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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Effects Of Atmospheric Light Scattering On Spectroscopic Observations Of Greenhouse Gases From Space. Part 2: Algorithm Intercomparison In The Gosat Data Processing For Co2 Retrievals Over Tccon Sites, Sergey Oshchepkov, Andrey Bril, Tatsuya Yokota, Paul O. Wennberg, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Debra Wunch, Geoffrey C. Toon, Yukio Yoshida, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Crisp, Charles E. Miller, Christian Frankenberg, Andre Butz, Ilse Aben, Sandrine Guerlet, Otto Hasekamp, Hartmut Boesch, Austin Cogan, Robert Parker, David Griffith, Ronald Macatangay, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Vanessa Sherlock, John Robinson, Esko Kyro, Pauli Heikkinen, Dietrich G. Feist, Isamu Morino, Nikolay Kadygrov, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Osamu Uchino, Hiroshi Watanabe Feb 2013

Effects Of Atmospheric Light Scattering On Spectroscopic Observations Of Greenhouse Gases From Space. Part 2: Algorithm Intercomparison In The Gosat Data Processing For Co2 Retrievals Over Tccon Sites, Sergey Oshchepkov, Andrey Bril, Tatsuya Yokota, Paul O. Wennberg, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Debra Wunch, Geoffrey C. Toon, Yukio Yoshida, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Crisp, Charles E. Miller, Christian Frankenberg, Andre Butz, Ilse Aben, Sandrine Guerlet, Otto Hasekamp, Hartmut Boesch, Austin Cogan, Robert Parker, David Griffith, Ronald Macatangay, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Vanessa Sherlock, John Robinson, Esko Kyro, Pauli Heikkinen, Dietrich G. Feist, Isamu Morino, Nikolay Kadygrov, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Osamu Uchino, Hiroshi Watanabe

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This report is the second in a series of companion papers describing the effects of atmospheric light scattering in observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), in orbit since 23 January 2009. Here we summarize the retrievals from six previously published algorithms; retrieving column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2) during 22 months of operation of GOSAT from June 2009. First, we compare data products from each algorithm with ground-based remote sensing observations by Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Our GOSAT-TCCON coincidence criteria select satellite observations within a 5° radius of 11 ...


Effects Of Long-Distance Walking On Socket-Limb Interface Pressure, Tactile Sensitivity And Subjective Perceptions Of Trans-Tibial Amputees, L F. Yeung, Aaron Leung, Ming Zhang, Winson Lee Jan 2013

Effects Of Long-Distance Walking On Socket-Limb Interface Pressure, Tactile Sensitivity And Subjective Perceptions Of Trans-Tibial Amputees, L F. Yeung, Aaron Leung, Ming Zhang, Winson Lee

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

PURPOSE: Many trans-tibial amputees could not tolerate long-distance walking. Lack of walking could explain for the increased cardiovascular diseases mortality rate. This study investigated the effects of long-distance walking (LDW) on socket-limb interface pressure, tactile sensitivity of the residual limb, and subjective feedbacks, which potentially identified the difficulties in LDW. METHOD: Five male unilateral trans-tibial amputees walked on a level treadmill for a total of one hour at comfortable speed. Tactile sensitivity of the residual limb and socket-limb interface pressure during over-ground walking were measured before and after the treadmill walking. Modified Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaires were also administered. RESULTS: After ...


Effects Of Caustic Cleaning On Pore Size Of Nanofiltration Membranes And Their Rejection Of Trace Organic Chemicals, Alexander Simon, James A. Mcdonald, Stuart J. Khan, William E. Price, Long D. Nghiem Jan 2013

Effects Of Caustic Cleaning On Pore Size Of Nanofiltration Membranes And Their Rejection Of Trace Organic Chemicals, Alexander Simon, James A. Mcdonald, Stuart J. Khan, William E. Price, Long D. Nghiem

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of caustic cleaning on the rejection of three different trace organic chemical (TrOC) groups (i.e. neutral hydrophilic, neutral hydrophobic and negatively charged) by two nanofiltration (NF) membranes ‒ namely NF270 and NF90. Chemical cleaning was simulated by exposing virgin membrane samples to commercial caustic cleaning formulations as well as sodium hydroxide solutions containing analytical grade additives such as sodium dodecyl sulfate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The membrane average pore size before and after exposure to a commercially available caustic cleaning formulation was determined based on the pore transport model. The results ...


