Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 148

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Developing A Verbal Repertoire Using Sign Language And Skinner's Analysis Of Verbal Behavior, Mark L. Sundberg Dec 1980

Developing A Verbal Repertoire Using Sign Language And Skinner's Analysis Of Verbal Behavior, Mark L. Sundberg

Dissertations

A series of experiments on the use of sign language with hearing, non-vocal, mentally impaired individuals was conducted. Several researchers have shown that such persons can acquire signs; but in a recent review of the literature (Pulton & Algozzine, 1980), the authors conclude that there was no evidence that a "functional communication system" was acquired and in only one case had manual signing become a primary mode of communication. The problem may be related to the issue that most of the previous work on sign training has been based on traditional programs of language instruction. Such programs often place an emphasis on developing "cognitive processes" rather than language behavior, and the role of the environment is usually minimized. The current set of experiments involved the development of a sign language training program based on Skinner's (1957) behavioral analysis of language. A language repertoire was analyzed in terms of antecedent and consequent enviromental events, and the training procedures consisted of establishing verbal relationships. The methodology employed involved an analysis of the experimenter's verbal behavior (the training program) as a dependent variable which changed as a function of the contact with the contingencies of language instruction. Nine separate experiments were conducted over a period of five years. Each experiment (except two) involved the application of the current version of the training program, and each replication resulted in a new version. Each set of students acquired more effective communication skills than the previous group. The final set of individuals acquired a sign repertoire which was quite analogous to the vocal repertoire of a typical child. Even despite long histories of failure in language instruction, they acquired large sign repertoires and engaged in a good deal of signing under a wide variety of circumstances. In fact, in some cases, language developed faster than normal vocal development, with students showing more than two years of language development (by traditional measures) in a matter of months. All the students showed a clear improvement in articulation and a decrease in disruptive behavior; however, no attempt was made to directly attribute the improvement to signs although it seemed the case. Experiments were also conducted on the use of fingerspelling as a "bridge" between sign language and vocal behavior. The data indicate that fingerspelling can improve a student's articulation and that it can function as an effective "tool" to fade from sign usage. The success of ...


Effect Of Changing Appointment Making Procedures On Increasing The Number Of Initial Appointments Kept At A Family Planning Agency, Carla A. Jones Dec 1980

Effect Of Changing Appointment Making Procedures On Increasing The Number Of Initial Appointments Kept At A Family Planning Agency, Carla A. Jones

Master's Theses

The procedures for making initial client appointments at a family planning clinic were manipulated to increase the number of kept appointments. Receptionists and counselors made appointments on the two appointment forms used. Questions on the appointment sheet varied depending on the age of the caller. The 1,432 women participating in the study were placed into three groups (a) 19 years of age and under (b) 20 to 30 years of age and (c) 31 years of age and over. The results showed that the occupation of the person making the appointment at the agency did not affect the number ...


A Study Of Four Year State University Related Foundations, Timothy Arthur Reilley Dec 1980

A Study Of Four Year State University Related Foundations, Timothy Arthur Reilley

Dissertations

The Purpose. The purpose of this study was to define the organizational and operational structures of four year state university related foundations. An additional purpose was to compile a listing of all four year state university related foundations in the United States.

Methodology. Data were obtained through the use of a questionnaire mailed to all four year state universities in the United States. The questionnaire was divided into two parts. Part one included a series of three demographic questions which identified the respondent at a certain level in each of three categories, number of students, kinds of degrees and number ...


A Test Of A Sociological Causal Model Of Alcohol And Deviant Drinking Patterns, Ruby E. Ivens Dec 1980

A Test Of A Sociological Causal Model Of Alcohol And Deviant Drinking Patterns, Ruby E. Ivens

Dissertations

There is no widely accepted comprehensive sociological theory of the etiology of alcohol use or misuse. More generally, there are frames of reference in which are found statements about the nature of the relationship between societies or groups of people and specific drinking behaviors. This study will present a theoretical model which is derived from available descriptive literature and empirical research.

The review of pertinent literature reveals two general social factors that seem to be associated with drinking patterns. First, members of a society are socialized from an early age to drinking norms and behavior. In a simple society socialization ...


