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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Tourism Discretionary Spending Choice Behaviour, G. Crouch, Sara Dolnicar, T. Devinney, T. Huybers, J. Louviere, H. Oppewal Dec 2005

Tourism Discretionary Spending Choice Behaviour, G. Crouch, Sara Dolnicar, T. Devinney, T. Huybers, J. Louviere, H. Oppewal

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Studies of tourism demand are numerous. But studies of how consumers apportion discretionary resources to tourism and across other competing categories of discretionary expenditure are non-existent. Therefore, how individuals and households make trade-offs between, or assess the respective utilities of, the various categories of discretionary expenditure and allocate discretionary financial resources, appears to be unknown. This study seeks to address this need by examining discretionary expenditure through choice experiments. The data provide insights into how each type of discretionary expenditure is valued and how each type competes for a share of the discretionary expenditure ‘pie’. We discuss the results with ...


A Conceptual Model Of The Antecedents Of Behavioural Loyalty Of Dissatisfied Business Services Customers, Venkata Yanamandram, Lesley White Dec 2005

A Conceptual Model Of The Antecedents Of Behavioural Loyalty Of Dissatisfied Business Services Customers, Venkata Yanamandram, Lesley White

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper presents a conceptualisation of the factors that lead dissatisfied business-to-business (B2B) customers to stay with their existing service providers. While studies in a B2B context have addressed some important barriers to switching, they have not discussed all of these, and not necessarily under conditions of dissatisfaction. A literature review of previous research, both theoretical and empirical, identified that a gap in the body of knowledge exists regarding the reason that dissatisfied customers are behaviourally loyal, and results from a previous qualitative study unearthed additional barriers that exist. Hence, this paper proposes a model of the deterrents to switching ...


Global Landscapes: A Speculative Assessment Of Emerging Organizational Structures Within The International Wine Industry, D. K. Aylward Dec 2005

Global Landscapes: A Speculative Assessment Of Emerging Organizational Structures Within The International Wine Industry, D. K. Aylward

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

As a rapidly evolving sector the international wine industry represents an interesting subject for analysis. Over the past two centuries the industry has experienced a number of major innovations and direction changes. The organizational shifts involved in these changes have been profound. From a monopolization of wine culture through the 19th and much of the 20th century by Europeans, to the emergence of New World operators and their democratic influence, the international wine industry now stands at the edge of another major paradigm shift. This paper traces the industry’s historical changes and speculates on the implications of such issues ...


Mimetic Marketing In Environmental Volunteering Organisations, Sara Dolnicar, H. J. Irvine, K. Lazarevski, Melanie J. Randle Dec 2005

Mimetic Marketing In Environmental Volunteering Organisations, Sara Dolnicar, H. J. Irvine, K. Lazarevski, Melanie J. Randle

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

The last decade has seen increased competition amongst voluntary organisations. This has resulted in a number of changes to the nonprofit sector, such as increased levels of scrutiny and accountability. Voluntary organisations compete not only for limited numbers of volunteers but also for limited grant funding made available at local, state and federal government levels. Increased competition has placed pressure on organisations to take a more commercial approach to the management of their organisations and to adopt what have been previously considered ‘for profit’ business practices such as marketing. This empirical study uses neo-institutional theory to investigate the marketing of ...


Unbounded Rationality: The Role Of Connectedness In Right Decision-Making, Mario Fernando, Scott Burrows Dec 2005

Unbounded Rationality: The Role Of Connectedness In Right Decision-Making, Mario Fernando, Scott Burrows

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper reports the preliminary findings of a study examining the role of connection in right decision-making of managers operating in Australia. The key aims of the study are to identify the influence of connectedness in the ethical outcomes of right decision-making, to identify barriers to right decision-making and lastly, to examine the nature of any relationship/s between connectedness and unbounded rationality in right decision-making. The study compares and contrasts eight case studies of middle and senior managers drawn from information technology, service and manufacturing sectors. The primary data for the study are in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that ...


Scientists, Career Choices And Organisational Change: Managing Human Resources In Cross-Sector R&D Organisations, T. Turpin, Samuel Garrett-Jones, Kieren Diment Dec 2005

Scientists, Career Choices And Organisational Change: Managing Human Resources In Cross-Sector R&D Organisations, T. Turpin, Samuel Garrett-Jones, Kieren Diment

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

The resource-based view of the firm has drawn attention to the role of human resources in building innovative capacity within firms. In 'high technology' firms, scientific capability is a critical factor in achieving international competitiveness. Science, however, is a costly business and many firms are entering into cross-sector R&D partnerships in order to gain access to leading edge scientific capability. The Australian Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) program is typical of the ways many governments are seeking to promote such cross-sector R&D collaboration. Scientists are key resources in these organisational arrangemation available about why and when scientists choose to ...


