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University of Wollongong

2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 657

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Treating Malnutrition In Hospitals: Dietitians In The Driving Seat?, K. L. Walton Dec 2009

Treating Malnutrition In Hospitals: Dietitians In The Driving Seat?, K. L. Walton

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Although the problem of malnutrition in hospitals is not new,1,2 it is still a serious concern in Australian hospitals today. The population is ageing and patients are admitted with multiple medical problems placing them at increased risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition prevalence rates in Australian hospitals have ranged from 6-53%.3-13 The wide variation is due to different study settings; the time between admission and assessment, and the assessment tool used. Malnutrition is a considerable problem that increases with age. Patients over 80 years have a higher odds risk of being malnourished compared with those between 61-80 years.9 ...


Pretty Fly For A White Guy: Audio Repatriation To Arnhem Land, S. J. Angel Dec 2009

Pretty Fly For A White Guy: Audio Repatriation To Arnhem Land, S. J. Angel

Faculty of Creative Arts - Papers (Archive)

Return to Arnhem Land broadcast on ABC Radio National's Radio Eye in 2007 is a significant and culturally important radio documentary. It charts the return of ancient song cycles, recorded in 1948 by ABC broadcaster and sound recordist Colin Simpson and technician Ray Giles, to the Oenpelli community in West Arnhem Land in 2006. It tells, through the eyes and voice of historian, broadcaster and narrator Martin Thomas, how these recordings came to be as he returns them to the community; and what the community makes of them as cultural records: artefacts of cultural heritage. The documentary is stirring ...


Correspondence: Routine Early Angioplasty After Fibrinolysis, Bradley R. Wilsmore, Andrea D. Wilsmore Oct 2009

Correspondence: Routine Early Angioplasty After Fibrinolysis, Bradley R. Wilsmore, Andrea D. Wilsmore

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

To the Editor: Cantor et al. (June 25 issue)1 conclude that among high-risk patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who receive fibrinolysis, prompt interhospital transfer for early percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after fibrinolysis is associated with significantly fewer ischemic complications than is standard treatment. Fundamental to this study’s findings are the criteria for identifying the high-risk patients who are likely to benefit from routine early angioplasty after fibrinolysis. ...................................................


Desalinated Versus Recycled Water — Public Perceptions And Profiles Of The Accepters, Sara Dolnicar, A. I. Schäfer Oct 2009

Desalinated Versus Recycled Water — Public Perceptions And Profiles Of The Accepters, Sara Dolnicar, A. I. Schäfer

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Many countries’ water resources are limited in both quantity and quality. While engineering solutions can now safely produce recycled and desalinated water from non-potable sources at a relatively low cost, the general public is sceptical about adopting these alternative water sources. Social scientists need to better understand what is causing this lack of acceptance by the general population and how acceptance levels for recycled and desalinated water can be increased. This study is the first to conduct a comparative analysis of knowledge, perceptions, acceptability, and determine segments of residents who are more open-minded than the general population toward the use ...


The Role Of The 'Tojisha' In Current Debates About Sexual Minority Rights In Japan, Mark J. Mclelland Sep 2009

The Role Of The 'Tojisha' In Current Debates About Sexual Minority Rights In Japan, Mark J. Mclelland

Faculty of Arts - Papers (Archive)

‘Speaking as a tojisha’ has become an important strategy in establishing ‘correct knowledge’ about sexual minority cultures in contemporary Japan. Originally developed in a legal context where it referred to the ‘parties’ in court proceedings, in the 1970s tojisha was taken up by citizens’ groups campaigning for the right of self determination for the ‘parties concerned’ facing discrimination and has become a central concept for all minority self-advocacy groups. In the 1990s the discourse of tojisha sei (tojisha-ness) was adopted by gay rights groups and by spokespersons for lesbian and transgender communities in a battle to change public perceptions of ...