A Discrete Trial Choice Procedure For Assessing The Periodic Equivalent Of Aperiodic Ratio Schedules, Michael Joseph Boivin Dec 1980

A Discrete Trial Choice Procedure For Assessing The Periodic Equivalent Of Aperiodic Ratio Schedules, Michael Joseph Boivin

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Differential Implementation Of A Performance Objective Directed At The Reduction Of Suspensions At Five Desegregated Junior High Schools, Walden A. Baskerville Jr. Dec 1980

Differential Implementation Of A Performance Objective Directed At The Reduction Of Suspensions At Five Desegregated Junior High Schools, Walden A. Baskerville Jr.

Dissertations

This study was designed to examine the efforts of a desegregated urban public school district to reduce the incidence of student suspension over a three-year period. More specifically, it examined the efforts and results five middle school staffs achieved in reducing the incidence of student suspension from school as a method of dealing with disruptive behavior.

Category I suspensions, i.e., suspensions resulting from disruptive behavior not requiring legal action, constituted the data base for the study. These data were obtained from central office files maintained by schools for the three-year period 1972-75 following a directive issued by the superintendent ...


The Effects Of A Transfer Of Stimulus Control Procedure, Probes, And Reinforcement On The Acquisition And Generalization Of An Intraverbal Repertoire, Steven John Braam Dec 1980

The Effects Of A Transfer Of Stimulus Control Procedure, Probes, And Reinforcement On The Acquisition And Generalization Of An Intraverbal Repertoire, Steven John Braam

Master's Theses

A deaf, mentally-impaired youth was trained to emit intraverbal responses within the same response class to verbal stimuli which were presented in daily probe sessions (e.g., "food" evoked "apple", "bread","hot dog", etc.). Training consisted of a transfer of stimulus control procedure. If an incorrect response was made, the therapist would re-present the verbal training stimulus and immediately present a non-verbal prompt (picture) which evoked a verbal response. Since the transfer procedure was only Implemented contingent upon incorrect responding, it resulted in longer delays to trade-in for back-up reinforcers in sessions where mistakes were made. Correct responding Increased only ...


An Analysis Of The Role Of Reinforcement Magnitude In The Transfer Of Stimulus Control In A Receptive Discrimination Task, Beverly S. Adler Dec 1980

An Analysis Of The Role Of Reinforcement Magnitude In The Transfer Of Stimulus Control In A Receptive Discrimination Task, Beverly S. Adler

Master's Theses

The role of reinforcement magnitude in the transfer of stimulus control was analyzed using a delayed prompting procedure. A delay was gradually lengthened between the presentations of the relevant discriminative stimulus and an imitative prompt. During one condition, the contingencies of reinforcement were arranged such that the reinforcement available for anticipatory and prompt-controlled responses were equal. During another condition, responses which preceded delivery of the prompt were given more reinforcement than prompt-controlled responses. Two subjects were exposed to these conditions in the context of acquiring a series of receptive discrimination tasks. Results were inconclusive. Mean trials to criterion showed little ...


Preferences Of Students For The Hutchings "Low Stress" Compared To The Conventional Algorithm Under Conditions Of Differentially Increasing The Number Of Problems With And Without Reinforcement, Pamela G. Buitendorp Drew Dec 1980

Preferences Of Students For The Hutchings "Low Stress" Compared To The Conventional Algorithm Under Conditions Of Differentially Increasing The Number Of Problems With And Without Reinforcement, Pamela G. Buitendorp Drew

Master's Theses

This study was an attempt to determine which computation procedure students would select under varying classroom conditions. It is a systematic replication of previous research by Gillespie (1976). Algorithm preferences of 14 third grade students, 10 high accuracy and four low accuracy on a math facts test, were investigated under conditions of differentially increasing the number of problems with and without reinforcement, Reversal designs were used. The students completed 4X5 array problems and chose which algorithm to use, but after choosing the same algorithm for three consecutive sessions, they were required to use the alternative algorithm the next session. Preference ...