Radial Consolidation Model Incorporating The Effects Of Vacuum Preloading And Non-Darcian Flow, Kourosh Kianfar, Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn Jan 2013

Radial Consolidation Model Incorporating The Effects Of Vacuum Preloading And Non-Darcian Flow, Kourosh Kianfar, Buddhima Indraratna, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

A modified 150 mm Rowe cell equipped with pore water pressure measurement was used to capture the flow relationship during vacuum-assisted radial consolidation. Based on the measured data, a radial consolidation model incorporating the effects of vacuum preloading is proposed, based on a non-linear relationship between the flow velocity and hydraulic gradient. The predictions of the proposed consolidation model are then compared with the predictions based on Hansbo’s Darcian and non- Darcian models. The agreement between the proposed model and the measured data is shown, and the advantages of the proposed model compared with the existing models are discussed ...


Effects Of Feed And Draw Solution Temperature And Transmembrane Temperature Difference On The Rejection Of Trace Organic Contaminants By Forward Osmosis, Ming Xie, William E. Price, Long D. Nghiem, Menachem Elimelech Jan 2013

Effects Of Feed And Draw Solution Temperature And Transmembrane Temperature Difference On The Rejection Of Trace Organic Contaminants By Forward Osmosis, Ming Xie, William E. Price, Long D. Nghiem, Menachem Elimelech

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The effects of feed and draw solution temperature and transmembrane temperature difference on the rejection of 12 trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) by two forward osmosis (FO) membranes were investigated. The membrane structure parameter (S) and the reverse salt (NaCl) flux selectivity (RSFS) were constant over the temperature range of 20-40 1C, suggesting that within this range, the solution temperature did not significantly influence the membrane polymeric structure. Draw solution properties, including diffusivity, viscosity, and osmotic pressure, played an important role in water and reverse salt (NaCl) flux behaviour and TrOC rejection. Pure water and salt (NaCl) permeability coefficients of the ...


Does Health Capital Have Differential Effects On Economic Growth?, Arusha V. Cooray Jan 2013

Does Health Capital Have Differential Effects On Economic Growth?, Arusha V. Cooray

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Investigating the impact of health capital disaggregated by gender on economic growth in a sample of 210 countries over the 1990-2008 period, this study suggests that the influence of health capital across countries cannot be generalised. Results for the full sample indicate that health capital does not have a robust and significant effect on economic growth unless through their interactions with health expenditure and education. The results disaggregated by income group reveal that health capital has a positive robust influence on economic growth in high and upper middle income economies. In low and low middle income economies, health capital gains ...


Varying Task Difficulty In The Go/Nogo Task: The Effects Of Inhibitory Control, Arousal, And Perceived Effort On Erp Components, Nicholas Benikos, Stuart J. Johnstone, Steven J. Roodenrys Jan 2013

Varying Task Difficulty In The Go/Nogo Task: The Effects Of Inhibitory Control, Arousal, And Perceived Effort On Erp Components, Nicholas Benikos, Stuart J. Johnstone, Steven J. Roodenrys

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Similar to other executive functions, inhibitory control is thought to be a dynamic process that can be influenced by variations in task difficulty. However, little is known about how different task parameters alter inhibitory performance and processing as a task becomes more difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of varying task difficulty, via manipulation of reaction time deadline (RTD), on measures of inhibitory control, perceived effort, and task-related arousal (indexed by skin conductance level). Sixty adults completed a visual Go/Nogo task (70% Go) after being randomly assigned to one of three task difficulty conditions ...


Can Working Memory Predict Target-To-Target Interval Effects In The P300?, Genevieve Z. Steiner, Robert J. Barry, Craig J. Gonsalvez Jan 2013

Can Working Memory Predict Target-To-Target Interval Effects In The P300?, Genevieve Z. Steiner, Robert J. Barry, Craig J. Gonsalvez

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

It has been suggested that the P300 component of the ERP is an electrophysiological index of memory-updating processes associated with task-relevant stimuli. Component magnitude varies with the time separating target stimuli (target-to-target interval: TTI), with longer TTIs eliciting larger P300 amplitudes. According to the template-update perspective, TTI effects observable in the P300 reflect the updating of stimulus-templates in working memory (WM). The current study explored whether young adults' memory-task ability could predict TTI effects in P300. EEG activity was recorded from 50 university students (aged 18–25 years) while they completed an auditory equiprobable Go/NoGo task with manipulations of ...