The Carillon And Its Haptic Signature : Modeling The Changing Force-Feedback Constraints Of A Musical Instrument For Haptic Display, Mark Havryliv, F. Geiger, M. Gurtler, Fazel Naghdy, Greg Schiemer Sep 2009

The Carillon And Its Haptic Signature : Modeling The Changing Force-Feedback Constraints Of A Musical Instrument For Haptic Display, Mark Havryliv, F. Geiger, M. Gurtler, Fazel Naghdy, Greg Schiemer

Faculty of Creative Arts - Papers (Archive)

The carillon is one of the few instruments that elicits sophisticated haptic interaction from amateur and professional players alike. Like the piano keyboard, the velocity of a player’s impact on each carillon key, or baton, affects the quality of the resultant tone; unlike the piano, each carillon baton returns a different force-feedback. Force-feedback varies widely from one baton to the next across the entire range of the instrument and with further idiosyncratic variation from one instrument to another. This makes the carillon an ideal candidate for haptic simulation. The application of synthesized forcefeedback based on an analysis of forces ...


A Market Model Of Education?, Anthony Ashbolt Sep 2009

A Market Model Of Education?, Anthony Ashbolt

Faculty of Arts - Papers (Archive)

Milton Friedman introduced the concept of vouchers in education over fifty years ago. Thankfully the world ignored him. Nonetheless, the various victories of neoliberal doctrine from the early 1970s on in the USA, England and Australia placed vouchers on the agenda but not as a central platform. It is one of those policy ideas that is embraced with enthusiasm periodically only to retreat into the recesses of think tanks whose priorities are tax relief for the wealthy and real or imagined wars. When the governments of choice for these tanks are replaced by ones with a thin veneer of progressive ...


Power For The People, S. A. Mchugh Aug 2009

Power For The People, S. A. Mchugh

Faculty of Creative Arts - Papers (Archive)

As part of the Speakers Corner lecture series, award-winning author Siobhan McHugh spoke at the National Archives on 16 August 2009 about her research into the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme. Through the personal stories of the workers and their families, and drawing on her book, The Snowy: The People Behind the Power, Siobhan shared her insights into the lives of the multinational workforce that built the ‘Snowy’ in post-war Australia.


Prison Foodservice In Australia - Systems, Menus And Inmate Attitudes, P. Williams, Karen L. Walton, M. Hannan-Jones Aug 2009

Prison Foodservice In Australia - Systems, Menus And Inmate Attitudes, P. Williams, Karen L. Walton, M. Hannan-Jones

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This paper presents results from three studies in 25 custodial facilities in three Australian states, including nutrient analyses of menus and focus groups exploring inmate attitudes. Both cook-fresh and cook-chill production systems are used. Non-selective cycle menus of 4-6 weeks are common but inmates can supplement meals by purchase of additional food items (‘buy-ups’). Menus included adequate variety and met most nutritional standards, with the possible exception of fruit. The sodium content of menus is above recommended levels. Protein, fibre, vitamins A, C, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, iron and zinc were more than adequate, and the percentage energy from fat is ...


Regulatory Issues And Functional Health Claims For Bioactive Dairy Compounds, P. Roupas, P. G. Williams, C. Margetts Jul 2009

Regulatory Issues And Functional Health Claims For Bioactive Dairy Compounds, P. Roupas, P. G. Williams, C. Margetts

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Dairy foods and ingredients have a natural advantage over new/novel foods, from a regulatory viewpoint, because they are generally considered as “traditional” foods, that is, there is a long history of human consumption. However, the regulatory landscape on adding bioactive ingredients, whether from dairy streams or from non-dairy sources, into dairy foods is rapidly evolving, and the dairy industry will need to be aware of potential regulatory challenges, within the countries they wish to market their products.


