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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Review Of Recruitment, Adherence And Drop-Out Rates In Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Trials In Children And Adolescents, Inge S. M Van Der Wurff, Barbara J. Meyer, Renate H. M De Groot Jan 2017

A Review Of Recruitment, Adherence And Drop-Out Rates In Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Trials In Children And Adolescents, Inge S. M Van Der Wurff, Barbara J. Meyer, Renate H. M De Groot

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Introduction: The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation on health outcomes has been studied extensively with randomized controlled trials (RCT). In many research fields, difficulties with recruitment, adherence and high drop-out rates have been reported. However, what is unknown is how common these problems are in n-3 LCPUFA supplementation studies in children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper will review n-3 LCPUFA supplementation studies in children and adolescents with regard to recruitment, adherence and drop-out rates. Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed and Ovid databases were searched for papers reporting on RCT supplementing children and adolescents (2 ...


Algal Supplementation Of Vegetarian Eating Patterns Improves Plasma And Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid Concentrations And Omega-3 Indices: A Systematic Literature Review, Joel Craddock, Elizabeth Neale, Yasmine Probst, Gregory E. Peoples Jan 2017

Algal Supplementation Of Vegetarian Eating Patterns Improves Plasma And Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid Concentrations And Omega-3 Indices: A Systematic Literature Review, Joel Craddock, Elizabeth Neale, Yasmine Probst, Gregory E. Peoples

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Vegetarians are likely to have lower intakes of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than omnivorous populations who consume fish and animal products. As such, vegetarian populations have omega-3 indices up to 60% lower than those who consume marine products. Algae, the primary producer of DHA in the marine food chain, offer an alternative source of DHA for those who do not consume marine or animal products. This systematic review aims to examine the evidence for the relationship between supplementation with algal forms of DHA and increased DHA concentrations in vegetarian populations. The SCOPUS, Science Direct and Web of Science scientific databases ...


A Narrative Review Of Potential Treatment Strategies For Food Addiction, Shae-Leigh C. Vella, Nagesh B. Pai Jan 2017

A Narrative Review Of Potential Treatment Strategies For Food Addiction, Shae-Leigh C. Vella, Nagesh B. Pai

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The concept of food addiction (FA) remains controversial with research being in the nascent stages; FA like any addiction can have a devastating impact on the lives of those afflicted. There exists a clinical need for treatment strategies for those affected. This article reviews potential treatment strategies for FA. The treatment strategies target four core behaviours of the addiction phenotype specifically craving through the opioid system, impulsivity as a personality trait, compulsivity through the serotonergic system and lastly motivation through the dopaminergic system. A range of pharmacological and psychological interventions are reviewed. Future research should seek to test and validate ...


Holistic Sludge Management Through Ozonation: A Critical Review, Galilee U. Semblante, Faisal I. Hai, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Kensuke Fukushi, William E. Price, Long D. Nghiem Jan 2017

Holistic Sludge Management Through Ozonation: A Critical Review, Galilee U. Semblante, Faisal I. Hai, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Kensuke Fukushi, William E. Price, Long D. Nghiem

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper critically reviews the multidimensional benefits of ozonation in wastewater treatment plants. These benefits include sludge reduction, removal of emerging trace organic contaminants (TrOC) from wastewater and sludge, and resource recovery from sludge. Literature shows that ozonation leads to sludge solubilisation, reducing overall biomass yield. Sludge solubilisation is primarily influenced by ozone dosage, which, in turn, depends on the fraction of ozonated sludge, ozone concentration, and sludge concentration. Additionally, sludge ozonation facilitates the removal of TrOCs from wastewater. On the other hand, by inducing cell lysis, ozonation increases the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrient concentration of the sludge ...


Exploring Patient And Family Involvement In The Lifecycle Of An Orphan Drug: A Scoping Review, Andrea Young, Devidas Menson, Jacqueline M. Street, Walla Al-Hertani, Tania Stafinski Jan 2017

Exploring Patient And Family Involvement In The Lifecycle Of An Orphan Drug: A Scoping Review, Andrea Young, Devidas Menson, Jacqueline M. Street, Walla Al-Hertani, Tania Stafinski

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Patients and their families have become more active in healthcare systems and research. The value of patient involvement is particularly relevant in the area of rare diseases, where patients face delayed diagnoses and limited access to effective therapies due to the high level of uncertainty in market approval and reimbursement decisions. It has been suggested that patient involvement may help to reduce some of these uncertainties. This review explored existing and proposed roles for patients, families, and patient organizations at each stage of the lifecycle of therapies for rare diseases (i.e., orphan drug lifecycle). Methods: A scoping review ...