Intensity And Trial Effects From Simple Auditory Stimuli In A Dishabituation Paradigm, Brett Macdonald, Robert Barry Jan 2013

Intensity And Trial Effects From Simple Auditory Stimuli In A Dishabituation Paradigm, Brett Macdonald, Robert Barry

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Abstract presented at the 23rd Australasian Society for Psychophysiology Conference, 20-22 Nov 2013, Wollongong, Australia


Effects Of Geosynthetic Reinforcement On Performance Of Ballasted Rail Track, Pongpipat Anantanasakul, Buddhima Indraratna, Sanjay S. Nimbalkar, Tim Neville Jan 2013

Effects Of Geosynthetic Reinforcement On Performance Of Ballasted Rail Track, Pongpipat Anantanasakul, Buddhima Indraratna, Sanjay S. Nimbalkar, Tim Neville

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The 'field' performance of different geosynthetics to reinforce ballasted rail tracks was investigated. An extensive monitoring program was undertaken on fully instrumented track sections constructed near Singleton, New South Wales. Four types of geosynthetics were installed at the ballast-subballast interface of track sections located on subgrades with three distinctly different values of stiffness. It was found that geogrids could decrease vertical settlements of the ballast layer with obvious benefits of improved track stability and decreased maintenance cost. It was also found that the effectiveness of reinforcing geogrids increased when the subgrade stiffness decreased. Keywords: Geosynthetic, Reinforcement, Rail track, Ballast.


Modelling Of Size Effects In Microforming Process With Consideration Of Grained Heterogeneity, H N. Lu, D B. Wei, Z Y. Jiang, X H. Liu, K Manabe Jan 2013

Modelling Of Size Effects In Microforming Process With Consideration Of Grained Heterogeneity, H N. Lu, D B. Wei, Z Y. Jiang, X H. Liu, K Manabe

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Size effect is a special phenomenon in metal micro-forming process. As the deformation process is scale down to micro/mesoscale, the characteristics of single grain involved in the deformed region play a significant role on the material mechanical behaviours resulting in the invalidation of classical theories in microforming. This paper presents a newly developed material model in microscale on the basis of the grained heterogeneity (e.g. grain size, shape and deformability) and specimen dimension. Voronoi tessellation has been employed to describe the polycrystalline aggregate. The grain shape is controlled by the centroidal-voronoi algorithm to drive grains into steady state ...


Effects Of Tungsten Addition And Heat Treatment Conditions On Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Of Microalloyed Forging Steels, Jingwei Zhao, Zhengyi Jiang, Chong Soo Lee Jan 2013

Effects Of Tungsten Addition And Heat Treatment Conditions On Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Of Microalloyed Forging Steels, Jingwei Zhao, Zhengyi Jiang, Chong Soo Lee

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In the present work, the effects of tungsten (W) addition and heat treatment conditions on the microstructure, impact toughness and tensile properties of microalloyed forging steels were studied. Four kinds of microalloyed forging steels were produced by varying W additions (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%). Heat treatment was carried out at temperatures ranging from 840 to 950 °C followed by air and furnace cooling. Mechanical tests were used to evaluate the room temperature Charpy impact and tensile properties. The resulting microstructures were analysed via optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results ...


High-Throughput Particle Manipulation By Hydrodynamic, Electrokinetic, And Dielectrophoretic Effects In An Integrated Microfluidic Chip, Shunbo Li, Ming Li, Kristelle Bougot-Robin, Wenbin Cao, Irene Yeung Chau, Weihua Li, Weijia Wen Jan 2013

High-Throughput Particle Manipulation By Hydrodynamic, Electrokinetic, And Dielectrophoretic Effects In An Integrated Microfluidic Chip, Shunbo Li, Ming Li, Kristelle Bougot-Robin, Wenbin Cao, Irene Yeung Chau, Weihua Li, Weijia Wen

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Integrating different steps on a chip for cell manipulations and sample preparation is of foremost importance to fully take advantage of microfluidic possibilities, and therefore make tests faster, cheaper and more accurate. We demonstrated particle manipulation in an integrated microfluidic device by applying hydrodynamic, electroosmotic (EO), electrophoretic (EP), and dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The process involves generation of fluid flow by pressure difference, particle trapping by DEP force, and particle redirect by EO and EP forces. Both DC and AC signals were applied, taking advantages of DC EP, EO and AC DEP for on-chip particle manipulation. Since different types of particles ...


