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Wayne State University

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Clinical Decision Science: Proof Of Concept, James Peter Meza Md, Phd, Nicholus Yee Md, Bennett Riddering Md, Ali Nasrallah Md, Urtė Zableckas Ms, Mbbs Nov 2020

Clinical Decision Science: Proof Of Concept, James Peter Meza Md, Phd, Nicholus Yee Md, Bennett Riddering Md, Ali Nasrallah Md, Urtė Zableckas Ms, Mbbs

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

Clinical decision science, a newly identified area of scholarship, describes how clinical research is used for a patient, within the context of their unique social conditions. We hypothesize that physicians use sociocultural context as an important input to their decision making. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind mixed methods study. Family medicine faculty and residents at a community hospital family medicine residency were included in the study. After academic journal club discussing a primary research paper, physicians were asked if they would prescribe medication for a patient who was similar to the subjects in a research paper. However, social and ...


Renal Safety And Racial Disparity In Patients On Antiviral Treatment For Chronic Hepatitis B, Matthew Miller, Sindhuri Benjaram, Raya Kutaimy, Paul Naylor, Elizabeth May, Murray Ehrinpreis, Milton Mutchnick Mar 2020

Renal Safety And Racial Disparity In Patients On Antiviral Treatment For Chronic Hepatitis B, Matthew Miller, Sindhuri Benjaram, Raya Kutaimy, Paul Naylor, Elizabeth May, Murray Ehrinpreis, Milton Mutchnick

Medical Student Research Symposium

Background:

Many African Americans (AA) are chronically infected with Hepatitis B (HBV). While antiviral therapy is highly effective, clinical trials suggest a treatment-related decline in kidney function is possible. Given that chronic HBV predominately affects Asians worldwide, most studies have contained few AA patients. We evaluated these treatment-related kidney function changes in our predominately AA patient population.

Methods:

From 225 HBV patients, we identified 42 patients who were not co-infected with HIV or HCV, had a recent visit, and at least one earlier visit (before Jan 2017). If on treatment with antivirals it must have been for at least 2 ...


Evaluation Of The Impact Of Social Collaborations On Sexual And Reproductive Health Knowledge, Lucki Word, Jaila Campbell, Manar T. Edriss, Destiny Stroman, Jewel Evans, Melanie Hanna-Johnson, Md, Anil N. F. Aranha, Phd Mar 2020

Evaluation Of The Impact Of Social Collaborations On Sexual And Reproductive Health Knowledge, Lucki Word, Jaila Campbell, Manar T. Edriss, Destiny Stroman, Jewel Evans, Melanie Hanna-Johnson, Md, Anil N. F. Aranha, Phd

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction: Developments in technology, such as the popularity of mobile devices and social media outlets, have enhanced the ability of individuals to communicate. Currently, search engines allow for easy exploration of information related to every topic of interest. Our study purpose was to evaluate the impact of technological and social collaborations on sexual and reproductive health knowledge (SRHK).

Methods: A 50-item survey instrument, integrating factors of sociodemographics, number/type of social collaborations, technological communication use, and SRHK, was developed to assess familiarity with sexual and reproductive health perceptions. The survey was provided to consenting patients in an ambulatory, primary care ...


The Use Of Urine Drug Testing For Risk Stratification And Efficacious Drug Monitoring In Pain Management Settings, Ahmad I. Hasan, Kareem Elhage, Brendan Farley, Khaled J. Saleh Mar 2020

The Use Of Urine Drug Testing For Risk Stratification And Efficacious Drug Monitoring In Pain Management Settings, Ahmad I. Hasan, Kareem Elhage, Brendan Farley, Khaled J. Saleh

Medical Student Research Symposium

Objective: To understand the current landscape of urine drug testing (UDT) guidelines as part of risk assessment for opioid abuse, and to offer recommendations towards adopting universal screening guidelines.

Background: There has been an opioid epidemic within the United States, and the role of prescription opioids has been well established. Despite proposed recommendations, there has yet to be a published universal screening guideline on the use of UDT in the setting of opioid abuse risk stratification as well as postoperative drug monitoring.

