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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Republic Of Federal Scientific Publication: The Not-So-Public Domain, John Walters Aug 1998

The Republic Of Federal Scientific Publication: The Not-So-Public Domain, John Walters

John Walters

This article examines the forces that have made federal scientific publication an essentially private enterprise. Particular attention is paid to the rise of the scientific community in the American political system. The period under review begins roughly with 1941 and American involvement in World War II, which coincides with the establishment of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (ORSD). The article examines OSRD’s method of conducting federal scientific research, its contractual system, and the new publishing paradigm that it engendered. The article concludes in the 1960s with congressional efforts to revise provisions in Title 17, the Copyright Code.


Water Resources Handbook For Economics, United States Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service Jul 1998

Water Resources Handbook For Economics, United States Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service

All U.S. Government Documents (Utah Regional Depository)

The purpose of the Water Resources Handbook for Economics is to provide guidance for the economic analysis of water resource projects. Established economic theory and principles, and the economic concepts stated in the Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resource Implementation Studies (P&G) serve as the primary foundation for this document. P&G was issued March 10, 1983, by the Water Resources Council. The economist must blend the economic principles with a good sense of practicality. To encourage the economist to be creative and to allow for differences between projects, the handbook is not ...


Clinician Perceptions Of Media Use By Male Sex-Offending, Conduct-Disordered, And Normal Youth, Melissa A. Vogel May 1998

Clinician Perceptions Of Media Use By Male Sex-Offending, Conduct-Disordered, And Normal Youth, Melissa A. Vogel

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sexual offenses by youth have been increasing. The literature recognizes media as a socializer, yet few studies examine nonpornographic media and youthful sex-offending. The purpose of this research was to survey the perceptions of clinicians as to the use of media type and content for male sex-offending, conduct-disordered, and normal youth. The questionnaire was completed by 78 American clinicians from 30 states specializing in the treatment of youthful sex offenders.

Means, standard deviations, and percentages were calculated, which provided descriptive data. Male sex-offending and conduct-disordered youth are believed by clinicians to be more frequent consumers of aggressive, explicit, and sexually ...


An Assessment Of The Concurrent Validity Of The Family Profile Ii, Denim L. Slade May 1998

An Assessment Of The Concurrent Validity Of The Family Profile Ii, Denim L. Slade

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to assess the concurrent validity of the Family Profile II (FPII). The FPII is an instrument designed to measure 13 areas of family functioning. Matches for II of the 13 subscales of the FPII were identified from the literature. These comparison subscales were used to confirm the concurrent validity of the FPII. The sample consisted of 229 undergraduate students enrolled in summer classes at Utah State University. The factor structure of the FPII was also assessed. Four of the 13 subscales factored exactly as previously reported. Five factored with only minimal differences. The remaining four subscales ...


The Association Between Marital Therapy Enactments And Couple Communication, Paul Floyd Kindall May 1998

The Association Between Marital Therapy Enactments And Couple Communication, Paul Floyd Kindall

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This exploratory study focused on the use of positive, negative, and neutral enactments in couple therapy and the effectiveness of each type of enactment in immediate changes in specific communication behaviors. The sample consisted of 37 videotaped segments of the 10 minutes before and the lO minutes after an enactment. Communication behaviors were coded using the Marital Interaction Coding System-Global (MICS-G). Paired! tests were used to test the differences between pre- and post-enactment scores. Positive enactments (!! = 20) were not related to positive nor negative communication behaviors. There were not enough negative enactments (!! = 2) to test whether they were related to ...


Familial And Extrafamilial Correlates Of Children's Child-Care Perceptions, Michael K. Godfrey May 1998

Familial And Extrafamilial Correlates Of Children's Child-Care Perceptions, Michael K. Godfrey

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify the individual, familial, and child-care characteristics related to children's perceptions of their nonparental child-care environments. One-hundred seventy-five children, their families, and child-care providers participated in this study. Children attended one of three forms of child care: large center-based child-care settings, home-based child-care settings, and a preschool. Correlates of children's perceptions of their child-care experiences came from variables classified into six categories: individual child characteristics, family structure, family processes, previous child-care experiences, child-care structure, and child-care processes.

Children's perceptions were elicited through the Child Care Game Assessment (CCGA), a role-playing ...


