Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Western Michigan University

The Hilltop Review

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 30 of 47

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Cancer Health Disparities Among African Americans: A Socioecological Approach, Seth M. Spitzley Jan 2020

Cancer Health Disparities Among African Americans: A Socioecological Approach, Seth M. Spitzley

The Hilltop Review

Research shows that health outcomes are influenced by race or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education and literacy levels, and the physical environment (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014). The health statuses of minority groups, such as African Americans, are adversely impacted by inequality (Randall, 2009). In Kalamazoo, Michigan, the leading cause of death for all residents in Kalamazoo County was cancer, where black individuals have the highest death rate among any other racial or ethnic group. That African Americans comprise less than 11% of the population in Kalamazoo County thus suggests that African Americans are disproportionately impacted by ...


The Effect Of Inflation Targeting Policies On Dollarization-A Cross-Country Analysis, Dweepobotee Brahma Sep 2019

The Effect Of Inflation Targeting Policies On Dollarization-A Cross-Country Analysis, Dweepobotee Brahma

The Hilltop Review

This paper attempts to review the experiences of various dollarized economies from the adoption of an explicit inflation-targeting framework for domestic monetary policy. Dollarization is the phenomenon where agents in a country choose to use a foreign currency instead of their domestic currency. This often occurs in response to episodes of high inflation rate in the domestic economy. Central Banks of these countries often respond by adopting an inflation-targeting regime. This paper attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of such a policy by conducting a cross-country comparison. A panel dataset from 14 dollarized economies from 2001-2015, is used to compare between ...


Acceptability Of Social Media Incentives To Increase Physical Activity, Amanda Devoto, Anthony Defulio Aug 2019

Acceptability Of Social Media Incentives To Increase Physical Activity, Amanda Devoto, Anthony Defulio

The Hilltop Review

Background: Contingency management can be effective in promoting physical activity, but the change frequently does not sustain after the intervention is withdrawn. A feasible and sustainable physical activity intervention is needed. Social media may meet the criteria for a sustainable intervention, as it is free to use and enormously popular.

Introduction: The goal of the current study was to assess acceptability of using social media as an incentive for a physical activity intervention.

Materials and Methods: The current study surveyed 102 Mechanical Turk users on their social media use, physical activity habits, and interest in a proposed physical activity intervention ...


China's Unethical Economic Development Practices, Kimberly A. Madsen Aug 2019

China's Unethical Economic Development Practices, Kimberly A. Madsen

The Hilltop Review

The purpose of this research paper is to inform the public about some of the unethical economic development practices that China is performing with their citizens and global partners. These activities include escalating the national GDP at the detriment of their citizens through forced relocations in order to build new cities, dividing families with harmful public policies, and the imbalance between their citizens’ annual earnings and housing costs. Also discussed is the environmental pollution of the air, water, and soil, and poorly treating their international constituents when asked to provide consulting services to their nation.


Quiet: The Power Of Introverts In A World That Can't Stop Talking: A Book Analysis, Molly Goaley Jan 2019

Quiet: The Power Of Introverts In A World That Can't Stop Talking: A Book Analysis, Molly Goaley

The Hilltop Review

The topics addressed in Quiet are important to nonscholarly and academic audiences because introversion is a universal personality trait that affects us all in some way. If we are not introverts ourselves, we have colleagues, supervisors, family members, friends or children who are. Studies of extroversion and introversion in organizational teamwork (Zanin & Bisel, 2018), office environments (McElroy & Morrow, 2010), and leadership (Grant et al., 2011) therefore have practical implications regardless of personality type. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast Cain’s work with the existing scholarly research in order to gain a deeper understanding of introversion ...


Subjective Religiosity And Organized Religiosity As A Predictor Of Sexual Affect Among African Americans, Janelle B. Grant, Kyla Day Fletcher Jan 2019

Subjective Religiosity And Organized Religiosity As A Predictor Of Sexual Affect Among African Americans, Janelle B. Grant, Kyla Day Fletcher

The Hilltop Review

Historically, religiosity and attendance at a church with a majority African American or Black population was of practical value for African Americans, these branches of practicality extended to sexual health, such as delayed sexual intercourse and higher instances of using contraception. Overall, however, public sexual discourses show some African American communities as “at risk” regarding sexual health, which can make an African American individual feel negatively about their sexual experiences. The current study aimed to understand how subjective religiosity and organized religiosity influenced African Americans to experience a positive, negative, or shameful sexual affect, We found that higher levels of ...