Effects Of Withdrawing Diphenylhydantoin (Dilantin) On Matching To Sample Performance In Mentally Retarded Persons, Vicky June Davis Dec 1980

Effects Of Withdrawing Diphenylhydantoin (Dilantin) On Matching To Sample Performance In Mentally Retarded Persons, Vicky June Davis

Master's Theses

The present study was designed to examine the effects of gradual DPH withdrawal on the matching to sample performance of three mentally retarded persons. The percentage of correct responses per session served as the dependent variable and the sample and comparison stimuli were red, green, and blue illumination of translucent response windows. The results showed that doses of diphenylhydantoin considerably lower than the suggested optimim therapeutic level can impair the performance of mentally retarded individuals on a simple discrimination task. As doses were reduced for each subject, there were increases in the percentage of correct responding with the highest percentage ...


A Treatment Package To Improve Academic Performance, Lynn Daniel Larrow Dec 1980

A Treatment Package To Improve Academic Performance, Lynn Daniel Larrow

Master's Theses

Six high school students volunteered to participate in a research project to improve their academic grades. Of these six subjects, it was found that subjects with low grade point averages (GPA) were the main beneficiaries of a behavior treatment package consisting of contingency contracting, graphing, and a self-management lecture. In addition, this study demonstrated that a contingency contract, employing a weekly consequence, and graphing can control an academic behavior, note taking. Finally, it was shown that a cost effective treatment package could produce GPA increases comparable to more expensive and time consuming treatments. It is hoped that the findings of ...


Availability And Utilization Of Student/Personnel Services For Academic And Personal Development At Kalamazoo Valley Community College, Verlyn R. Knowles Dec 1980

Availability And Utilization Of Student/Personnel Services For Academic And Personal Development At Kalamazoo Valley Community College, Verlyn R. Knowles

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


The Development And Application Of Service Management By Objectives Within One Program Of One Division Of A Michigan Intermediate School District, James Harper Kaye Dec 1980

The Development And Application Of Service Management By Objectives Within One Program Of One Division Of A Michigan Intermediate School District, James Harper Kaye

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


An Analysis Of The Faunal Remains From The Schwerdt Site, A Late Prehistoric Encampment In Allegan County, Michigan, Michael J. Higgins Dec 1980

An Analysis Of The Faunal Remains From The Schwerdt Site, A Late Prehistoric Encampment In Allegan County, Michigan, Michael J. Higgins

Master's Theses

Analysis of faunal remains from the Schwerdt site, a fifteenth century encampment on the Kalamazoo River, reveals a temporary late spring occupation with an exploitative strategy aimed primarily at the spawning sturgeon. The position of Schwerdt in a larger subsistence/ settlement system is examined through comparisons with other contemporaneous sites in the southeastern Lake Michigan region. Changes in subsistence strategies on the northern periphery of effective maize agriculture.


Teaching Self-Protective Behaviors To Preschool Children Using A Videotape Training Program, Paul James Yoder Dec 1980

Teaching Self-Protective Behaviors To Preschool Children Using A Videotape Training Program, Paul James Yoder

Master's Theses

This study investigated the effectiveness of a videotape training program to teach self-protective skills to preschool children. Children were taught to say, "I have to ask my teacher/parent," and to run to their teacher/parent when presented with one of two lures commonly used by child molesters. The videotape incorporated the direct instructional techniques of active pupil responding; the model, lead, and test format; and use of minimally different stimuli to teach children to discriminate between correct and incorrect responses. The results showed that although none of the subjects showed any improvement in responding after only one viewing, five ...


The Effects Of Cumulative Review In An Interspersal Procedure On The Acquisition And Retention Of Sight Words, Kathleen M. Wright Dec 1980

The Effects Of Cumulative Review In An Interspersal Procedure On The Acquisition And Retention Of Sight Words, Kathleen M. Wright

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


The 1973 Oil Embargo Arab Oil Diplomacy, Amal Mustafa Shamma Dec 1980

The 1973 Oil Embargo Arab Oil Diplomacy, Amal Mustafa Shamma

Master's Theses

The Arab oil producing countries, following years of a stalemate in the Arab-Israeli dispute,- decided to put their oil resource in the service of the Arab cause using it as an instrument of pressure against the West. Their objective was to induce a change in the Western world Middle East policy and to work toward achieving a lasting and peaceful solution for the Arab-Israeli problem.

The purpose of this thesis is to show that the application of Arab oil diplomacy has been effective into producing a more even handed policy in the area, and into breaking the deadlock in the ...