Numerical Solution Of Stone Column Improved Soft Soil Considering Arching, Clogging And Smear Effects, Buddhima Indraratna, Sudip Basack, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn Jan 2013

Numerical Solution Of Stone Column Improved Soft Soil Considering Arching, Clogging And Smear Effects, Buddhima Indraratna, Sudip Basack, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Improvement of soft clay deposits by the installation of stone columns is one of the most popular techniques followed worldwide. The stone columns not only act as reinforcingmaterial increasing the overall strength and stiffness of the compressible soft soil, but they also promote consolidation through effective drainage. The analytical and numerical solutions available for ascertaining the response of column-reinforced soil have been developed on the basis of the equal strain hypothesis. For typical surcharge (embankment) loading, the free strain analysis appears to give more realistic results comparable to field data. The paper presents a novel numericalmodel (finite-differencemethod) to analyze the ...


On The Effects Of Spreading Sequences Over Mimo Systems, Tianle Liu, David A. Stirling, Le Chung Tran, Tadeusz A. Wysocki, Beata J. Wysocki, Prashan Dissanayake Mudiyanselage,, Peter James Vial Jan 2013

On The Effects Of Spreading Sequences Over Mimo Systems, Tianle Liu, David A. Stirling, Le Chung Tran, Tadeusz A. Wysocki, Beata J. Wysocki, Prashan Dissanayake Mudiyanselage,, Peter James Vial

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this paper, we develop a Software Defined Radio (SDR) test bed to evaluate the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) effects over SISO and 2 x 1MIMO systems. It can be observed that under asynchronous transmissions, the Gold code leads to the best performance over both systems due to the fact that it has the best correlation properties. We also find the MAI effects in terms of the spreading sequences pairs on MIMO-STS systems. We propose a criterion for selecting promising spreading sequences for MIMO systems. Based on the measured results, we identify pairs of spreading sequences which have improved BER ...


Shear Lag And Eccentricity Effects Of Bolted Connections In Cold-Formed Steel Sections, Lip H. Teh, Veysel Yazici Jan 2013

Shear Lag And Eccentricity Effects Of Bolted Connections In Cold-Formed Steel Sections, Lip H. Teh, Veysel Yazici

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper examines the "three factors" approach previously presented by the senior author for determining the net section efficiency of a bolted cold-formed steel open profile. One objective is to ascertain that the net section efficiency is governed by three factors: the in-plane shear lag associated with stress concentration around a bolt hole that is also present in a flat sheet, the out-of-plane shear lag that is also present in a bi-symmetric I-section bolted at the flanges only, and the bending moment arising from the connection eccentricity with respect to the neutral axis. This paper presents the test results of ...


Group Effects Of Piles Due To Lateral Soil Movement, Hongyu Qin, Wei Dong Guo Jan 2013

Group Effects Of Piles Due To Lateral Soil Movement, Hongyu Qin, Wei Dong Guo

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Laboratory model tests have been conducted to investigate the responses of piles subjected to lateral soil movement. The results of a single pile test and four tests on two piles arranged in a row perpendicular to the direction of soil movement are presented. The development of maximum bending moment, maximum shear force, and pile deflection with soil movement and the largest pile response profiles for the single pile and pile groups are compared. Group effect was evaluated using group factor which is defined in terms of the measured maximum bending moment. The major findings are (1) the pile head conditions ...


Effects Of Tungsten On Continuous Cooling Transformation Characteristics Of Microalloyed Steels, Jingwei Zhao, Zhengyi Jiang, Ji Soo Kim, Chong Soo Lee Jan 2013

Effects Of Tungsten On Continuous Cooling Transformation Characteristics Of Microalloyed Steels, Jingwei Zhao, Zhengyi Jiang, Ji Soo Kim, Chong Soo Lee

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) characteristics of microalloyed steels with different tungsten (W) contents (0, 0.1 and 1. wt.%) were investigated to obtain the necessary information for heat treatment of these steels. The effects of W addition on the sizes of prior austenite grains and precipitates were analysed. CCT diagrams were obtained by varying the cooling rates from 0.1 to 120. °C/s. Transformation characteristics were determined by using dilatometer test, microscopic observation and hardness measurement. The results showed that W had a positive effect on the refinement of prior austenite grains and precipitates. The CCT diagrams exhibited that ...