There’S No “Me” In “Imgur”: Applying Side Theory And Content Analysis To Viral Posts On Imgur.Com, Ryan P. Castillo Jan 2019

There’S No “Me” In “Imgur”: Applying Side Theory And Content Analysis To Viral Posts On Imgur.Com, Ryan P. Castillo

The Hilltop Review

The Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) asserts that social (i.e., collective) identities are more salient under conditions of anonymity, prompting “deindividuation” as group members place more focus on community standards and downplay individual differences. As a result of deindividuation, social standards become the driving force of group interaction, and the successful practice of group norms identify individuals’ in-group status while reinforcing the social identity of the community. The current study applies the SIDE model to the anonymous image-sharing platform Imgur.com to ascertain whether self-referential posts are assessed more negatively than other-referential and non-directed content, and to ...


Communication In Divorced Families With Children, Casey L. James Oct 2018

Communication In Divorced Families With Children, Casey L. James

The Hilltop Review

This paper explores the research on communication in divorced families with minor children. The primary focus is on the various styles of communication and how communication affects children. After looking at the conversation and conformity family dyads, the dyads will be used in various areas of this paper to highlight the pros and cons of these family types and which aspect of the dyad has a stronger impact on healthy adjustment to the marital status transition. Communication will be broken down further to explore the impact communication with parents has on child adjustment. In addition, communication between the co-parents and ...


The Ethical Dilemma Of Blowing The Whistle: Research Misconduct And Its Reporters, David Sottile Oct 2018

The Ethical Dilemma Of Blowing The Whistle: Research Misconduct And Its Reporters, David Sottile

The Hilltop Review

Research misconduct is a widespread issue that affects the credibility of science as a discipline. While a relatively small number of researchers engage directly in research misconduct, there is a larger number of researchers that are aware of research misconduct and do not report it. This permits falsified research to be disseminated throughout the scientific community. It is important to analyze both those engaging in research misconduct as well as those that are aware. The case example of Stephen E. Breuning is used throughout the paper. Stephen E. Breuning is a scientist that engaged in research misconduct that collaborated with ...


African American Adolescent Males' Experiences Within The Education System: Implications For School Counseling Practice, Damon D. Chambers Oct 2018

African American Adolescent Males' Experiences Within The Education System: Implications For School Counseling Practice, Damon D. Chambers

The Hilltop Review

This article examines the literature on the experiences of African American adolescent males in the education system. The primary focus of the article is to explore the following: historical accounts dating back to the transatlantic slavery era; Disciplinary Disparities within the education system Postsecondary opportunities. Implications for counselor education and practice are discussed. The author concludes with recommendations to improve the experiences of African American adolescent males within the educational system.


Problems Facing The Working Poor: Implications For Counseling, Tristan D. Mcbain Oct 2018

Problems Facing The Working Poor: Implications For Counseling, Tristan D. Mcbain

The Hilltop Review

The most recent reports from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate that 8.6 million people in the United States are among the working poor, a population whose formal employment does not provide sufficient income to remain above the poverty threshold. The problems facing the working poor are examined in this article. Labor market issues, job stress, mental health concerns, stigma, and barriers to appropriate treatment were all identified as problems facing this disadvantaged population. Implications for counselors and counseling practice are discussed including considerations for the working poor population and counselor education training programs.


“People You May (Or May Not) Know:” Usage Intensity, Status Motivation, And Intimate Self-Disclosure As Predictors Of Bridging Social Capital On Facebook, Ryan Paul Castillo 2209867 Aug 2018

“People You May (Or May Not) Know:” Usage Intensity, Status Motivation, And Intimate Self-Disclosure As Predictors Of Bridging Social Capital On Facebook, Ryan Paul Castillo 2209867

The Hilltop Review

Drawing on the concept of social capital, this study examines the impact of usage intensity, status motivations, and intimate public self-disclosure on Facebook users’ informational access and feelings of general social support. Survey data collected from a random sample of undergraduate Facebook users (n=583) were used to test several hypotheses predicting perceptions of bridging social capital. A multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model revealed significant positive associations between both Facebook usage intensity and status motivations, and perceptions of bridging social capital, while no significant relationships were found between various forms of intimate self-disclosure in public channels and perceptions ...