Citizen Advisory Committees: The Relationship Between Member Satisfaction And Committee Variables, Linda Kimmel Pifer Dec 1980

Citizen Advisory Committees: The Relationship Between Member Satisfaction And Committee Variables, Linda Kimmel Pifer

Master's Theses

The relationship between the satisfaction members of locally initiated citizen advisory committees have with their committees and the following types of independent variables were examined: (a) shortcomings of the committees; (b) external influences on the committees; (c) information available to the committees; (d) specific actions performed by the committees; and (e) personal characteristics of the members. The membership of eight citizen advisory committees in Kalamazoo, Michigan comprise the sample. A questionnaire was distributed to the members to collect information on the five groups of independent variables, member satisfaction with the committees, and socio-economic characteristics of the members. A satisfaction scale ...


The Development And Validation Of Concept Programmed Materials Based On A Direct Instruction Model, Curt E. Lalonde Dec 1980

The Development And Validation Of Concept Programmed Materials Based On A Direct Instruction Model, Curt E. Lalonde

Master's Theses

The experiment validated a set of instructional materials designed to teach behavioral concepts. Twenty-two subjects matched on the basis of their scores on a pretest covering these concepts comprised the experimental and control groups. Following a pretest, subjects in these two groups completed both sets of materials. After exposure to the instructional materials, they took an alternate-form posttest on the same concepts. Gain scores on the posttest were significantly higher (p<.05, means = .91, -.55) for subjects who completed the experimental materials than for the subjects who completed the control materials, materials contained sequences of examples and nonexamples of the behavioral concepts which were designed to maximize learned of those concepts.


A Comparison Of Social Psychological Views Among Youthful And Aged Persons: An Empirical Assessment Or Marginally Differentiated Attitude Measures, Dennis L. Peck, David L. Klemmack Nov 1980

A Comparison Of Social Psychological Views Among Youthful And Aged Persons: An Empirical Assessment Or Marginally Differentiated Attitude Measures, Dennis L. Peck, David L. Klemmack

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Four related but marginally differentiated sociological and psychological attitude measures are evaluated through analysis of survey data. Generated from a statewide random sample (N=322), four measures of maladjustment/well-being -- the anomie, alienation, fatalism, and powerlessness scales -- are evaluated as being similar in nature. The moderately high correlations between the scale items comprising the four distinctive conceptual world-views suggest that the scales overlap considerably. The results of an oblique solution factor analysis, however, suggest that the scales being considered may be at least marginally differentiated. Comparisons between distinctive age groups of the sample of adults age 18 to 84 using ...


The Political Economy Of Unemployment, Howard J. Stanback Nov 1980

The Political Economy Of Unemployment, Howard J. Stanback

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Unemployment, as defined by the U.S. Government. is the number of people seeking work who cannot find it during the period of study, usually a month. This definition reflects a neoclassical economic theory which links total employment with aggregate demand. In other words the higher the Gross National Product (ONP) the higher the employment. According to the theory the actual number of people working is the result interaction of this aggregate demand and the number of people willing to work at the going wage rates, i.e., the supply of labor. "Willing to work" is translated in the government ...


Helping The Unemployment Client, Katherine Hooper Briar Nov 1980

Helping The Unemployment Client, Katherine Hooper Briar

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper analyzes ways in which the social work profession can reaffirm its professional service responsibilities to unemployed clients. It is suggested that social work practice should address not just the effects of unemployment but also the jobless condition itself. The human costs of unemployment and their implications for changes in social work assessment and intervention are cited.


Human Service Needs In Rapidly Growing Western Communities: The Wyoming House Services Project-One Response, Julie M. Uhlmann, John W. Hanks Nov 1980

Human Service Needs In Rapidly Growing Western Communities: The Wyoming House Services Project-One Response, Julie M. Uhlmann, John W. Hanks

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Human service needs in rural, western communities currently experiencing energy related growth are abundant. This paper describes and critiques a service delivery project designed to address these needs.


The Impact Of Unemployment On Young, Middle-Aged And Aged Workers, Katharine Hooper Briar, Decky Fiedler, Carol Sheean, Patricia Kamps Nov 1980

The Impact Of Unemployment On Young, Middle-Aged And Aged Workers, Katharine Hooper Briar, Decky Fiedler, Carol Sheean, Patricia Kamps

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper presents findings from research on the effects of unemployment on young, middle-aged and aged workers. The therapeutic benefits of work indicated by the elimination and reduction of problems attributed to joblessness by young and aged workers is examined as well. The implications of such findings for human service professions are explored.