Effects Of Tungsten Addition On The Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Of Microalloyed Forging Steels, Jingwei Zhao, Taekyung Lee, Jeong Hun Lee, Zhengyi Jiang, Chong Soo Lee Jan 2013

Effects Of Tungsten Addition On The Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Of Microalloyed Forging Steels, Jingwei Zhao, Taekyung Lee, Jeong Hun Lee, Zhengyi Jiang, Chong Soo Lee

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In the current study, the effects of tungsten (W) addition on the microstructure, hardness, and room/low [223 K and 173 K (-50 C and -100 C)] temperature tensile properties of microalloyed forging steels were systematically investigated. Four kinds of steel specimens were produced by varying the W additions (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 wt pct). The microstructure showed that the addition of W does not have any noticeable effect on the amount of precipitates. The precipitates in W-containing steels were all rich in W, and the W concentration in the precipitates increased with the increasing W content ...


Predicting Additive And Non-Additive Genetic Effects From Trials Where Traits Are Affected By Interplot Competition, Colleen H. Hunt, Alison B. Smith, David R. Jordan, Brian R. Cullis Jan 2013

Predicting Additive And Non-Additive Genetic Effects From Trials Where Traits Are Affected By Interplot Competition, Colleen H. Hunt, Alison B. Smith, David R. Jordan, Brian R. Cullis

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

There are two key types of selection in a plant breeding program, namely selection of hybrids for potential commercial use and the selection of parents for use in future breeding. Oakey et al. (in Theoretical and Applied Genetics 113, 809-819, 2006) showed how both of these aims could be achieved using pedigree information in a mixed model analysis in order to partition genetic effects into additive and non-additive effects. Their approach was developed for field trial data subject to spatial variation. In this paper we extend the approach for data from trials subject to interplot competition. We show how the ...


A Model Of The Effects Of Authority On Consensus Formation In Adaptive Networks: Impact On Network Topology And Robustness, Brenton J. Prettejohn, Matthew J. Berryman, Mark D. Mcdonnell Jan 2013

A Model Of The Effects Of Authority On Consensus Formation In Adaptive Networks: Impact On Network Topology And Robustness, Brenton J. Prettejohn, Matthew J. Berryman, Mark D. Mcdonnell

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Opinions of individuals in real social networks are arguably strongly influenced by external determinants, such as the opinions of those perceived to have the highest levels of authority. In order to model this, we have extended an existing model of consensus formation in an adaptive network by the introduction of a parameter representing each agent's level of 'authority' based on their opinion relative to the overall opinion distribution. We found that introducing this model, along with a randomly varying opinion convergence factor, significantly impacts the final state of converged opinions and the number of interactions required to reach that ...


Effects Of Fouling On The Stress-Strain-Degradation Behaviour Of Rail Ballast, Buddhima Indraratna, Nayoma C. Tennakoon, Sanjay Nimbalkar, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn Jan 2013

Effects Of Fouling On The Stress-Strain-Degradation Behaviour Of Rail Ballast, Buddhima Indraratna, Nayoma C. Tennakoon, Sanjay Nimbalkar, Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Ballast is most commonly used as a structural component of rail track due to its high load bearing capacity, resiliency and rapid drainage. However, ballast along coal freight corridors often becomes fouled due to spilling of coal from moving wagons, in addition to further track deterioration attributed to particle breakage and pumping of soft subgrade. Highly fouled ballast needs to be cleaned or replaced to maintain the desired track resiliency, load bearing capacity and the track alignment. In order to identify the risk associated with fouling, it is important to accurately assess the amount of fouling. In this paper, the ...


Identifying The Quality Of Life Effects Of Urinary Incontinence With Depression In An Australian Population, Jodie C. Avery, Nigel P. Stocks, Paul Duggan, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Anne Taylor, Robert Goldney, Alastair Maclennan Jan 2013

Identifying The Quality Of Life Effects Of Urinary Incontinence With Depression In An Australian Population, Jodie C. Avery, Nigel P. Stocks, Paul Duggan, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Anne Taylor, Robert Goldney, Alastair Maclennan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background

To explore the additive effect of urinary incontinence, in people with comorbid depression, on health related quality of life.