Two Cys Or Not Two Cys? That Is The Question; Alternative Oxidase In The Thermogenic Plant Sacred Lotus, Nicole M. Grant, Yoshihiko Onda, Yusuke Kakizaki, Kkikukatsu Ito, Jennifer R. Watling, Sharon A. Robinson Jun 2009

Two Cys Or Not Two Cys? That Is The Question; Alternative Oxidase In The Thermogenic Plant Sacred Lotus, Nicole M. Grant, Yoshihiko Onda, Yusuke Kakizaki, Kkikukatsu Ito, Jennifer R. Watling, Sharon A. Robinson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) regulates temperature in its floral chamber to 32°C to 35°C across ambient temperatures of 8°C to 40°C with heating achieved through high alternative pathway fluxes. In most alternative oxidase (AOX) isoforms, two cysteine residues, Cys1 and Cys2, are highly conserved and play a role in posttranslational regulation of AOX. Further control occurs via interaction of reduced Cys1 with α-keto acids, such as pyruvate. Here, we report on the in vitro regulation of AOX isolated from thermogenic receptacle tissues of sacred lotus. AOX protein was mostly present in the reduced ...


Foodservice Perspective In Institutions, P. G. Williams Jun 2009

Foodservice Perspective In Institutions, P. G. Williams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

In Western countries around 10-15% of all foodservice meals are provided in institutional settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, schools, military settings and workplace canteens. This chapter describes the different types of meals and foodservice systems used in these institutional settings, including the menus used, nutritional standards, food waste, meals times, methods of counting meals and possible future trends.


Current Dietetic Practices Of Obesity Management In Saudi Arabia And Comparison With Australian Practices And Best Practice Criteria, A. Almajwal, P. Williams, Marijka Batterham Jun 2009

Current Dietetic Practices Of Obesity Management In Saudi Arabia And Comparison With Australian Practices And Best Practice Criteria, A. Almajwal, P. Williams, Marijka Batterham

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Objective: To describe the dietetic practices of the treatment of obesity in Saudi Arabia and compare this with best practice criteria and the practice in Australia. Methods: Anonymous questionnaires were completed by dietitians in Saudi Arabia. The topics included barriers to obesity management, demand and level of service and strategies and approaches used for weight management. Best practice scores were based on those used to assess Australian dietitians. Results: 253 dietitians participated in the survey. Of these, 175 (69 %) were involved in the management of obesity. The best practice score for Australian dietitians was slightly but significantly greater than the ...


Source Regions For Co2 At Cape Point Assessed By Modelling, 222rn And Meteorological Data, S. Whittlestone, E. Kowalczyk, E.-G Brunke, C. Labuschagne Jun 2009

Source Regions For Co2 At Cape Point Assessed By Modelling, 222rn And Meteorological Data, S. Whittlestone, E. Kowalczyk, E.-G Brunke, C. Labuschagne

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

This study explores methods of characterising experimental and modelling data to see if trace gas measurements at the Cape Point GAW station could improve our understanding of sources from the continent. Selection criteria have been defined which make it possible to divide the samples into categories with predominant transport to Cape Point from one of four source regions: City (greater Cape Town); close rural (within about 150 km of Cape Point); distant rural (from 150 to about 500 km) and very distant rural covering the rest of southern Africa. For species with fairly uniform source such as radon or CO ...


An Evolutionary Approach To Strategic Planning For Elearning, Sandra Wills, Kate Bowles Mar 2009

An Evolutionary Approach To Strategic Planning For Elearning, Sandra Wills, Kate Bowles

Senior Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Education) - Papers

Although all Australian universities have University-level strategic plans as well as Learning and Teaching plans plus underpinning Information Technology plans, it is estimated that only 11% of universities have a separate plan for eLearning. Instead eLearning is often integrated into either an Information Technology Plan or a Learning and Teaching Plan. As a result, the specific needs of eLearning can be overlooked, underestimated or tokenized.

The University of Wollongong has undertaken a process of interviews and consultation with committees, deans, managers, academics, students and support staff to develop a coherent strategic and educational vision for the use of eLearning, that ...