Methods: We explored current guidelines for UDT on two levels. First, we explore general indications for UDT within ...


A Mother Promotes Cognitive And Affective Outcomes Via Museum Education On Arab American Immigrants’ Culture: A Vygotskian Perspective, Navaz P. Bhavnagri, Suha K. Kamash Apr 2019

A Mother Promotes Cognitive And Affective Outcomes Via Museum Education On Arab American Immigrants’ Culture: A Vygotskian Perspective, Navaz P. Bhavnagri, Suha K. Kamash

Teacher Education Faculty Publications

A Chaldean Catholic immigrant mother from Iraq kept a journal about how her Arab American daughters (ages 9 and 15) visited museums for the first time and participated in museum-related activities that focused on them (1) understanding and developing empathy for all new immigrants coming to the U.S.; (2) understanding and developing appreciation of Arab American im- migrants’ culture; and (3) being exposed to limited Arabic vocabulary related to museum artifacts. The mother’s anecdotal observations, informal conver- sational interviews, and photographs documented her daughters’ learning processes and outcomes. The cognitive processes and outcomes (e.g., under- standing, meaning ...


The Evolution Of Consanguineous Marriages In The Archbishopric Of Granada, Spain (1900–1979), Juan F. Gamella, Ana MaríA NúÑEz-Negrillo Feb 2019

The Evolution Of Consanguineous Marriages In The Archbishopric Of Granada, Spain (1900–1979), Juan F. Gamella, Ana MaríA NúÑEz-Negrillo

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

In the twentieth century Spain maintained some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriage in Europe. In many regions these rates were still high in the 1950s and 1960s, but then decreased rapidly, and by the 1970s a generalized transformation in mating patterns was underway. In the following decades the marriage of persons closely related by birth became rare. Consanguinity and inbreeding have been much studied in Spain, but almost exclusively in the central and northern regions of the country. This is the first study of a whole large diocese in the southern region of Andalusia. This paper is based ...


The Disproportionate Burden Of Asthma By Race, Sex, Income And Education, Lisa Elizabeth Stack Jan 2019

The Disproportionate Burden Of Asthma By Race, Sex, Income And Education, Lisa Elizabeth Stack

Wayne State University Dissertations

This paper seeks to understand the relationship of county level median air quality with adult asthma risk, and the disproportional adult asthma risk by sex, race, income and education, controlling for individual and county effects. The specific objectives of this work are to answer the following questions: 1) What is the difference exposure of the median AQI by race, controlling for county and individual effects? 2) What is the difference in exposure of the median AQI by sex, controlling for county and individual effects? 3) What is the difference in exposure of the median AQI by education, controlling for county ...


Turning Passion Into Profit: When Leisure Becomes Work In Modern Roller Derby, Amanda Nicole Draft Jan 2019

Turning Passion Into Profit: When Leisure Becomes Work In Modern Roller Derby, Amanda Nicole Draft

Wayne State University Dissertations

Modern roller derby operates as a “by the skater, for the skater” business model, where participants are not paid but must devote a certain amount of time, effort, and money to sustaining their sport and respective organizations. At the same time, while derby is grounded in anti-corporate values, a growing industry has sprouted to support the sport, the larger share of which consists of small business retailers selling gear, apparel, and other accessories. I use the context of modern roller derby to examine the changing natures of work and leisure, specifically how they operate as greedy institutions and emphasizing the ...


Speaking Through My Tears: A Critical Exploration Of Black Students’ And Parents’ Perceptions Of School Discipline, Charles Bell Jan 2018

Speaking Through My Tears: A Critical Exploration Of Black Students’ And Parents’ Perceptions Of School Discipline, Charles Bell

Wayne State University Dissertations

Research shows African American students are disproportionately suspended and expelled in K-12 institutions throughout the United States due to zero tolerance policies. Additionally, several scholars argue the most restrictive school discipline policies were implemented in the state of Michigan. The purpose of this study is to investigate African American students' and parents' perceptions of school discipline in primarily black high schools to determine the following: a) How do black students and parents perceive school discipline, b) How do black students and parents perceive school safety measures, and c) How do black student and parent perceptions of school discipline differ by ...