Methods

Males and females, 15 to 95 years (n = 3010, response rate 70.2%) were interviewed face to face in the 1998 Autumn South Australian Health Omnibus Survey.

Results

Self-reported urinary incontinence was found in 20.3% (n=610), and depression as defined by the PRIME-MD in 15.2% (n=459) of the survey population. Urinary incontinence with comorbid depression was found in 4.3% of the overall population. Univariate analysis showed that respondents with urinary incontinence and comorbid depression ...


Effects Of Simultaneously Observing And Making Gestures While Studying Grammar Animations On Cognitive Load And Learning, Lysanne S. Post, Tamara Van Gog, Fred Paas, Rolf A. Zwaan Jan 2013

Effects Of Simultaneously Observing And Making Gestures While Studying Grammar Animations On Cognitive Load And Learning, Lysanne S. Post, Tamara Van Gog, Fred Paas, Rolf A. Zwaan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This study examined whether simultaneously observing and making gestures while studying animations would lighten cognitive load and facilitate the acquisition of grammatical rules. In contrast to our hypothesis, results showed that children in the gesturing condition performed worse on the posttest than children in the non-gesturing, control condition. A more detailed analysis of the data revealed an expertise reversal effect, indicating that this negative effect on posttest performance materialized for children with lower levels of general language skills, but not for children with higher levels of general language skills. The finding that for children with lower language ability, cognitive load ...


Chronic Effects Of Cannabis On Sensory Gating, Samantha J. Broyd, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Rodney Croft, Anna Dalecki, Juanita Todd, Patricia T. Michie, Stuart J. Johnstone, Nadia Solowij Jan 2013

Chronic Effects Of Cannabis On Sensory Gating, Samantha J. Broyd, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Rodney Croft, Anna Dalecki, Juanita Todd, Patricia T. Michie, Stuart J. Johnstone, Nadia Solowij

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Chronic cannabis use has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, alterations in brain structure and function, and with psychosis. This study investigated the effects of chronic cannabis use on P50 sensory-gating in regular users, and explored the association between sensory gating, cannabis use history and the development of psychotic-like symptoms. Twenty controls and 21 regular cannabis users completed a P50 paired-click (S1 and S2) paradigm with an inter-pair interval of 9. s. The groups were compared on P50 amplitude to S1 and S2, P50 ratio (S2/S1) and P50 difference score (S1-S2). While cannabis users overall did not differ from controls ...


The Effects Of Inhibitory Control Training On Alcohol Consumption, Implicit Alcohol-Related Cognitions And Brain Electrical Activity, Claire Bowley, Cameron Faricy, Bronwyn Hegarty, Stuart J. Johnstone, Janette L. Smith, Peter J. Kelly, Jacqueline A. Rushby Jan 2013

The Effects Of Inhibitory Control Training On Alcohol Consumption, Implicit Alcohol-Related Cognitions And Brain Electrical Activity, Claire Bowley, Cameron Faricy, Bronwyn Hegarty, Stuart J. Johnstone, Janette L. Smith, Peter J. Kelly, Jacqueline A. Rushby

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This study aimed to replicate findings that alcohol consumption and positive implicit beer-related cognitions can be reduced using inhibitory control (IC) training, with the addition of an active training control. Frontal EEG asymmetry, an objective psychophysiological index of approach motivation, was used as a dependent measure to examine training outcomes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two IC training conditions (Beer NoGo or Beer Go) or a Brief Alcohol Intervention (BAI) (i.e. the active training control). The IC training tasks consistently paired a stimulus that required a response with images of water (Beer NoGo) or images of beer ...


The Effects Of A Multi-Component Higher-Functioning Autism Anti-Stigma Program On Adolescent Boys, Jessica J. Staniland, Mitchell K. Byrne Jan 2013

The Effects Of A Multi-Component Higher-Functioning Autism Anti-Stigma Program On Adolescent Boys, Jessica J. Staniland, Mitchell K. Byrne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

A six-session higher-functioning autism anti-stigma program incorporating descriptive, explanatory and directive information was delivered to adolescent boys and the impact upon knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions towards peers with autism was evaluated. Participants were seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade students (N = 395) from regular classes in a mainstream school. Two-eighth-grade classes were randomly allocated to the intervention condition and all remaining students were either allocated to the no-intervention peer or no-intervention non-peer condition. The anti-stigma program improved the knowledge and attitudes, but not the behavioural intentions of participants towards their peers with autism. Knowledge and attitudinal changes were maintained at follow-up ...