Trends In The Affordability Of The Illawarra Healthy Food Basket 2000-2007, P. G. Williams, A. Hull, M. Kontos Feb 2009

Trends In The Affordability Of The Illawarra Healthy Food Basket 2000-2007, P. G. Williams, A. Hull, M. Kontos

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Aims
The Illawarra Healthy Food Basket (IHFB) was developed as one measure to monitor the affordability of healthy eating in Australia. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. The basket was first costed in the Illawarra region of Australia in 2000 and again in 2001 and 2003. This study aimed to repeat the costing of the basket in 2005 and 2007 and to assess the trends in affordability since 2000.
Methods
Costing was carried out in the same five suburbs as previous surveys, utilising a large supermarket, greengrocer and butcher ...


Accumulation Of Dna Damage In Antarctic Mosses: Correlations With Ultraviolet-B Radiation, Temperature And Turf Water Content Vary Amongst Species, J. D. Turnbull, Sharon A. Robinson Feb 2009

Accumulation Of Dna Damage In Antarctic Mosses: Correlations With Ultraviolet-B Radiation, Temperature And Turf Water Content Vary Amongst Species, J. D. Turnbull, Sharon A. Robinson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The susceptibility of three East Antarctic moss species to UV-B radiation was examined by measuring accumulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers under natural sunlight during the austral summer season of 2002/03. The 2002/03 season was characterised by unusually low springtime ozone depletion and as such our results likely underestimate the DNA damage possible in a more typical UV-B radiation season. Despite this all three species accumulated significant DNA photoproducts. We also found a positive association between photoproduct accumulation and incident UV-B radiation in the two cosmopolitan species, Bryum pseudotriquetrum and Ceratodon purpureus, with more DNA damage in samples collected ...


Genetic Structure Of East Antarctic Populations Of The Moss Ceratodon Purpureus, L. J. Clarke, D. J. Ayre, Sharon A. Robinson Feb 2009

Genetic Structure Of East Antarctic Populations Of The Moss Ceratodon Purpureus, L. J. Clarke, D. J. Ayre, Sharon A. Robinson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The capacity of the polar flora to adapt is of increasing concern given current and predicted environmental change in these regions. Previous genetic studies of Antarctic mosses have been of limited value due to a lack of variation in the markers or non-specificity of the methods used. We examined the power of five microsatellite loci developed for the cosmopolitan moss Ceratodon purpureus to detect genetically distinct clones and infer the distribution of clones within and among populations from the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica. Our microsatellite data suggest extraordinarily high levels of variation reported in RAPD studies were artificially elevated by ...


Immigrant Tales, Rowan Cahill Jan 2009

Immigrant Tales, Rowan Cahill

Rowan Cahill

Review of two autobiographical accounts of migrant encounters with, and experiences in, Australia: Ken Buckley, 'Buckley's! Ken Buckley: historian, author and civil libertarian' (2008) and Mamdouh Habib, 'My Story: the tale of a terrorist who wasn't' (2009).


Developing Korean Academy Of Medical Sciences Guideline For Rating The Impairment In Mental And Behavioural Disorders; A Comparative Study Of Knpa's New Guidelines And Ama's 6th Guides, Gordon R. Davies Jan 2009

Developing Korean Academy Of Medical Sciences Guideline For Rating The Impairment In Mental And Behavioural Disorders; A Comparative Study Of Knpa's New Guidelines And Ama's 6th Guides, Gordon R. Davies

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

I refer to the paper by Ryu, Hong, Jung, Hwang, Jung, Jeong, Rah and Suh (2009) (1). The assessment of psychiatric disability is difficult and fraught with methodological problems and the review by Ryu and colleagues tends to perpetuate the use of methods of assessment which have no firm evidence base as well as ignoring some significant problems with the use of the American Medical Association Guides as well as the Psychiatric Impairment Rating Scale (PIRS).