The Impact Of Monetary Policy On Banks’ Risk-Taking: Evidence From The Post Crisis Data, Nardos Moges Beyene Jun 2017

The Impact Of Monetary Policy On Banks’ Risk-Taking: Evidence From The Post Crisis Data, Nardos Moges Beyene

The Hilltop Review

This study investigates if expansionary monetary policy actions have an impact on banks’ risk taking after the financial crisis. Using time series data from December 2008 to April 2016 from the banking sector, the paper finds no evidence of any impact by asset related expansionary monetary policy actions while credit crunch and expected economic conditions are found to have a significant effect on banks’ risk taking decision. These results imply that the risk-taking channel of monetary policy has been ineffective after the fed funds rate reached the zero lower bound.


The Uncatchable Crook: Pursuing Effective State Crime Control, Daniel J. Patten Jan 2017

The Uncatchable Crook: Pursuing Effective State Crime Control, Daniel J. Patten

The Hilltop Review

This article investigates an interesting conundrum of addressing crime when the state commits a crime itself, and most often is the primary apparatus of crime control. Even more difficult in pursuing state crime control, the state typically plays a major role in defining crime. Criminologists commonly suggest state sanctions to address crime, and states to sanctions other states for their crimes. However, such an approach struggles when faced with the punishment of a powerful state’s criminal actions such as the United States. After laying out the controversy at the heart of controlling state crimes, several criminological theories traditionally employed ...


Facing Our Demons: Psychiatric Perspectives On Exorcism Rituals, Joel R. Sanford Jun 2016

Facing Our Demons: Psychiatric Perspectives On Exorcism Rituals, Joel R. Sanford

The Hilltop Review

Belief in possession by malevolent spirits exists in many cultures and religions throughout the world, and such beliefs often serve as explanations for a variety of psychological and emotional afflictions. Traditional remedies in these cases often involve exorcism rituals, which are believed to expel spirits from a person's mind and/or body. Some of the cases commonly attributed to involuntary spirit possession are diagnosed within the psychiatric community as schizophrenia or some sort of dissociative disorder and treated with psychotherapy and/or medicine. For some in the psychiatric community, exorcisms and their use by patients are viewed as problematic ...


More Than One Way To Measure: Masculinity In The Zurkaneh Of Safavid Iran, Zachary T. Smith Jun 2016

More Than One Way To Measure: Masculinity In The Zurkaneh Of Safavid Iran, Zachary T. Smith

The Hilltop Review

The zurkhaneh of early modern Safavid Iran was an institution where men undertook physical training, in some ways reminiscent of a modern-day gymn. This paper attempts to theorize the zurkhaneh as a public space in which primarily non-elite men participated in the social economy of early modern Safavid Iran based upon their pursuit of the ideal of javanmardi, or young manliness. To accomplish this, this paper will combine the themes of publicity, the social utility of the body, and the authority of textuality with an examination of the physical culture of the zurkhaneh to theorize the utility, representation, and experience ...


When War Is Peace: Peacebuilding In An Era Of Warfare, Josh Berkenpas Jun 2016

When War Is Peace: Peacebuilding In An Era Of Warfare, Josh Berkenpas

The Hilltop Review

A first step in constituting an international regime of peace is to construct a reliable cross-national map of the global order supporting continuous warfare. I examine the case of the conflict in Syria as a demonstration of the truly global nature of the conflict and the way that a multitude of state, corporate, and non-state actors are profiting from the war. I develop a case study of the war in Syria in order to highlight the nature of “new war” and the complexity of the situation, including the issue of arming rebels by the U.S. and other states. I ...


The Human Ecology Dialectic: Culture As A Behavioral Adaptation, Marcia S. Taylor May 2015

The Human Ecology Dialectic: Culture As A Behavioral Adaptation, Marcia S. Taylor

The Hilltop Review

Contrary to popular thought, which implicated the disengagement of Marx from anthropological theory, his dialectical concept will be applied to explain human ecology in a Boasian historical particularism milieu. Environmental conditions will be the common denominator for the Darwinian biogeography theory, intertwined with the cultural adaptation theory of Boas within the Human Ecology Dialectic (Taylor, 2014). Anthropologically, in a biological context the theories will explain the behavioral adaptation process demonstrated culturally by the prehistoric ancestors of the Inuit of the Canadian Central Arctic in their development and essential engagement in the creation of art; a pursuit that became a cultural ...