Acute Effects Of Different Multivitamin Mineral Preparations With And Without Guaraná On Mood, Cognitive Performance And Functional Brain Activation, Andrew Scholey, Isabelle Bauer, Chris Neale, Karen Savage, David Camfield, David White, Silvia Maggini, Andrew Pipingas, Con Stough, Matthew Hughes Jan 2013

Acute Effects Of Different Multivitamin Mineral Preparations With And Without Guaraná On Mood, Cognitive Performance And Functional Brain Activation, Andrew Scholey, Isabelle Bauer, Chris Neale, Karen Savage, David Camfield, David White, Silvia Maggini, Andrew Pipingas, Con Stough, Matthew Hughes

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Previous work has identified the positive effects of the acute administration of a multivitamin-guaraná preparation during an effortful executive/working memory task. Here, we aimed to differentiate the effects of multivitamins with and without guaraná and to examine the neural substrates of such effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, balanced crossover design, 20 participants (mean age 29 ± 5.54 years) consumed multivitamin preparations with or without guaraná (Berocca® Performance and Boost, respectively) and a placebo. Thirty minutes post-treatment, they underwent neurocognitive assessment, consisting of a 10 min Cognitive Demand Battery, with mood ratings taken ...


A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating The Neurocognitive Effects Of Lacprodan® Pl-20, A Phospholipid-Rich Milk Protein Concentrate, In Elderly Participants With Age-Associated Memory Impairment: The Phospholipid Intervention For Cognitive Ageing Reversal (Plicar): Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Andrew B. Scholey, David A. Camfield, Matthew E. Hughes, Will Woods, Con K. Stough, David J. White, Shakuntla V. Gondalia, Pernille D. Frederiksen Jan 2013

A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating The Neurocognitive Effects Of Lacprodan® Pl-20, A Phospholipid-Rich Milk Protein Concentrate, In Elderly Participants With Age-Associated Memory Impairment: The Phospholipid Intervention For Cognitive Ageing Reversal (Plicar): Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Andrew B. Scholey, David A. Camfield, Matthew E. Hughes, Will Woods, Con K. Stough, David J. White, Shakuntla V. Gondalia, Pernille D. Frederiksen

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background: Age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) is of major societal concern in an ageing population, with the development of dietary supplements providing a promising avenue for amelioration of associated deficits. Despite initial interest in the use of phospholipids (PLs) for ARCD, in recent years there has been a hiatus in such research. Because of safety concerns regarding PLs derived from bovine cortex, and the equivocal efficacy of soybean-derived PLs, there is an important need for the development of new PL alternatives. Phospholipids derived from milk proteins represent one potential candidate treatment.

Methods: In order to reduce the effects of age-associated memory ...


The Effects Of Multivitamin Supplementation On Diurnal Cortisol Secretion And Perceived Stress, David A. Camfield, Mark A. Wetherell, Andrew B. Scholey, Katherine H. M Cox, Erin Fogg, David J. White, Jerome Sarris, Marni Kras, Con Stough, Avni Sali, Andrew Pipingas Jan 2013

The Effects Of Multivitamin Supplementation On Diurnal Cortisol Secretion And Perceived Stress, David A. Camfield, Mark A. Wetherell, Andrew B. Scholey, Katherine H. M Cox, Erin Fogg, David J. White, Jerome Sarris, Marni Kras, Con Stough, Avni Sali, Andrew Pipingas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Recent evidence suggests that dietary intake of vitamins, in particular the B-vitamins including B6, B9 and B12 may have a number of positive effects on mood and stress. Given the effects of stress on a range of biological mechanisms including the endocrine system, it could be reasonably expected that multivitamin supplementation may also affect markers of these mechanisms such as diurnal cortisol secretion. In the current double-blind placebo-controlled study 138 adults (aged 20 to 50 years) were administered a multivitamin containing B-vitamins versus placebo over a 16-week period. Salivary cortisol measurements were taken at waking, 15-min, 30-min and at bedtime ...