The Effect Of Detraining On Muscle Strength And Cross-Sectional Area Following Unilateral Resistance Training, Herbert Groeller, John A. Sampson Jan 2009

The Effect Of Detraining On Muscle Strength And Cross-Sectional Area Following Unilateral Resistance Training, Herbert Groeller, John A. Sampson

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Muscle strength appears well preserved following short periods of detraining, despite a decline in muscle cross-sectional area and muscle activation. PURPOSE: This study determined the effect a 12-week unilateral elbow flexor resistance training regimen followed by 8 weeks of detraining on muscle cross-sectional area, muscle activation, and dynamic and static strength in trained and non-exercising contralateral limbs. METHODS: Ten males volunteered for the investigation and completed a 4-week pre-treatment training period (50-80%1RM) prior to commencing the experimental resistance training regimen. Subjects attended 3 sessions per week over 12 weeks of experimental training wherein they exercised at 85%1RM. Each ...


Decreased Density Of Serotonin 2a Receptors In The Superior Temporal Gyrus In Schizophrenia - A Postmortem Study, Xu-Feng Huang, Chao Deng, Qing Wang, Kai Kang Jan 2009

Decreased Density Of Serotonin 2a Receptors In The Superior Temporal Gyrus In Schizophrenia - A Postmortem Study, Xu-Feng Huang, Chao Deng, Qing Wang, Kai Kang

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia,particularly with regards to auditory hallucinations. In this study, using in situ quantitative autoradiography in postmortem tissue, we investigated the binding of the [3H]ketanserin to 5-HT2A receptors and [3H] mesulergine to 5-HT2C receptors in the left STG of 8 male schizophrenic patients compared to 8 control subjects. A strong [3H]ketanserin binding was observed in the STG, however there was a very weak [3H] mesulergine binding in the STG. A significant decrease in binding of [3H]ketanserin was clearly observed in schizophrenia patients in comparison with ...


Supporting Recovery Orientated Services For People With Severe Mental Illness, Frank P. Deane, Samson Tse, Chris Lloyd, Geoff Waghorn Jan 2009

Supporting Recovery Orientated Services For People With Severe Mental Illness, Frank P. Deane, Samson Tse, Chris Lloyd, Geoff Waghorn

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

There is now wide agreement that people with severe mental illness can be adequately treated and cared for in the community, provided back-up hospital care is available when needed. Another important development has been the recognition that clinical treatment and care is insufficient for recovery and restoration of role functioning following illness onset, and must be supplemented by evidence-based practices in psychiatric rehabilitation. This article describes how allied health professionals can lead recovery oriented approaches that incorporate evidence-based forms of psychiatric rehabilitation. Family psychoeducation and supported employment are provided as examples of such evidence-based practices that require wider implementation.


Benchmarking In The Non-Government Sector, Peter Kelly, Frank Deane, Trevor Crowe, Carla Morgan Jan 2009

Benchmarking In The Non-Government Sector, Peter Kelly, Frank Deane, Trevor Crowe, Carla Morgan

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

[extract] A Question to Ponder - How does your service compare to other similar services in the industry? How would knowing this help your organisation?


Whose Standards? An Examination Of Community Attitudes Towards Australian Advertising, Sandra C. Jones, Katherine Eagleton Jan 2009

Whose Standards? An Examination Of Community Attitudes Towards Australian Advertising, Sandra C. Jones, Katherine Eagleton

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

There is considerable ongoing debate in Australia, as in other countries, about the ethicality of current advertising practices. In recent years there has been an increase in the public focus on offensive or unacceptable advertising – such as overt sex appeals, racial vilification, and promotion of unsafe use of consumer products – arguing that many of these advertisements (ads) are contrary to community standards. The industry, on the other hand, argues that it produces ads that are designed to meet and appeal to community standards. There is no comprehensive data on the nature of community standards in relation to advertising, and the ...


Women's Awareness Of The Importance Of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Consumption During Pregnancy: Knowledge Of Risks, Benefits And Information Accessibility, Danka S. Sinikovic, Heather R. Yeatman, Deborah Cameron, Barbara J. Meyer Jan 2009

Women's Awareness Of The Importance Of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Consumption During Pregnancy: Knowledge Of Risks, Benefits And Information Accessibility, Danka S. Sinikovic, Heather R. Yeatman, Deborah Cameron, Barbara J. Meyer

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pregnant women's knowledge regarding the importance of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) consumption during pregnancy and assess their views on current information availability.

