention on a thorough analysis of the barriers to the practice of safer sex.

Experiment One surveyed 195 heterosexual college students to assess HIV risk factors, including sexual behavior, risk perception, knowledge and 10 barriers to the consistent practice of "safer" sex ...


Effects Of Caffeine Consumption On Cardiovascular Indices, Attention, Task Performance, And Memory Retention In Children, Suzanne L. Keller Dec 1994

Effects Of Caffeine Consumption On Cardiovascular Indices, Attention, Task Performance, And Memory Retention In Children, Suzanne L. Keller

Dissertations

Caffeine is one of the most commonly used drugs in the western world today. Average intake of caffeine in the United States has been estimated at greater than 200 mg daily per person. Although plagued by inconsistencies, and methodological problems, research suggests that this level of caffeine ingestion may have significant effects on cardiovascular functioning, and behavioral processes such as attention, cognitive processing, memory, and task performance.

Although children consume significant quantities of caffeine, very little research has been done on the effects of caffeine in children. The limited findings suggest that caffeine consumption may affect the cognitive and behavioral ...


The Effects Of A Monetary Bonus And Penalty On The Performance Of A Simple Monitoring Task, Gordon Henry Dec 1994

The Effects Of A Monetary Bonus And Penalty On The Performance Of A Simple Monitoring Task, Gordon Henry

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of three different pay systems on human monitoring performance. With increasing automation, monitoring tasks are becoming increasingly common, but methods of compensation that will promote good performance remain unexamined. Although hourly pay is typically used, data suggest that contingent pay may be more effective in motivating high levels of performance.

In the current study, six undergraduate students, four females and two males ranging in age from 19 to 21 years, performed a monitoring task analogous to one performed by a security guard. Specifically, subjects observed a television screen and ...


Trauma In Adult Incest Survivors, Jane Kay Hedberg Dec 1994

Trauma In Adult Incest Survivors, Jane Kay Hedberg

Master's Theses

This study explored the traumatic effect of childhood incestuous abuse on the adult survivor. Eleven subjects were interviewed for this study. Hindman's (1989) trauma scale was revised, exploring issues of relationships, mental health, and living skills dysfunctions. In addition to the global score, the scale was disaggregated. Relationships between trauma and age at onset, physical and emotional violence, frequency, identification of self as victim, current relationship with offender, and response to disclosure were explored.

Several dimensions of feeling responsible were reported by victims, including feeling that there was something about them that made others victimize them, feeling responsible for ...


Criminalizing Pregnancy: An Analysis Of The War On Drugs And The Fetal Rights Movement, Sheryl R. Fett Dec 1994

Criminalizing Pregnancy: An Analysis Of The War On Drugs And The Fetal Rights Movement, Sheryl R. Fett

Master's Theses

The focus of study was the war on drugs and the fetal rights movement as they relate to the criminalization of pregnancy. There was a movement in the 1980s and early 1990s to prosecute pregnant women for prenatal drug use under child abuse statutes and/or drug delivery statutes.

A social constructionist framework was used to analyze this movement. This thesis utilized a qualitative case study relying on documentary analysis. Literature on the war of drugs and the fetal rights movement was analyzed as it related to the prosecutions of pregnant drug users and the subsequent criminalization of pregnancy.

It ...


The Michigan Juvenile Waiver Package: An Analysis Of Its Use In Wayne County, Michigan, Kenneth C. Jackson Dec 1994

The Michigan Juvenile Waiver Package: An Analysis Of Its Use In Wayne County, Michigan, Kenneth C. Jackson

Master's Theses

On October 1, 1988, the Michigan Juvenile Waiver Package took effect in Michigan. One of the results of this was the implementation of prosecutorial waiver method in Michigan. Whereas previously juveniles could only be waived and tried in the adult court via a judicial waiver, now it was possible for the prosecutor to waive juveniles aged 15 or 16 if charged with one or more of seven specified Class 1A felonies. Data were collected for all youth subject to prosecutorial waiver in Wayne County over a five year period, from October 1, 1988 through October 1, 1993. Data included: date ...


Evolving Sisterhood: An Organizational Analysis Of Three Sororities, Bonnie J. Galloway Dec 1994

Evolving Sisterhood: An Organizational Analysis Of Three Sororities, Bonnie J. Galloway

Dissertations

From 1851 through June, 1993, more than 2,800,000 women have been initiated into the twenty-six National Panhellenic Conference sororities. Not only are members active during collegiate years, but many continue participation through alumnae groups. Upholding the principles of community service and moral development, sorority women volunteer time and talent in a myriad of ways that benefit local communities and the greater society as a whole. Sororities also provide women important leadership training and experience.

The research design of this project takes a sociohistorical perspective. The study utilizes the population ecology model for organizations to examine three representative sororities ...