Accountability In The Tsunami Aftermath, A. Abraham Dec 2005

Accountability In The Tsunami Aftermath, A. Abraham

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

The devastating series of tsunamis on Boxing Day last year resulted in a flood of requests for help and Australian aid agencies launched appeals seeking cash donations to enable them to locally source food, medicine and shelter. Lists of agencies began appearing and potential donors had to decide through which agencies they should give.


Fighting For Volunteers’ Time: Competition In The International Volunteering Industry, Sara Dolnicar, Melanie J. Randle Dec 2005

Fighting For Volunteers’ Time: Competition In The International Volunteering Industry, Sara Dolnicar, Melanie J. Randle

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Despite increased competitive pressures in the volunteering industry, the structure of competition within this non-profit sector has not been examined in the past. This study uses selected respondents from the 1999-2002 World Values Survey who have previously volunteered for multiple organisations. Based on the patterns of organisations that volunteers donated their time for, competition between volunteering organisations with different missions was analysed, resulting in five dimensions of volunteering missions within which volunteering organisations appear to be competing: altruistic, leisure, political, church, and other missions. The altruistic mission groups is the broadest and includes a wide variety of volunteering goals, whereas ...


Understanding Worker Motivation In The Australian Film Industry, M. L. Jones, George K. Kriflik, M. Zanko Nov 2005

Understanding Worker Motivation In The Australian Film Industry, M. L. Jones, George K. Kriflik, M. Zanko

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

The Australian Film Industry operates in an environment which is uniquely challenging. Workers in the industry continuously face hardships which outweigh the benefits. This research seeks to understand how workers overcome the hardships and apparently consistently invest inequitable proportions of labour and skills to maximise their performance. Whether people will work hard or not bears strongly on their level of motivation. Motivation in the Australian Film Industry is determined by three sets of identified factors. These are modifiers which stem from the producer’s influence and internal and external drivers which arise from the individual. Using Grounded Theory this research ...


Launching Research: Experiences With And Achievements Of A Research Mentoring Platform For Academic Women, M. Barrett, Sara Dolnicar, M. Kaidonis, L. C. Moerman, Melanie J. Randle, C. Wood Nov 2005

Launching Research: Experiences With And Achievements Of A Research Mentoring Platform For Academic Women, M. Barrett, Sara Dolnicar, M. Kaidonis, L. C. Moerman, Melanie J. Randle, C. Wood

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Due to the continuing under-representation of women in academic positions of higher rank, the Faculty of Commerce at the University of Wollongong tested a mentoring platform for female researchers. This article reviews the first eight months of the platform’s lifetime and analyses experiences, achievements and failures in both a qualitative and quantitative manner. The quantitative analysis is based on a benchmark survey at the first research platform meeting and a second follow-up survey after the eight-month test period. The majority of female researchers participating in the Women in Commerce Research Platform (WICRP) were already interested in the research component ...


Changing Manufacturing Practices: An Appraisal Of The Processual Approach, Patrick M. Dawson Nov 2005

Changing Manufacturing Practices: An Appraisal Of The Processual Approach, Patrick M. Dawson

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

There has been a longstanding interest in human factors and the processes of change in manufacturing organizations. This paper focuses attention on the establishment and contribution of a processual perspective to understanding change. A history of the processual approach is outlined and some of the main defining elements and ongoing developments are appraised. Field data drawn from a study of cellular work arrangements at a mirror manufacturing plant is used to highlight the interlocking and overlapping dynamics between substance, context, and politics. In advocating the benefits of a processual perspective, it is argued that during the uptake of cellular manufacturing ...


Student Responses To The Integration Of A Flexible Online Learning Environment Into An Undergraduate Accounting Subject, A. Abraham Nov 2005

Student Responses To The Integration Of A Flexible Online Learning Environment Into An Undergraduate Accounting Subject, A. Abraham

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper discusses the integration of a flexible online learning environment into an undergraduate management accounting subject using WebCT and presents the results of research based on student evaluations of this integration. Student responses indicate four general trends. First, that there was overall satisfaction with the quality of the subject and the way in which substantial resources were offered online. Secondly, that the use of WebCT enhanced the learning experience and promoted independence, essential criteria for evolving life long learning skills. Thirdly, that WebCT made access to learning materials more readily suitable to the practical constraints of the learners' individual ...