Reproductive Genetics: Desired Genes, Gendered Ethics, And Eugenic Echoes, Marykate K. Bodnar May 2015

Reproductive Genetics: Desired Genes, Gendered Ethics, And Eugenic Echoes, Marykate K. Bodnar

The Hilltop Review

Present knowledge of genetics and assisted reproduction make fertile ground for a new type of eugenics: reproductive genetics. Proponents of reproductive genetics aim to separate these techniques from the problematic and negative connotations associated with historical eugenic policies by claiming them as part of the liberal eugenic movement. In-vitro fertilization (IVF), the market for sperm and eggs, and prenatal genetic testing allow conscious decision-making regarding the potential genetic make-up of children. Decisions are made in a gendered and politicized environment, shaping understandings of genes, eggs, and sperm around stereotypes and ideal social norms. In choosing “desirable” characteristics, whatever they may ...


The History Of Punishment: What Works For State Crime?, Jennifer Marson May 2015

The History Of Punishment: What Works For State Crime?, Jennifer Marson

The Hilltop Review

The punishment of criminal acts is usually justified utilizing retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation and incapacitation (societal protection). These justifications are often utilized for traditional street crimes such as burglary, assault, and theft. However, state crimes require that punishment be looked at through a different lens, and it is advocated the restorative justice apparatuses potentially offer the best solutions at administering punishment for those who commit state crime.


The Effects Of Humorous Facebook Posts On Messenger Credibility And Social Attractiveness, Brett A. Stoll May 2015

The Effects Of Humorous Facebook Posts On Messenger Credibility And Social Attractiveness, Brett A. Stoll

The Hilltop Review

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect that humorous Facebook messages have on perceived source credibility and social attractiveness. Social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook continue to rise in popularity, solidifying their ongoing presence and influence for the foreseeable future. As users continue to look for ways to manage interpersonal impressions online, many turn to humor in public wall posts and message feeds. With humor proliferating the content of nearly 20% of Facebook posts, it begs the question of what effect its use has on impression management. To address this question, the researcher asked 283 participants ...


Title Ix And The Impact Of Athletic Leadership, Ceceilia Parnther, Jennifer Deranek, Scott Michel Jan 2015

Title Ix And The Impact Of Athletic Leadership, Ceceilia Parnther, Jennifer Deranek, Scott Michel

The Hilltop Review

Abstract

This literature review will discuss the history of Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 and its value in higher education today through a critical feminist thought lens. It is known that despite Title IX, gender equality does not exist in intercollegiate athletics. In addition to discussing the history of Title IX, the article will highlight the challenges and triumphs of female athletic directors and senior women’s administrators and briefly discuss the role on coaches, athletic trainers and student-athletes.

Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 provided equal opportunities for women in athletics and ...


On The Current State Of Sociology, Cleran L. Hollancid Jan 2015

On The Current State Of Sociology, Cleran L. Hollancid

The Hilltop Review

Sociology today, much like other social sciences, is still alive and well but its actual place and purpose in contemporary society lacks much admiration. I suppose a legitimate question here is – is sociology really making a difference in society? Granted, the many practitioners and writers within the ambit of sociology, as a discipline, may find great pleasure in doing what they do (e.g., research and writing). But is that all there is to sociology – research, teaching and writing? Is the general US public, for instance, aware of any inroads made by sociology, if we can suggest that inroads and ...


Thinking And Feeling: The Influence Of Positive Emotion On Human Cognition, Mark S. Barajas Jan 2015

Thinking And Feeling: The Influence Of Positive Emotion On Human Cognition, Mark S. Barajas

The Hilltop Review

The interaction of thinking and feeling has remained an enduring question of psychology and philosophy. After centuries of philosophical debate, only recently have psychologists, aided by technological advances, conducted rigorous research on the relationship between affect and cognition. This paper integrates contemporary approaches from cognitive psychology and neuropsychology to understand the influence of positive affect on cognition. The broaden-and–build theory (Fredrickson, 2001) suggests that positive emotion enhances human cognitive flexibility, expands one’s repertoire of thoughts, and facilitates development of cognitive resources. The dopaminergic theory of positive affect (Ashby, Isen, & Turkin, 1999) presents dopamine as an important mediator of ...