Degradation Of Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products By White-Rot Fungi-A Critical Review, Muhammad Bilal Asif, Faisal I. Hai, Lakhveer Singh, William E. Price, Long D. Nghiem Jan 2017

Degradation Of Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products By White-Rot Fungi-A Critical Review, Muhammad Bilal Asif, Faisal I. Hai, Lakhveer Singh, William E. Price, Long D. Nghiem

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

White-rot fungi (WRF) mediated treatment can offer an environmentally friendly platform for the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater. These PPCPs may have adverse impacts on aquatic organisms and even human and thus their removal during wastewater treatment is of significant interest to the water industry. Whole-cell WRF or their extracellular lignin modifying enzymes (LMEs) have been reported to efficiently degrade PPCPs that are persistent to conventional activated sludge process. WRF mediated treatment of PPCPs depends on a number of factors including physicochemical properties of PPCPs (e.g., hydrophobicity and chemical structure) and wastewater matrix (e ...


Cognitive And Psychological Flexibility After A Traumatic Brain Injury And The Implications For Treatment In Acceptance-Based Therapies: A Conceptual Review, Diane L. Whiting, Frank P. Deane, Grahame K. Simpson, Hamish J. Mcleod, Joseph Ciarrochi Jan 2017

Cognitive And Psychological Flexibility After A Traumatic Brain Injury And The Implications For Treatment In Acceptance-Based Therapies: A Conceptual Review, Diane L. Whiting, Frank P. Deane, Grahame K. Simpson, Hamish J. Mcleod, Joseph Ciarrochi

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

2015 Taylor & Francis This paper provides a selective review of cognitive and psychological flexibility in the context of treatment for psychological distress after traumatic brain injury, with a focus on acceptance-based therapies. Cognitive flexibility is a component of executive function that is referred to mostly in the context of neuropsychological research and practice. Psychological flexibility, from a clinical psychology perspective, is linked to health and well-being and is an identified treatment outcome for therapies such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). There are a number of overlaps between the constructs. They both manifest in the ability to change behaviour (either ...


The Impact Of Structured Physical Activity On Glycaemic Control In Diabetes Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review, Joseph Edwards, Hassan Hosseinzadeh Jan 2017

The Impact Of Structured Physical Activity On Glycaemic Control In Diabetes Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review, Joseph Edwards, Hassan Hosseinzadeh

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Seven landmark randomised controlled trials, with some that began as early as the 1990s, observed the prediabetic state, namely, impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose conditions, against the impact of lifestyle interventions such as physical activity, to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to the landmark trials, this systematic review examines 14 studies that retained a focus on prediabetic individuals and measured the efficacy of physical activity on improving glucose tolerance. Results: Type, duration and intensity of structured physical activity can have unique benefits to prediabetic individuals. It is posited that diabetes ...


Review On Design And Control Aspects Of Robotic Shoulder Rehabilitation Orthoses, Aibek Niyetkaliyev, Shahid Hussain, Mergen Hmcgill University, Ghayesh, Gursel Alici Jan 2017

Review On Design And Control Aspects Of Robotic Shoulder Rehabilitation Orthoses, Aibek Niyetkaliyev, Shahid Hussain, Mergen Hmcgill University, Ghayesh, Gursel Alici

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

Robotic rehabilitation devices are more frequently used for the physical therapy of people with upper limb weakness, which is the most common type of stroke-induced disability. Rehabilitation robots can provide customized, prolonged, intensive, and repetitive training sessions for patients with neurological impairments. In most cases, the robotic exoskeletons have to be aligned with the human joints and provide natural arm movements. This is a challenging task to achieve for one of the most biomechanically complex joints of human body, i.e., the shoulder. Therefore, specific considerations have been made in the development of various existing robotic shoulder rehabilitation orthoses. Different ...


Game-Based Interventions And Their Impact On Dementia: A Narrative Review, Jiaying Zheng, Xueping Chen, Ping Yu Jan 2017

Game-Based Interventions And Their Impact On Dementia: A Narrative Review, Jiaying Zheng, Xueping Chen, Ping Yu

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

Objective: The aim of this review was to examine the efficacy of game-based interventions for people with dementia. Methods: Seven studies that met the inclusion criteria were found in four databases. Their interventions and key findings were analysed and synthesised. Results: Game-based interventions for people with dementia are showing promise for improving cognition, coordination and behavioural and psychological symptoms. The generalisability of the findings is limited by weak methodology and small sample size. Conclusions: Game-based interventions can improve cognition, coordination and behavioural and psychological symptoms for people with dementia. Future research should include methodological improvement and practice guideline development.