Predicting Family Strength In Families Caring For Children With Disabilities, Katrina J. F. Ericson May 1998

Predicting Family Strength In Families Caring For Children With Disabilities, Katrina J. F. Ericson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research sought to identify factors that might be useful in helping to predict family strengths in families caring for a child with a disability. Based on the ABCX model designed for families in crisis, this research examined severity of child's disability (A); the family's existing resources of household income, education of the mother, and mother's marital status (B); the family's perception of family resources, family support, and parenting stress (C); and how these influence family strength (X) over time. In relation to the ABCX model, it was hypothesized that the aforementioned constructs would be associated ...


Essays On The Impact Of Foreign Aid On Economic Growth And Development: The Case Of Jordan, Jamal G. Husein May 1998

Essays On The Impact Of Foreign Aid On Economic Growth And Development: The Case Of Jordan, Jamal G. Husein

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the role of foreign aid in economic growth and development of Jordan. The flow of foreign capital takes two main forms: private foreign investment, mostly foreign direct investment by large multinational corporations, and public development assistance (foreign aid) from both individual national governments and multinational donor agencies. The distinguishing characteristic of foreign aid is the concessional element. In this dissertation, recent techniques and advances in time-series analysis are used in the empirical section of Chapters 2 and 3, i.e., vector autoregression (VAR), impulse response functions, and variance decompositions. In the fourth chapter, we use a nonlinear ...


Essays On The Determination Of Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate For Taiwan, 1981-1993, Mei-Ling Chen May 1998

Essays On The Determination Of Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate For Taiwan, 1981-1993, Mei-Ling Chen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Taiwan is one of the four smaller Asian economies. Before 1960, Taiwan pursued industrialization policies by limiting imports of manufactured goods, gradually adopting an open and outward-oriented economic policy, believing it would expend exports and yield gained ground.

With this increasingly open and outward-oriented economic policy as the background, we will study the real exchange rate (RER) misalignment in Taiwan over the period 1981-93. The RER plays a critical role in maintaining external competitiveness. Hence, from the policy point of view, this rate should not be allowed to deviate much from its equilibrium level. Since the equilibrium real exchange rate ...


The Nonuse Of Figurative Language In Conduct Disordered Adolescents, Mike Berger May 1998

The Nonuse Of Figurative Language In Conduct Disordered Adolescents, Mike Berger

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The relationship between the literal language and conduct problems among conduct disordered adolescents was examined in 109 subjects. The inability to use figurative language was found to be positively related to ratings of conduct problems. Both the parents' discipline style and nonuse of figurative language were related to 111 conduct problems in conduct disordered adolescents. The possible role of other variables, for example, age, sex, and IQ, was examined. Possible mechanisms that could relate the lack of figurative competence and conduct problems were explored.


Pretherapy Videotape Presentation For Eating Disorder Clients: Development And Evaluation, Benita J. Quakenbush May 1998

Pretherapy Videotape Presentation For Eating Disorder Clients: Development And Evaluation, Benita J. Quakenbush

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eating disorder clients show low motivation, poor follow-through, and inordinate premature dropout rates in treatment. Earlier studies support the use of pretherapy training to help clients understand the tasks and challenges of therapy. However, a pretherapy intervention, such as showing prospective clients a video that outlines recovery issues and themes, had not yet been developed specifically for the prevalent, recalcitrant problem of eating disorders. Thus, of particular interest to clinicians who treat eating disorders may be the development of a theoretically sound, pretherapy videotape that outlines recovery issues.

One of the purposes of this study was to review prior investigations ...


A Descriptive Study Of The Relation Between Domestic Violence And Pet Abuse, Claudia V. Weber May 1998

A Descriptive Study Of The Relation Between Domestic Violence And Pet Abuse, Claudia V. Weber

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This was a descriptive study that examined the relation between domestic violence and pct abuse. Participants were questioned about their styles of conflict resolution with partners and how pets were treated in the home. Information was gathered using the Conflict Tactics Scale, and three surveys were developed for this study: the Battered Partner Shelter Survey, Families and Pets Survey, and the Child 's Observations and Experience with Pets. Four groups were recruited: (a) women in crisis shelters who chose to include one of their children in the study (.n = 39), (b) women in crisis shelters who did not include one ...