Research Before Teaching And Service? Performances, Perceptions, And Experiences Of Faculty At Teaching-Intensive Institutions, Megan Elizabeth Throm Jan 2018

Research Before Teaching And Service? Performances, Perceptions, And Experiences Of Faculty At Teaching-Intensive Institutions, Megan Elizabeth Throm

Wayne State University Dissertations

The privileging of research over teaching is well documented in scholarship regarding the teaching-research nexus. In this dissertation I analyze the experiences and identities related to research, teaching, and service of sixteen faculty members at teaching-intensive institutions through intensive interviews. The focus on teaching-intensive institutions is driven by two goals. The first goal was to gain a better understanding of how the privileging of research over teaching and service is experienced, understood, and reified by faculty members at teaching-intensive institutions. Second, by giving voice to the experiences of those at teaching-intensive institutions I hope to increase the value placed on ...


Trailer Park Kids: An Ethnographic Study Of Identity Formation In An Affluent Suburban Middle School, Jeanne Marie Vanlaan Jan 2018

Trailer Park Kids: An Ethnographic Study Of Identity Formation In An Affluent Suburban Middle School, Jeanne Marie Vanlaan

Wayne State University Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was determining influences behind identity formation, social reproduction, and resistance of students residing in a local manufactured home community and attending a suburban majority White, middle-and upper-middle class middle school. Narratives from participants were included to assist in disseminating intersecting lives of students (the trailer park kids) with their parents and teachers. The lives of the trailer park kids at home and at school were portrayed. Research before this study focused on similar themes, but unique was examination of effects on students attending school as a minority by social class standing and their place of ...


Racial Microaggressions On An Online Anonymous Platform, Navneesh Pandher May 2017

Racial Microaggressions On An Online Anonymous Platform, Navneesh Pandher

Honors College Theses

In sociology there has been an increase amount of scholarly attention devoted to the microaggressions as a theoretical construct. Efforts have been devoted towards understanding the themes, track the progress of the term to its modern day use, the different forms that microaggressions take, and the consequences to individuals that suffer in these encounters. Typically, microaggression research is centered around interviews with minorities but there is minimal investigation into the presentation of these encounters on online platforms where users can maintain an anonymous identity. A content analysis with 5 codes was conducted of a blog that is open to anonymous ...


Parent Interaction In Primetime Family Themed Television Portrayals: A Replication And Extension Of Dail And Way's (1985) Content Analysis, Anna Maria Katherine Flores Jan 2017

Parent Interaction In Primetime Family Themed Television Portrayals: A Replication And Extension Of Dail And Way's (1985) Content Analysis, Anna Maria Katherine Flores

Wayne State University Dissertations

This research is a replication and extension of Dail and Way’s (1985) content analysis identifying parent interactions portrayed in family oriented prime time network television programs. Family structure, parent role, child rearing, and child responses were coded from five episodes each of eight different programs from 2014-2015 television season. The programs presented parent roles more often than child rearing, while mothers were found in child rearing more often than fathers. Traditional family structures were most prevalent with fewer single parent households and a new presence of same-sex parents. Mothers and fathers were still portrayed stereotypically, but children’s responses ...


The Relationship Of Assimilation On The Health Behaviors, Health Beliefs, And Use Of Health Care Services Of The Samoan Immigrants In The United States, Miliama Bracken Jan 2017

The Relationship Of Assimilation On The Health Behaviors, Health Beliefs, And Use Of Health Care Services Of The Samoan Immigrants In The United States, Miliama Bracken

Wayne State University Theses

This study accepts the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between assimilation and the health behaviors, health beliefs, and use of health care services of the Samoan immigrants in the United States. The target population included Samoans who immigrated from Samoa or American Samoa and were 18 or more years of age. A total of 150 questionnaires were distributed and 126 respondents were included in the study. The respondents were asked how often they visited the doctor during the year. Would they seek the help of a medical doctor if they were sick, or a Samoan healer? They were ...