Surveillance, Knowledge And Inequality: Understanding Power Through Foucault And Beyond., Simon Purdy Jan 2015

Surveillance, Knowledge And Inequality: Understanding Power Through Foucault And Beyond., Simon Purdy

The Hilltop Review

Understanding a concept as complex as power, in the social sciences, can often be a daunting task. In order to fully comprehend power, it is therefore necessary to examine it through the lens of other issues and theoretical devices. In this paper, power is approached through an examination of surveillance and associated technologies. Utilizing the theoretical work of Michel Foucault, and stepping beyond this basic groundwork, we explore the contentions surrounding the study of power within sociology, the ways in which surveillance constitutes and even threatens structures of power. The paper concludes with an analysis of inequality, welfare and the ...


Controversy In Skeletal Biology: The Use Of Pathological And Osteological Markers As Evidence For Activity Patterns, Anna Alioto Jan 2015

Controversy In Skeletal Biology: The Use Of Pathological And Osteological Markers As Evidence For Activity Patterns, Anna Alioto

The Hilltop Review

One of the most pressing controversies today within a multitude of disciplines in biological anthropology including bioarchaeology, paleoanthropology and especially skeletal biology is whether or not physical activity patterns of individuals can be inferred from skeletal material and what types of activities can be reconstructed from that data (Jurmain et al., 2011). While many authors have published articles that incorporated the use of pathological and osteological markers as evidence for activity patterns, there is still much dispute within the skeletal biological community on the validity and the accuracy of the techniques used. This paper will discuss what types of markers ...


Proof Of Heaven?: Controversy Over Near-Death Experiences In American Christianity, Joel Sanford Jan 2015

Proof Of Heaven?: Controversy Over Near-Death Experiences In American Christianity, Joel Sanford

The Hilltop Review

Testimonies claiming firsthand experience of Life after Death have been circulating in many cultures since antiquity. Among these experiences are those occurring at, near, or beyond the point of death or apparent death. Testimonies of this kind of experience, now widely referred to as a Near-death Experience (NDE), were popularized by Raymond Moody's publication of Life after Life in 1975. In the last 10 years, it seems there has been a growing American public interest in these experiences, resulting in a slew of New York Times best-sellers. With such provocative titles as Proof of Heaven and Heaven is for ...


An Unfinished Journey: The Evolution Of Crime Measurement In The United States, Daniel J. Patten Jan 2015

An Unfinished Journey: The Evolution Of Crime Measurement In The United States, Daniel J. Patten

The Hilltop Review

This article traces the history of crime measurement in the United States beginning with the U.S. census in 1790 while exploring several key pieces of history that influenced how crime is measured today. After discussing the origins of the U.S. census and its contributions to measuring crime, the Chicago School of Sociology is observed for its monumental influence on early criminology in America. Next, the division of sociology and criminal justice into two distinct fields had major implications for measuring crime. How crime is measured is often attributed to the ideological differences between these academic fields. Then, the ...


Religious Discourse And Interdisciplinarity In Sport Studies, Zachary T. Smith Jan 2015

Religious Discourse And Interdisciplinarity In Sport Studies, Zachary T. Smith

The Hilltop Review

Religious and theological explorations of leisure have remained few and far between, as religious studies perceive sport and game related studies as trivial, and as leisure theorists find social scientific methods more compelling. And yet, religious traditions and thinkers have been offering accounts and ethics of leisure activities for thousands of years, and anthropological evidence suggests the origination of sport and game play arose in the context of religious cult activity (Huizinga, 1949; Guttmann, 2007). Further, contemporary research has indicated that religion plays an important role in structuring the thought and behavior of religious persons towards their leisure (Waller, 2009 ...


Breastfeeding And Subsistence Work: Connecting Theory And Experience, Olivia M. Mclaughlin Jan 2015

Breastfeeding And Subsistence Work: Connecting Theory And Experience, Olivia M. Mclaughlin

The Hilltop Review

No abstract provided.