A Preliminary Evaluation Of The Students' Realizing Educational Potential Program, Frances Y. Tous May 1998

A Preliminary Evaluation Of The Students' Realizing Educational Potential Program, Frances Y. Tous

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Students' Realizing Educational Potential Program (REP) was implemented in the 1993-94 academic year to reduce dropout rates for ethnic minority students at Utah State University . This program is currently funded by a 5-year grant, pending renewal upon demonstration of its effectiveness. A formative evaluation was conducted to determine whether the REP program has accomplished its goals thus far, using 157 minority students. Two levels of analysis were conducted. In the first level, admission index scores, college grade point averages, and the average number of quarters enrolled were compared among three REP and non-REP cohorts . The REP program did not ...


Therapy Videotape Presentation For Eating Disorder Clients: Development And Evaluation, Benita J. Quakenbush May 1998

Therapy Videotape Presentation For Eating Disorder Clients: Development And Evaluation, Benita J. Quakenbush

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eating disorder clients show low motivation, poor follow-through, and inordinate premature dropout rates in treatment. Earlier studies support the use of pretherapy training to help clients understand the tasks and challenges of therapy. However, a pretherapy intervention, such as showing prospective clients a video that outlines recovery issues and themes, had not yet been developed specifically for the prevalent, recalcitrant problem of eating disorders. Thus, of particular interest to clinicians who treat eating disorders may be the development of a theoretically sound, pretherapy videotape that outlines recovery issues.

One of the purposes of this study was to review prior investigations ...


Traditional And Contemporary Lakota Death, Dying, Grief, And Bereavement Beliefs And Practices: A Qualitative Study, Joseph B. Stone May 1998

Traditional And Contemporary Lakota Death, Dying, Grief, And Bereavement Beliefs And Practices: A Qualitative Study, Joseph B. Stone

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bereavement beliefs and practices in the modern, American culture have been well documented. However, virtually no research has been conducted on traditional and contemporary death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices among native tribes, such as the Lakota.

The present study was conducted with the Lakota, and fulfilled two goals. iii First, the contemporary and traditional death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices of the Lakota were documented and summarized. Such documentation may help bereaved Lakota tribal members who are experiencing problems with death and bereavement, and may help preserve traditional knowledge, beliefs, and practices. Second, the consensus ...


The Effect Of The Estimate Of Resting Metabolic Rate On The Correlation Between Energy Expenditure As Estimated Using Self-Reports Of Physical Activity And Food Intake Records In Older Adults, Judy Hurd May 1998

The Effect Of The Estimate Of Resting Metabolic Rate On The Correlation Between Energy Expenditure As Estimated Using Self-Reports Of Physical Activity And Food Intake Records In Older Adults, Judy Hurd

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study measured total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) in adults at least 50 years of age. The goal was to determine the effect of the estimate of resting metabolic rate (RMR) on the relationship between energy expenditure estimates made using (a) self-reports of physical activity and (b) food intake records. The objectives were to determine if (a) RMR estimates based on body composition, body weight, and the 111 metabolic cart were strongly related to each other, and (b) TDEE estimates based on a 7- day physical activity diary and a 7-day food intake record were more strongly related to each ...


Assessing Mental Health Of Native American Children: Relationship Of Acculturation With Social, Emotional, And Behavioral Functioning, Christopher H. Morris May 1998

Assessing Mental Health Of Native American Children: Relationship Of Acculturation With Social, Emotional, And Behavioral Functioning, Christopher H. Morris

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The literature indicates that, in comparison to children of other ethnic minority groups, Native American children may be at greater risk for a variety of emotional and behavioral Ill disorders and negative psychosocial conditions. Many may also struggle to resolve issues related to cultural identity. Understanding how Native American children and families relate to the cultures within which they live is a critical aspect of preventing and treating childhood mental disorders. Although Native children and families face persistent social pressure to adapt to a multicultural world, no systematic research exists examining the relationship between families' experience of acculturation and their ...


An Evaluation Study Of Site-Based Managed Behaviors In A Rural Utah School, Barbara R. S. Soriano May 1998

An Evaluation Study Of Site-Based Managed Behaviors In A Rural Utah School, Barbara R. S. Soriano

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Site-based management (SBM) in schools can trace its roots back to two phenomena, citizen's movements in large cities such as New York in the late 1960s and decentralization efforts of business in the 1970s. Both were done in the belief that achieving a better result can be done 11 through decisions made by the people closest to the process. Site-based management programs are diverse. Some stress one aspect, the restructuring of the school administration and program to affect achievement. Other schools stress a second aspect, the empowerment of teachers and stakeholders to make administrative decisions.