Occupational Choices Among Arab Americans In The U.S.: An Examination Of The Effects Of Gender, Educational Attainment, Generational Status, Country Of Origin, And Motivation, Saad Rashed Alzeer Jan 2017

Occupational Choices Among Arab Americans In The U.S.: An Examination Of The Effects Of Gender, Educational Attainment, Generational Status, Country Of Origin, And Motivation, Saad Rashed Alzeer

Wayne State University Dissertations

Migrating to the United States of American holds both great promises and challenges for prospective immigrants. This is true for Arab Americans who migrated to the United States in increasing numbers over the last several decades. One of the most important, yet simultaneously under-examined areas of research interest is that of Arab Americans’ occupational choices and occupational motivations. Occupational choices and motivations are correlated to social status, income earning potential, familial stability, and even health outcomes. This is true for the U.S. population as a whole and even more so for immigrant groups such as Arab Americans.

The present ...


Rituals Reproducing Race: African American Women's Feminine Hygiene Practices, Shared Experiences, And Power, Angela K. Guy-Lee Jan 2017

Rituals Reproducing Race: African American Women's Feminine Hygiene Practices, Shared Experiences, And Power, Angela K. Guy-Lee

Wayne State University Dissertations

This dissertation is an exploration of the role African American women’s feminine hygiene practices, namely vaginal douching, plays in the creation and reproduction of race. Compared to their white and Latina counterparts, African American women are the most likely to engage in this practice. Vaginal douching is associated with myriad reproductive and sexual health problems. These problems include but are not limited to recurrent yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis, disrupting healthy vaginal microbiomes, and spontaneous preterm birth; of which African American women experience disproportionately. Although racial differences in vaginal douching are well documented, little is known about the impetus for ...


Exploring The Characteristics And Motivations Of Undergraduates Who Sext, Mackenzie Boehler Jan 2017

Exploring The Characteristics And Motivations Of Undergraduates Who Sext, Mackenzie Boehler

Wayne State University Theses

ABSTRACT

IDENTIFYING THE MOTIVATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF UNDERGRADUATES WHO SEXT

by

MACKENZIE BOEHLER

May 2017

Advisor: Dr. Matthew Larson

Major: Criminal Justice

Degree: Master of Science

In recent years, sexting has become a controversial topic among legal scholars and behavioral scientists. Research has displayed varying accounts of the prevalence of sexting among young adults and has yet to answer the question of why. This study seeks to understand the characteristics and motivations of young adults who are involved in sexting. A survey of sexting behaviors was administered online at a large urban university. Identifying the factors and influences for a ...


Structure, Gender, Tribalism, And Workplace Power In Libya, Rajia Rashed Jan 2017

Structure, Gender, Tribalism, And Workplace Power In Libya, Rajia Rashed

Wayne State University Dissertations

The study examines the nature of workplace power in a Libyan oil company and how is power distributed, managed, and maintained within the structure of this workplace. I also examine how gender and tribal identities affect who has power in the workplace setting. I also look at the types of decisions workers have control over, depending on their rank and status within the organization, time with company, gender and tribal identity. In this proposal, I argue that workplace power is not only about decision making within the company, but it also mirrors larger social and political inequalities in the society ...


A Narrative Study Of Chaldean Refugees And The Myth Of Return: From Chaldean Babylon To The New World, Joseph James Byle Jan 2017

A Narrative Study Of Chaldean Refugees And The Myth Of Return: From Chaldean Babylon To The New World, Joseph James Byle

Wayne State University Dissertations

With the removal of Saddam following the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq, life for all Iraqis changed for the worse, especially for minorities such as Christians, including Chaldeans. Considering the powerful push factors that have compelled Chaldean Refugees in the Detroit area to leave Iraq, the idea of returning to the homeland would seem like a remote possibility, however, these Chaldeans present an intriguing case, due to the fact that they are among the indigenous people in Iraq. Do their deep rooted ties to the homeland contribute to a desire to return? This research examines this possibility through an ...