To Segment Or Not To Segment? An Investigation Of Segmentation Strategy Success Under Varying Market Conditions, Sara Dolnicar, R. Freitag, Melanie J. Randle Nov 2005

To Segment Or Not To Segment? An Investigation Of Segmentation Strategy Success Under Varying Market Conditions, Sara Dolnicar, R. Freitag, Melanie J. Randle

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

A computer simulation study is conducted to explore the interaction of alternative segmentation strategies and the competitiveness of the market environment, a goal that can neither be tackled by purely analytic approaches as there is neither sufficient and undistorted real market data available to deduct findings in an empirical manner. The fundamental idea of the simulation is to increase competition in the artificial marketplace and to study the influence of segmentation strategy and varying market conditions on organisational success. Success/failure is measured using two performance criteria: number of units sold and survival of organisations over 36 periods of time ...


Return Relationships Among European Equity Sectors: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected Sectors In Small And Large Economies, S. Taing, A. C. Worthington Nov 2005

Return Relationships Among European Equity Sectors: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected Sectors In Small And Large Economies, S. Taing, A. C. Worthington

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper examines return interrelationships between numbers of equity sectors across several European markets. The markets comprise six Member States of the European Union (EU): namely, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland and Italy. The five sectors include the consumer discretionary, consumer staples, financial, industrials and materials sectors. Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Mean (GARCH-M) models are used to consider the impact of returns in other European markets on the returns in each market across each sector. The results indicate that there are relatively few significant interrelationships between sectors in different markets, with most of these accounted for by the larger ...


Worker Commitment In The Australian Film Industry, M. L. Jones, George K. Kriflik, M. Zanko Oct 2005

Worker Commitment In The Australian Film Industry, M. L. Jones, George K. Kriflik, M. Zanko

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Worker commitment in the Australian Film Industry is examined in this paper. Workers express a perceived inequity with regard to the inputs versus their outcomes. However, their continued engagement and persistent hard work in the industry would indicate a state of equity. Adams’ Equity Theory has been used in this research as a tool to help uncover the various factors which work to implicitly return equity to film workers. The commitment factors that have emerged through the research are discussed, and are considered in light of the factors which have surfaced through a preliminary literature review.


The Way It Really Happened: Competing Narratives In The Political Process Of Technological Change, Patrick M. Dawson, D. Buchanan Oct 2005

The Way It Really Happened: Competing Narratives In The Political Process Of Technological Change, Patrick M. Dawson, D. Buchanan

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Corporate narratives concerning technological change are often constructed around a linear series of events that show the organization in a positive light to internal and external observers. These narratives often sanitize the change process, and present data from which commentators can formulate neat linear prescriptions on how to implement new technology. In contrast, this paper draws on processual-contextual theoretical perspectives to argue that technological change is a more complex political process represented by multiple ongoing narratives which compete with each other for dominance as definitive change accounts. A central aim of this paper, therefore, is to demonstrate the analytical significance ...


Mebrs: A Multiagent Architecture For An Experience Based Reasoning System, Zhaohao Sun, G. Finnie Sep 2005

Mebrs: A Multiagent Architecture For An Experience Based Reasoning System, Zhaohao Sun, G. Finnie

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper reviews eight different inference rules for experience-based reasoning (EBR), and proposes a multiagent architecture for an EBR system, which constitutes an important basis for developing any multiagent EBR systems (EBRS). The proposed architecture consists of a global experience base (GEB), and a multi-inference engine (MIE), which is the mechanism for implementing eight reasoning paradigms based on eight inference rules for EBR. The proposed approach will facilitate research and development of experience management, knowledge-based systems, and recognition of fraud and deception in e-commerce.


Market Risk In Demutualised Self-Listed Stock Exchanges: An International Analysis Of Selected Time-Varying Betas, A. C. Worthington, H. Higgs Sep 2005

Market Risk In Demutualised Self-Listed Stock Exchanges: An International Analysis Of Selected Time-Varying Betas, A. C. Worthington, H. Higgs

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper examines market risk in four demutualised and self-listed stock exchanges: the Australian Stock Exchange, the Deutsche Börse, the London Stock Exchange and the Singapore Stock Exchange. Daily company and MSCI index returns provide the respective asset and market portfolio data. A bivariate MA-GARCH model is used to estimate time-varying betas for each exchange from listing until 7 June 2005. While the results indicate significant beta volatility, unit root tests show the betas to be mean-reverting. These findings are used to suggest that despite concerns that demutualised and self-listed exchanges entail new market risks that merit regulatory intervention, the ...