DESIGN: A 27-item demographic and food safety/behaviour questionnaire was administered to pregnant women during their antenatal clinic visits. chi2 tests were performed using SPSS.

SETTING: Antenatal clinics at two regional hospitals in New South Wales, Australia.

SUBJECTS: One hundred and ninety (n 190) pregnant women.

RESULTS: Three quarters of the women had not received information regarding LC n-3 PUFA. Approximately half of the women were aware of issues relating ...


A Botanical Approach To Managing Obesity, Dilip Ghosh Jan 2009

A Botanical Approach To Managing Obesity, Dilip Ghosh

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

metabolic syndrome in check like obesity. There are few drugs in the market to ameliorate or prevent obesity but there are the costs, efficacy and side effects to consider. For centuries people across the countries have been using natural products and plant based dietary supplements for weight control. The current review will consists of one South Asian herb, Garcinia cambogia and one Chinese herb, Magnolia officinalis.


The Impact Of More Visible Standard Drink Labelling On Youth Alcohol Consumption: Helping Young People Drink (Ir)Responsibly?, Sandra C. Jones, Parri Gregory Jan 2009

The Impact Of More Visible Standard Drink Labelling On Youth Alcohol Consumption: Helping Young People Drink (Ir)Responsibly?, Sandra C. Jones, Parri Gregory

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Introduction and Aims. In response to increasing concerns about excessive drinking among young people the Australian alcohol industry announced that it will introduce more visible standard drink labels. This study sought to examine whether young people use this information in a way that decreases, or increases, alcohol-related harms. Design and Methods. Six focus groups with students enrolled in an undergraduate university course in a large regional city in New South Wales, recruited by direct approach on the university grounds and via an online message posted on the university bulletin board. Results: The majority of the participants reported that they are ...


Shoes On Trial: Does A Safe Shoe Exist For Older People?, Bridget J. Munro, Karen J. Mickle, Jasmine C. Menant, Julie R. Steele Jan 2009

Shoes On Trial: Does A Safe Shoe Exist For Older People?, Bridget J. Munro, Karen J. Mickle, Jasmine C. Menant, Julie R. Steele

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

More than 80% of older people report foot problems and, as a result, tend to wear unstructured footwear that moulds to the shape of their deformed feet. While these unstructured shoes are deemed comfortable, it has been speculated that they contribute to home falls and hip fractures in the older population [1]. However, as walking barefoot or in socks has also been associated with an increased risk of falls in older people [2], we need to design safe but comfortable shoes for older people to wear in and around the home.


Cardiac Electrophysiology During Progressive And Controlled Dehydration: Inferences From Ecg Analysis During Steady-State Exercise And Recovery, Gregory E. Peoples, M. Brown, Anne M.J Van Den Heuvel, Pete Kerry, Nigel A.S. Taylor Jan 2009

Cardiac Electrophysiology During Progressive And Controlled Dehydration: Inferences From Ecg Analysis During Steady-State Exercise And Recovery, Gregory E. Peoples, M. Brown, Anne M.J Van Den Heuvel, Pete Kerry, Nigel A.S. Taylor

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

When fluid intake is insufficient to match sweat losses, dehydration develops. It is well established that dehydration impacts unfavourably upon cardiovascular function, including cardiac output and peripheral blood flow (Gonzalez-Alonso et al., 1998). However, the limitations of cardiac electrophysiology in the dehydrated state are not known. In light of possible electrolyte imbalances, particularly when water deficit moves towards 7% of total body mass, it is worth considering the possibility of adverse conduction changes, as reflected within the electrocardiogram (ECG), may accompany electrolyte loss. In addition, the ECG can also be employed to investigate other cardiac limitations, such as myocardial ischaemia ...