Variations In The Marital Attitudes And Marital Status Of Black And White Americans: An Intersectional Approach, Stacey Ellen Coleman Jan 2017

Variations In The Marital Attitudes And Marital Status Of Black And White Americans: An Intersectional Approach, Stacey Ellen Coleman

Wayne State University Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to assess the unique socio-demographic positions of Black and White Americans related to variations in marital attitudes and marital status and differences in sex. The study was guided by two research aims: 1.) to assess whether socio-demographic factors were related to racial variations in marital attitudes of Blacks and Whites and if the relationships differ by race and sex and 2.) to assess whether socio-demographic factors were differentially associated with marital status of Black and White Americans and if they varied by race and sex. The study drew on individual-level, nationally representative, cross-sectional, 2010 ...


Black Male Genocide: Sanctioned Segregation In American Policy, Alton Maxel James Jan 2017

Black Male Genocide: Sanctioned Segregation In American Policy, Alton Maxel James

Wayne State University Dissertations

College degree attainment for Black Americans has significantly fallen their majority counterparts. While educational attainment for this minority demographic has been less than average, a secondary trend emerges. Despite the rises in graduation rates, Black males consistently earn a smaller percentage of the degrees garnered by Black students. Furthermore, policies throughout sectors of American society produce segregation that manifests as genocidal realities in the lives of Black men—including college graduation. Thus, the purpose of this research was to determine the effect of neighborhood segregation on Black men and women’s 4 and 6-year graduation probability and determine if Black ...


Digital Literacies And “Glee”: The Role Of Fan Fiction Virtual Writing And Social Commentary In Response To Bullying Themes With Adolescent Writers, Mandy Rita Stewart Jan 2017

Digital Literacies And “Glee”: The Role Of Fan Fiction Virtual Writing And Social Commentary In Response To Bullying Themes With Adolescent Writers, Mandy Rita Stewart

Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

DIGITAL LITERACIES AND “GLEE”: THE ROLE OF FAN FICTION VIRTUAL WRITING AND SOCIAL COMMENTARY IN RESPONSE TO BULLYING THEMES WITH ADOLESCENT WRITERS

by

MANDY STEWART

May 2017

Advisor: Dr. Gina DeBlase

Major: Curriculum and Instruction

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

As the education system turns its attention to climate, bullying, and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) issues in the classroom, there is a focus on developing our student population abilities to be more accepting and tolerant of diversity. This study explored how ten students, aged 16-17, interacted with virtual literacy events on www.fanfiction.net, and how that contributed to ...


Self-Care Among Older Adults With Heart Failure, Sumayya Attaallah, Kay Klymko, Faith Pratt Hopp Dec 2016

Self-Care Among Older Adults With Heart Failure, Sumayya Attaallah, Kay Klymko, Faith Pratt Hopp

Social Work Faculty Publications

Background: It is estimated that 5.7 million Americans are living with heart failure (HF) today. Despite the fact that HF is one of the most common reasons people aged 65 years and older are admitted into the hospital, few studies describe the self-care in this older adult population. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to review the current literature on self-care in this population to better understand the influence of selected factors on self-care and health outcomes. Methods: A literature search was completed and resulted in including 28 studies. Results: Multiple factors have been reported as barriers to ...


Barriers, Motivations, And Preferences For Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults, Neha P. Gothe, Bradley J. Kendall Nov 2016

Barriers, Motivations, And Preferences For Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults, Neha P. Gothe, Bradley J. Kendall

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults (N = 20). Questions posed to each focus group targeted ...


Navigating The Transition Into Motherhood: Women's Experiences Of Control, Emotions, And Social Ideals, Jody Sue Sauer-Sargent Jan 2016

Navigating The Transition Into Motherhood: Women's Experiences Of Control, Emotions, And Social Ideals, Jody Sue Sauer-Sargent

Wayne State University Dissertations

In this dissertation, I sought to give postpartum women their own voices so that they could help define the postpartum experience on their own terms. It fills important gaps within the literature on new mothers’ experiences. A phenomenological approach was used, emphasizing the lived experiences of the women, with an overlay of autoethnography, where the personal experience of the researcher becomes important primarily in how it illuminates the phenomenon being studied. Thus, my personal experience of pregnancy into early motherhood is interwoven throughout this dissertation. Forty-two women participated in the in-depth, face-to-face interview, followed by a questionnaire. The qualitative data ...