Catastrophic Shocks And Capital Markets: A Comparative Analysis By Disaster And Sector, A. C. Worthington, A. Valadkhani Sep 2005

Catastrophic Shocks And Capital Markets: A Comparative Analysis By Disaster And Sector, A. C. Worthington, A. Valadkhani

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper provides an analysis of the impact of natural, industrial and terrorist disasters on the Australian capital market using the Box and Tiao intervention analysis and the data on daily returns in the following ten market sectors: consumer discretionary, consumer staples, energy, financial, health care, industrial, information technology, materials, telecommunication services and utilities. Inter alia, we have found that the shocks provided by natural disasters have an influence on market sector returns, depending upon the sector in question. The sectors most sensitive to disasters of any type are the consumer discretionary, financial services and materials sectors while the most ...


Assessing Sme Innovation Within Different Cluster Models: Lessons From The Australian Wine Industry, David Aylward, John Glynn Sep 2005

Assessing Sme Innovation Within Different Cluster Models: Lessons From The Australian Wine Industry, David Aylward, John Glynn

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper assesses core innovation activity among SMEs within different levels of cluster development. The aim of the paper, using empirical data from the Australian wine industry, is to demonstrate that innovation levels and activity intensify as an industry cluster develops. By dividing wine clusters into ‘innovative’ (highly developed) and ‘organised’ (less developed) models, the paper uses selected core indicators of innovation activity to explore levels of integration within each model. This integration is examined in the context of Porter’s theory of ‘competitive advantage’, with implications for SMEs in particular, and lessons for industry clusters in general.


Peer-To-Peer Based Ontology Editing, P. Becker, P. Eklund, N. Roberts Aug 2005

Peer-To-Peer Based Ontology Editing, P. Becker, P. Eklund, N. Roberts

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

The paper develops software to exploit a protocol for collaborative ontology editing based on RDF and using a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networking architecture. The protocol implements a voting mechanism embedded into the RDF data itself, using a mixed initiative design for notification. This is implemented as extensions to an ontology browser called ONTORAMA1. The P2P approach is compared to the classic ontology editing approaches and the special requirements of the ontology editing environment are discussed.


Trust And Deception In Multi-Agent Trading Systems: A Logical Viewpoint, G. Finnie, Zhaohao Sun, J. Barker Aug 2005

Trust And Deception In Multi-Agent Trading Systems: A Logical Viewpoint, G. Finnie, Zhaohao Sun, J. Barker

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Trust and deception have been of concern to researchers since the earliest research into multi-agent trading systems (MATS). In an open trading environment, trust can be established by external mechanisms e.g. using secret keys or digital signatures or by internal mechanisms e.g. learning and reasoning from experience. However, in a MATS, where distrust exists among the agents, and deception might be used between agents, how to recognize and remove fraud and deception in MATS becomes a significant issue in order to maintain a trustworthy MATS environment. This paper will propose an architecture for a multi-agent trading system (MATS ...


Self-Actualising Workplace Spirituality: An Empirical Study, Mario Fernando Aug 2005

Self-Actualising Workplace Spirituality: An Empirical Study, Mario Fernando

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Over the past twenty years, in the pursuit of achieving higher but socially responsible economic performance and productivity, many business organisations in the West had begun to take notice of a phenomenon collectively called as ‘workplace spirituality’. Western workplace spirituality is associated with various types of spirituality and self-growth based spirituality forms a significant component of this phenomenon. Few researchers in the spirituality at work discourse identify an important overlap between self-growth based workplace spirituality and Abraham Maslow’s self-actualisation. However, to the best of my knowledge, no empirical studies in the management field have examined this significant overlap. In ...


Offering More Than Advice: Consultancies In A Nonprofit Organization, H. J. Irvine Jul 2005

Offering More Than Advice: Consultancies In A Nonprofit Organization, H. J. Irvine

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper explains the proliferation of consulting activities in nonprofit organizations, and illustrates it by a study of the external consultancies commissioned by one religious/charitable organization (RCO) within a twelve-month period. The qualitative study, conducted over one year, identifies the employment of external consultants as one manifestation of normative institutional pressures on nonprofit organizations to adopt corporate-style accounting and management practices. Within the nonprofit sector, there is scope for further research on the challenges involved for organizations in that sector as they attempt to analyse the pressures of the institutional environment in which they operate and assess the applicability ...