Whichever emphasis chosen, several ...


Financial Management And Financial Problems As They Relate To Marital Satisfaction In Early Marriage, Barbara C. Kerkmann May 1998

Financial Management And Financial Problems As They Relate To Marital Satisfaction In Early Marriage, Barbara C. Kerkmann

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The financial management habits and perceptions of young married couples were examined, as well as their financial problems and perceptions of their problems' magnitude in an attempt to assess the relationship of these financial factors to marital satisfaction. A survey was delivered to 604 residents of family student housing at Utah State University. The spouse who predominantly handled family finances was asked to complete the survey. By using an incentive for completing the survey, a response of 51.32% was obtained. It was hypothesized that both financial management practices and problems would be related to a couple's reported satisfaction ...


The Relationship Between Collateral Therapy And The Adult Pedophile's Ability To Advance Through Levels Of Treatment, Julie G. Bennion May 1998

The Relationship Between Collateral Therapy And The Adult Pedophile's Ability To Advance Through Levels Of Treatment, Julie G. Bennion

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between collateral therapy and the adult male pedophile's ability to advance through levels of treatment. Data from a convenience sample of 27 adult male pedophiles attending therapy at Intermountain Specialized Abuse Treatment Centers were collected for this study. Data were collected from participants ' files on 22 independent variables, including the primary independent variable , collateral sessions. The dependent variable was the time it took participants to advance through levels of treatment .

A comparison of measures of central tendency for participants who had and those who had not participated in collateral ...


A Profile Of Professional Activities And Practice Patterns For Marriage And Family Therapists In Utah, Thane R. Palmer May 1998

A Profile Of Professional Activities And Practice Patterns For Marriage And Family Therapists In Utah, Thane R. Palmer

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research project presents data on practitioner profiles and practice patterns for marriage and family therapists living in Utah . A sample of 77 clinical members and six associate members of the American Association for Marriage and ramily Therapy living in Utah gave descriptive facts on their demographics , training , years of experience , and specific information about their practice of marriage and family therapy. The findings indicate tha t marriage and family therapists in Utah are a mostly male , Caucasian , and highly educated group of practitioners compared to marriage and family therapists practicing in other states . The findings also indicate that marriage ...


Effects Of Infant Massage On Aspects Of The Parent-Child Relationship: An Experimental Manipulation, Vonda K. Jump May 1998

Effects Of Infant Massage On Aspects Of The Parent-Child Relationship: An Experimental Manipulation, Vonda K. Jump

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Benefits of attachment security have been demonstrated in the realm of socioemotional development. Studies have investigated some of the antecedents associated with the development of secure attachments. This study looked uniquely at the impact of touch, and more specifically, infant massage, on the development of attachment security in infants

Fifty-seven mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. Infants were less than 8 months of age at the time of recruitment. The treatment group received training in infant massage as well as education about infant development. The control group received similar education about infant development. Mothers ...


Parental And Teacher Priorities For Children's Requisite Kindergarten Entry Skills, Kelly J. O'Claire-Esparza May 1998

Parental And Teacher Priorities For Children's Requisite Kindergarten Entry Skills, Kelly J. O'Claire-Esparza

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined mothers', fathers ', preschool teachers', and kindergarten teachers' opinions regarding children's requisite kindergarten entry skills. Participants were 101 preschool teachers from eight counties in northern Utah, as well as 113 kindergarten teachers and 286 parents of kindergartners from five school districts in northern Utah. Questionnaires were administered to assess opinions regarding (a) the preschool teachers' role in preparing children for kindergarten, (b) the parental role in preparing children for kindergarten, (c) priorities for requisite kindergarten entry skills, (d) the importance of specific skills emphasized in preschool, and (e) the importance of specific skills emphasized in kindergarten.

Findings ...


Solution-Focused Couples' Group Therapy, Lafray Kelley May 1998

Solution-Focused Couples' Group Therapy, Lafray Kelley

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Solution-focused therapy is one of the models of brief family therapy that has come into prominence during the 1980s and 90s. Whereas earlier forms of family therapy concentrated on problems and the behaviors that maintained them, solution-focused therapy places its emphasis on "exceptions" to the problem--times when it is not happening--and seeks to elaborate on and amplify these exceptions.

A solution-focused therapy model has been used with individuals, couples, and groups of individuals, but a search of the relevant literature revealed no information on its use with couples' groups. The purpose of this study was to develop a solution-focused treatment ...