The Frame Game: An Examination Of How The Local Print Media Framed The Issue Of Pension And Health Care Costs In Detroit's Municipal Bankruptcy, Robin West Smith Jan 2016

The Frame Game: An Examination Of How The Local Print Media Framed The Issue Of Pension And Health Care Costs In Detroit's Municipal Bankruptcy, Robin West Smith

Wayne State University Theses

Scholars suggest understanding media theory and media sociology are instrumental when discussing the question of media power. Most of the empirical work done in this area has centered on the “objective-functionalist paradigm” (McQuail, 1985). The purpose of this study is to explore how two urban local print media outlets framed a group of stakeholders, the pensioners, and the broken promise of the pension and healthcare benefits, during Detroit’s municipal bankruptcy. I conducted a content analysis of Detroit News and Detroit Free Press news articles for the period from August 2013 to July 2014, focusing primarily on thirty (30) key ...


The City Is Black, Black Is The City: Exploring The Intersections Of Race And Stratification Beliefs On Policy Preferences, Randall Rashad Wyatt Jan 2016

The City Is Black, Black Is The City: Exploring The Intersections Of Race And Stratification Beliefs On Policy Preferences, Randall Rashad Wyatt

Wayne State University Theses

This paper examines the association between race blame attitudes with support for policies aimed at improving the nation’s large cities among White and Black Americans. Although legislative safeguards protect the constitutional rights of all Americans, Blacks trail Whites on nearly all quality of life indicators. By extension, the quality of life within cities with disproportionate and segregated Black populations is decidedly worse than in other cities. That said, the current study largely finds that black and white Americans maintain different motivations for supporting increased or decreased funding for large urban American cities, which often serves as a code word ...


Crossing The Troll Bridge - The Framing Of Fat Bodies On Social Media, Amanda Levitt Jan 2016

Crossing The Troll Bridge - The Framing Of Fat Bodies On Social Media, Amanda Levitt

Wayne State University Theses

As the use of social media grows, cyber bullying and trolling plague the way that people interact online. Even within spaces specifically dedicated to deconstructing dominant discourse around fatness, cyber bullying is an everyday occurrence. Data for this research came from a randomly selected sample of 500 messages sent to moderators of This is Thin Privilege, a Tumblr blog that explores and critiques the experiences of fat people in society. This study contributes to the growing body of literature on online communication by analyzing how commenters’ messages construct fatness and reify dominant narratives, the common tactics commenter’s use, and ...


The Oral Contraceptive Pill: An Analysis Of The Portrayal Of The Pill On Pharmaceutical Websites, Sasikala Nair Jan 2016

The Oral Contraceptive Pill: An Analysis Of The Portrayal Of The Pill On Pharmaceutical Websites, Sasikala Nair

Wayne State University Dissertations

Internet Direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCPA) continues to be an important, popular and rising platform for pharmaceutical companies to market their products to consumers. The purpose of this study was to determine how traditional oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are portrayed on the pharmaceutical websites during Internet DTCPA. This study also looked to see how women’s bodies and the process of menstruation were medicalized on these websites. Eight traditional OCP websites were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The findings suggest that website characteristics such as color, slogans, consumer incentives, images and videos are created in a strategic manner to show ...


Does Justice Exist?: An Examination Of The Association Between Race And Perceptions Of The Criminal Justice System., Catina Antionette Polk Jan 2016

Does Justice Exist?: An Examination Of The Association Between Race And Perceptions Of The Criminal Justice System., Catina Antionette Polk

Wayne State University Theses

This paper examines the association between race and perceptions of trust in the criminal justice system amongst five different racial groups. Sociologists have diligently worked towards determining the effects of race, on court decisions, because (1) it is an important social issue, (2) it is widely considered a testing ground for propositions derived from conflict theory, and (3) the research literature is laced with contradictory findings and conclusions (Unnever et al. 1980). The present study will determine if there is a disconnection between minority groups and the criminal justice system. Furthermore, it will discover if "blackness" alone is the factor ...