Four New Fuzzy Inference Rules For Experience Based Reasoning, Zhaohao Sun, Gavin Finnie, J. Sun Jul 2005

Four New Fuzzy Inference Rules For Experience Based Reasoning, Zhaohao Sun, Gavin Finnie, J. Sun

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Experience-based reasoning (EBR) is a reasoning paradigm used in almost every human activity such as business, military missions, and teaching activities. However, EBR has not been seriously studied from a fuzzy reasoning viewpoint. This paper will give an attempt to resolve this issue by providing four new fuzzy inference rules for EBR. More specifically, the paper first reviews the logical approach to EBR, in which eight fundamental different inference rules for EBR are discussed. Then the paper proposes fuzzy logic-based models to the four new inference rules in EBR, which forms a theoretical foundation for EBR together with the four ...


'Lights… Action… Grounded Theory': Developing An Understanding For The Management Of Film Production, M. L. Jones Jul 2005

'Lights… Action… Grounded Theory': Developing An Understanding For The Management Of Film Production, M. L. Jones

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Grounded Theory (GT) provides an ideal tool for analysis and theoretical development, and so is used here to study the Australian Film Industry. The goal of this study is to explicate management outcomes from the perspective of a film producer managing a film production. This paper firstly explains the value and the practicality of using GT for this type of study, it then provides a practical understanding of how the method can be used.


Grounded Theory: A Theoretical And Practical Application In The Australian Film Industry, M. L. Jones, George K. Kriflik, M. Zanko Jul 2005

Grounded Theory: A Theoretical And Practical Application In The Australian Film Industry, M. L. Jones, George K. Kriflik, M. Zanko

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Among the various methods of qualitative analysis, Grounded Theory provides researchers with a unique tool for theoretical development. Most conventional forms of qualitative analysis require the researcher to preselect a path of investigation in a method which is primarily deductive, where investigation and theoretical aggregation are a product of discovery, and data are informed by this discovery. Grounded Theory works in a manner which is contrary to this conventional path by being inductive. Using Grounded Theory, a researcher is afforded the luxury of maintaining an open mind and allowing the data to inform the discovery of theory. In this way ...


Knowledge Management Through Mobile Networks In Emergency Situations, H. Pousti, Helen M. Hasan Jul 2005

Knowledge Management Through Mobile Networks In Emergency Situations, H. Pousti, Helen M. Hasan

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

This paper concerns public emergency situations, which are the responsibility of a select set of organisations in the public, private and community sectors. It reports on an analysis of the knowledge management implications of mobile networks, using wireless technology designed for such situations. This follows the path of a research project concerning the need to integrate technological, logistical and organisational knowledge management issues within and between organisations with regard to their response to emergency situations. The analysis of a secondary case is used to illustrate and analyse the issue using a realistic and holistic approach.


Should We Still Lecture Or Just Post Examination Questions On The Web? The Nature Of The Shift Towards Pragmatism In Undergraduate Lecture Attendance, Sara Dolnicar Jul 2005

Should We Still Lecture Or Just Post Examination Questions On The Web? The Nature Of The Shift Towards Pragmatism In Undergraduate Lecture Attendance, Sara Dolnicar

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

An empirical study was conducted to gain understanding about the motivations of undergraduate students in attending lectures. Students were highly heterogeneous regarding their reported lecture attendance motivations, with two segments representing prototypical extremes. The student group labelled ‘idealists’ in this study reported genuinely enjoying lectures, were mature-aged students with working experience and more frequent in the arts subjects surveyed. Students labelled ‘pragmatics’ in this study were most highly represented in the commerce subjects surveyed, were among the younger students, reported attending lectures to get the information they need to succeed in the subject and reported the lowest lecture attendance while ...


Our Retirement In Their Hands: A User Perspective, C. L. Cortese, D. K. Aylward, J. Glynn Jun 2005

Our Retirement In Their Hands: A User Perspective, C. L. Cortese, D. K. Aylward, J. Glynn

Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive)

Superannuation has become a key policy issue for the Australian government as the population continues to age at an increasing rate. Government policy has focussed on shifting the major financial burden retirement back on individuals with legislation and schemes aimed at encouraging self-funded retirement. The Financial Services Reform Act 2001 is the most recent legislative reform to affect the booming superannuation industry, with the objective of enhancing consumer confidence in the financial services markets, thereby increasing reliance on financial advisors and boosting superannuation savings. This paper reports on the results of a survey which demonstrate that despite government initiatives, most ...