Psychological And Emotional Impact Of Unemployment, Michael Borrero Nov 1980

Psychological And Emotional Impact Of Unemployment, Michael Borrero

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Having seen the discussion of the meaning of work and the important role it plays in our lives, as developed by Borrero and Rivera, we now need to address what happens to people when they want to work but are unable to because of economic recessions, depressions and economic policies. The focus of the following paper is to review the literature concerning the psychological and emotional stresses that are brought about as a result of unemployment.


Factors Influencing Senate Voting Patterns On Social Work Related Legislation, Joyce Littell Smith, Gail Marie Sullivan Nov 1980

Factors Influencing Senate Voting Patterns On Social Work Related Legislation, Joyce Littell Smith, Gail Marie Sullivan

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study analyzes several influences on Senate voting patterns on key legislation selected by NASW. Party affiliation, region, ratio of NASW registered social workers to state population, liberal and conservative ideology, and judgment of social work were found to be significantly associated with voting patterns. Results of a questionnaire distributed to each Senator indicate a favorable perception of the field of social work.


Multiple Constituencies, Differential Power, And The Question Of Effectiveness In Human Service Organizations, Patricia Yancey Martin Nov 1980

Multiple Constituencies, Differential Power, And The Question Of Effectiveness In Human Service Organizations, Patricia Yancey Martin

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A multiple constituencies model of human service organizations identifies twelve interest groups which must be considered when effectiveness questions are raised. The differential power of the interest groups suggests that some groups' preferences are likely to be emphasized over others. The relationship between power inside the organization and that on the outside is analyzed. Recent trends in the growth andmiiitancy of professional associations and employee groups suggest that internal control by senior administrators is increasingly challenged and variable. Future studies of effectiveness in the human services are encouraged to remain sensitive to the effects of constituency interests and power on ...


The Influence Of Bureaucratic Factors On Welfare Policy Implementation, Gerard S. Gryski, Charles L. Usher Nov 1980

The Influence Of Bureaucratic Factors On Welfare Policy Implementation, Gerard S. Gryski, Charles L. Usher

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The authors argue that previous welfare policy research has suffered from its neglect of bureaucratic factors, as well as a tendency to exclude policy-making arenas above and below the state level. Using several measures of organizational structure, administrative professionalism, and within-state need, they attempt to relate these variables to within-state variations in welfare policy implementation. While certain socio-economic conditions were found to be significant determinants of this variation, of greater importance are characteristics of state welfare bureaucracies such as the degree of administrative centralization and the level of professionalism of administrative staff. Their research suggests the need for further refinement ...


Toward A Meaning Of Work, Michael I. Borrero, Hector A. Rivera Nov 1980

Toward A Meaning Of Work, Michael I. Borrero, Hector A. Rivera

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Contemporary observers of the occupation and social fabric contend that individuals as members of families need to assert their rights over their lives and their destinies. That the family and the workplace can be analyzed independently of each other's existence or the dichotomy between the intrinsic value of work and the importance of non-work time for individuals and firms are both notions that are being considered contemporarily and complementary. This paper reviews the history and societal factors that affect the notion of-work and its utility as a focus for social policy students.


Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 7, No. 6 (November 1980) Nov 1980

Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare Vol. 7, No. 6 (November 1980)

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Table of Contents

  • Values Classification through Science Fiction - Phyllis J. Day
  • Multiple Constituencies, Differential Power, and the Question of Effectiveness in Human Service Organizations - Patricia Yancey Martin
  • The Influence of Bureaucratic Factors on Welfare Policy Implementation - Gerard S. Gryski, Charles L. Usher
  • Human Service Needs in Rapidly Growing Western Communities: The Wyoming House Services Project - One Response - Julie M. Uhlmann, John W. Hanks,
  • A Comparison of Social Psychological Views among Youthful and Aged Persons: An Empirical Assessment or Marginally Differentiated Attitude Measures - Dennis L. Peck, David L. Klemmack
  • Factors Influencing Senate Voting Patterns on Social Work Related Legislation - Joyce Littell ...