The Effects Of Systems-Centered Versus Individual-Centered Training On The Analysis Of Organizational Problems, Jane E. Devries Dec 1994

The Effects Of Systems-Centered Versus Individual-Centered Training On The Analysis Of Organizational Problems, Jane E. Devries

Dissertations

This study analyzed the effects of systems-centered (S) training, individual centered (I) training, and no formal training (C) on the ability to identify organizational problems. Three groups of 10-14 undergraduates participated. Subjects completed a pre-test that required analysis of 10 one-page vignettes describing some type of organizational problem. Each participant rated the quality of the vignettes to assess the amount of critical information presented, and identified the organizational problem, the rationale for targeting the problem, and questions that should be asked of the management to obtain more information. Groups S and I received six hours of systems-centered training or individual ...


The Writing Response In Studies Of Topography-Based And Selection-Based Verbal Behavior, Osborn Cresson Dec 1994

The Writing Response In Studies Of Topography-Based And Selection-Based Verbal Behavior, Osborn Cresson

Dissertations

The position taken in this paper is that the observable world is the only one needed in our analysis, that behavior is a reaction to the environments in which it occurs, and that language is more behavior that can be studied effectively as a dependent variable that varies as a function of independent variables manipulated by the experimenter.

Our goal was to study topography-based and selection-based verbal behavior with emphasis on the writing response and then to produce a report that would serve as a guide for other students of behavior and environment.

Sixteen undergraduate college students participated in 115 ...


Changes In Hypnotizability As A Function Of Suggestion-Based Experimenter Manipulations, Marlin 0. Trulsen Dec 1994

Changes In Hypnotizability As A Function Of Suggestion-Based Experimenter Manipulations, Marlin 0. Trulsen

Dissertations

Limited behavioral research exists on the subject of hypnosis. A behavioral perspective maintains that a "responding to hypnosis suggestion" class of behaviors exists for each individual. For individuals more readily responsive to hypnosis suggestion, this "responding to hypnosis suggestion" class of behaviors exists at greater strength due to a previous history which strengthened these behaviors. These individuals respond strongly to hypnosis suggestions and behave as "high hypnotizables". For others, the "responding to hypnosis suggestion" class of behaviors exists at weaker strength due to the absence of the necessary history. These less responsive individuals could directly benefit from the many medical ...


State Welfare Reforms: Typology And Analysis, Malinda B. Orlin Dec 1994

State Welfare Reforms: Typology And Analysis, Malinda B. Orlin

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Recent state initiatives to change the AFDC program are usually described as a unified welfare reform movement with the single goal of decreasing welfare usage. However, analysis of state waiver applications submitted to HHS finds no single purpose in the reforms. Additionally, the net effect of the state experiments would be to increase usage by expanding eligibility.


Defining Success: The Politics Of Evaluation In Alcohol And Drug Abuse Treatment Programs, James L. Wolk, David J. Hartmann, William P. Sullivan Dec 1994

Defining Success: The Politics Of Evaluation In Alcohol And Drug Abuse Treatment Programs, James L. Wolk, David J. Hartmann, William P. Sullivan

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Alcohol and drug abuse treatment programs must respond to several important stakeholders or beneficiaries of services who have an investment in how success is defined. Utilizing data from recent statewide studies of treatment outcomes of alcohol and drug abuse services, this paper concludes that a strict adherence to an abstinence-only model of success, rigidly adopted by many in the treatment industry is counterproductive. Multiple measures of success are essential to fully understand and assess a changing model of intervention in the chemical dependency field.


Assets And Financial Management Among Poor Households In Extreme Poverty Neighborhoods, Cathleen M. Finn, Paz M-B. Zorita, Claudia Coulton Dec 1994

Assets And Financial Management Among Poor Households In Extreme Poverty Neighborhoods, Cathleen M. Finn, Paz M-B. Zorita, Claudia Coulton

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Proposals supporting the accumulation of assets in poor households are hopeful of creating upward mobility. The experiences of poor families in managing assets and other elements of daily economic life were explored through interviews with low-income Hispanic and Anglo families. All families exhibited planning and management skills needed for assets accumulation, but were unable to escape the effects of unrewarding neighborhood environments. Assets did not provide clear avenues out of poverty. If assets-based programs are to raise the economic status of poor families in extreme poverty neighborhoods they must include mechanisms to protect value and reduce uncertainty.


Discretion In Criminal Justice: The Tension Between Individualization And Uniformity. Lloyd E. Ohlin And Frank J. Remmington. Dec 1994

Discretion In Criminal Justice: The Tension Between Individualization And Uniformity. Lloyd E. Ohlin And Frank J. Remmington.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Lloyd E. Ohlin and Frank J. Remmington (Eds.). Discretion in Criminal Justice: The Tension between Individualization and Uniformity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993. $65.50 hardcover. $21.95 papercover.


Inequality, Crime And Control. George S. Bridges And Martha Myers. Dec 1994

Inequality, Crime And Control. George S. Bridges And Martha Myers.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

George S. Bridges and Martha Myers (Eds.), Inequality, Crime and Control. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. $59.95 hardcover; $22.95 papercover.