Recidivism Rates Of Level Six Residential Programs For Youthful Male Sexual Offenders: 1995-1996, Kevin N. Barlow May 1998

Recidivism Rates Of Level Six Residential Programs For Youthful Male Sexual Offenders: 1995-1996, Kevin N. Barlow

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The phenomenon of youthful sexual offending has received increased attention in recent years in the state of Utah. As a result. programs have been developed to treat the sexual offender within residential treatment centers. However. the efficacy of these programs had not been examined prior to the initiation of this project. The success of the programs has been assessed by examining recidivistic activity as measured by post-treatment criminal histories. The results of this study indicate that the sample of clients departing from treatment in Utah in the year 1995 has a recidivism rate of93.2% for sexual criminal behavior, as ...


Risk Factors In Adolescent Problem Behaviors Among Native And Nonnative Americans, Roger B. Christensen May 1998

Risk Factors In Adolescent Problem Behaviors Among Native And Nonnative Americans, Roger B. Christensen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The high incidence of adolescent problem behaviors in the United States raises major concerns. These problem behaviors include: sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancies, suicide, depression, substance abuse, crime against persons and property, and delinquency. Consequently, there continues to be a high level of concern and interest in different ethnic populations of adolescents and their level of risk.

This study evaluated the following problem behaviors: substance abuse, suicide, delinquency, and sexual intercourse; and the risk factors that increase the probability of these problem behaviors occurring. Specifically, the study identified the profiles of the population in relationship to the problem behaviors comparing ...


Relationship Of Therapist Age And Gender To Couples' Communication In Marriage And Family Therapy, Norman E. Thibault May 1998

Relationship Of Therapist Age And Gender To Couples' Communication In Marriage And Family Therapy, Norman E. Thibault

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if therapist age and gender have a relationship with the influence tactics used by the therapist in marital therapy, and if this relationship influences the communication behaviors of couples m marital therapy. There has been much research conducted on couples' communication behaviors in therapy, yet n one of the research relates the relationship of the age and the gender of therapists with couples' communiCation behaviors in therapy. This is an exploratory study to examine this relationship.

Forty-four to-minute videotaped segments of marital therapy were coded to examine the influence tacocs used by ...


Preschool Children's Expectations For Parental Discipline, Angie Geertsen Graham May 1998

Preschool Children's Expectations For Parental Discipline, Angie Geertsen Graham

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many factors influence preschool children's expectations for parental discipline. Parent characteristics such as personality, values, social class, and disciplinary methods can affect the expectations children have for parental discipline. Children's ability to understand and interpret parental messages can also influence how they will respond. All of these factors need to be taken into consideration in order for effective communication between parents and children to occur.

In this study, preschool children's expectations for parental discipline were examined by using puppets to reenact three different types of disciplinary situations: prudent, moral, and social-conventional. Children, acting as their mother, used ...


An Exploratory Study Of The Termination Process In Marriage And Family Therapy, Jennifer H. Childers May 1998

An Exploratory Study Of The Termination Process In Marriage And Family Therapy, Jennifer H. Childers

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore and better understand termination in the field of marriage and family therapy, as well as to generate a working model of termination. Data were obtained from a total of 40 marriage and family therapists (MFTs) licensed in the state of Utah. Two research questions were posed about termination and how client type and treatment progress may influence the termination process: (1) Given that MFTs see individuals, couples, and families, are there differences and similarities across client types in regard to how therapy is terminated?; and (2) Does termination differ in regard to ...


Analogical Problem Solving: The Differential Impact Of Type Of Training, Amount Of Practice, And Type Of Analogy On Spontaneous Transfer, Dune E. Ives May 1998

Analogical Problem Solving: The Differential Impact Of Type Of Training, Amount Of Practice, And Type Of Analogy On Spontaneous Transfer, Dune E. Ives

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research on analogical problem solving has delineated several factors that impact one's ability to spontaneously generate a correct solution strategy to a target problem. These factors include, but are not limited to, type of analogy provided to subjects (i.e., partial versus complete), the level of analogical problem-solving expertise, and the absence of or type of analogical problem-solving training (i.e., teacher-generated or learner-generated) provided to learners.

Recently, researchers have begun to focus on providing solvers with multiple practice opportunities and extending these opportunities over a systematically distributed period of time. When combined with analogical problem-solving training, these factors ...