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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Silurian Biostratigraphy Of The Cadia Area, South Of Orange, New South Wales, R B. Rickards, Ian G. Percival, A J. Simpson, Anthony J. Wright Jan 2001

Silurian Biostratigraphy Of The Cadia Area, South Of Orange, New South Wales, R B. Rickards, Ian G. Percival, A J. Simpson, Anthony J. Wright

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

New Silurian fossil discoveries in the vicinity of Cadi a Mine indicate ages younger than shown on recent maps. Limestone, intersected in drill core immediately above an unconformable contact with Late Ordovician volcanics of the mine sequence, yielded an early Wenlock conodont fauna including Prerospathodus amorphognathoides. P procerus and P. rhodesi, together with Kockelella ramdiformis. A diverse shelly fauna of late Wenlock to early Ludlow aspect, dominated by brachio pods, is present in a slumped mudstone on the mine access road. South of the mine, in Rodds Creek valley, Silurian rocks are shown to occur as infaulted slices along the ...


Springtime Enhancement Of Upper Tropospheric Aerosol At 45s, J Ben Liley, James M. Rosen, Norman T. Kjome, Nicholas Jones, Curtis P. Rinsland Jan 2001

Springtime Enhancement Of Upper Tropospheric Aerosol At 45s, J Ben Liley, James M. Rosen, Norman T. Kjome, Nicholas Jones, Curtis P. Rinsland

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Monthly sonde data for Lauder in Central Otago, New Zealand show profiles of aerosol backscatter from the surface to over 30 km altitude. The tropospheric data vary by season, with greater aerosol backscatter throughout the free troposphere in springtime. Aerosol mixing ratios in layers in the upper troposphere at these times are often much higher than anywhere else above the boundary layer, suggesting that they arise from horizontal transport. Ozone measurements from the sonde show correspondence in vertical structure to the backscatter data and also seasonal enhancement. The latter correlates with aerosol, but competing causes of ozone enhancement make the ...


Characterization Of The Domain Of Fibronectin-Binding Protein Of I Of Streptococcus Pyogenes Responsible For Elicitation Of A Protective Immune Response, Kai Schulze, Eva Medina, Susanne R. Talay, Rebecca J. Towers, Gursharan S. Chhatwal, Carlos A. Guzman Jan 2001

Characterization Of The Domain Of Fibronectin-Binding Protein Of I Of Streptococcus Pyogenes Responsible For Elicitation Of A Protective Immune Response, Kai Schulze, Eva Medina, Susanne R. Talay, Rebecca J. Towers, Gursharan S. Chhatwal, Carlos A. Guzman

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Fibronectin-binding protein I (SfbI) represents a major adhesin ofStreptococcus pyogenes. Mice were intranasally immunized with recombinant proteins spanning different portions of SfbI to identify the minimal fragment able to elicit a protective response against a lethal challenge with S. pyogenes. The strongest cellular responses and the highest levels of antigen-specific secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) were detected in mice immunized with the fibronectin-binding region of SfbI. In contrast, animals vaccinated with a polypeptide spanning the aromatic and proline-rich regions showed the highest titers and fastest IgG response in serum. Vaccination with either SfbI without a membrane anchor and signal peptide ...


Identifying The Agricultural Imprint On The Global N2o Budget Using Stable Isotopes, T Perez, S E. Trumbore, S C. Tyler, P A. Matson, I Ortiz-Monasterio, T Rahn, D W T Griffith Jan 2001

Identifying The Agricultural Imprint On The Global N2o Budget Using Stable Isotopes, T Perez, S E. Trumbore, S C. Tyler, P A. Matson, I Ortiz-Monasterio, T Rahn, D W T Griffith

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Agricultural soils are the most important anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. We observed large shifts with time in the emission rate (from 170 to 16 ng N cm−2 h−1) and in δ15N of N2O emitted (from −46‰ to +5‰ relative to atmospheric N2) from a urea-fertilized and irrigated agricultural field in Mexico. We calculated overall instantaneous enrichment factors for the sampling period, which suggest that the microbial N2O production shifts from nitrification (week 1) to denitrification (week 2). Isotopic signatures of N2O emissions were not always ...


Ground-Based Measurements Of Tropospheric Co, C2h6, And Hcn From Australia At 34 S Latitude During 1997-1998, Curtis P. Rinsland, Arndt Meier, D W T Griffith, Linda S. Chiou Jan 2001

Ground-Based Measurements Of Tropospheric Co, C2h6, And Hcn From Australia At 34 S Latitude During 1997-1998, Curtis P. Rinsland, Arndt Meier, D W T Griffith, Linda S. Chiou

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

High spectral resolution (0.004 cm−1) infrared solar absorption measurements of CO, C2H6, and HCN have been recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer located at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change complementary station at the University of Wollongong, Australia (34.45°S, 150.88°E, 30 m above sea level). The time series covers March 1997 to February 1998. Profile retrievals with maximum sensitivity in the upper troposphere show distinct seasonal cycles for all three molecules with maxima during October-December 1997. Best fits to the time series of daily averages yield peak 0.03 ...


Initial Studies On Alkaloids From Lombok Medicinal Plants, Surya Hadi, John B. Bremner Jan 2001

Initial Studies On Alkaloids From Lombok Medicinal Plants, Surya Hadi, John B. Bremner

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.


Indole Derivatives From The Egg Masses Of Muricid Molluscs, Kirsten Benkendorff, John B. Bremner, Andrew R. Davis Jan 2001

Indole Derivatives From The Egg Masses Of Muricid Molluscs, Kirsten Benkendorff, John B. Bremner, Andrew R. Davis

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

A range of brominated indole derivatives were found in the egg masses of six species of muricid molluscs. Several non-brominated indoles were also present in the eggs of two Mediterranean Muricidae, although these were not found in the Australian species. Tyrindoleninone (3), was the only compound found in all six species and is likely to be responsible for the observed antimicrobial activity of these muricid egg masses [1,2]. These bioactive indoles appear to be characteristic of muricid egg masses and were not found in the egg masses from 17 species in different families of marine molluscs.


Psychological Problems In New Zealand Primary Health Care: A Report On The Pilot Phase Of The Mental Health And General Practice Investigation (Magpie), John Bushnell, Deborah Mcleod, A D. Dowell, C Salmond, S Ramage, S Collings, University Of Otago, Marjan Kljakovic, L Mcbain Jan 2001

Psychological Problems In New Zealand Primary Health Care: A Report On The Pilot Phase Of The Mental Health And General Practice Investigation (Magpie), John Bushnell, Deborah Mcleod, A D. Dowell, C Salmond, S Ramage, S Collings, University Of Otago, Marjan Kljakovic, L Mcbain

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Aim. To carry out a pilot study in two regions in order to investigate prevalence of psychological problems in primary care in New Zealand. Method. General Practitioners (GPs) within two geographic regions were randomly selected. All adult attenders at their practice on selected days were administered a short questionnaire, the GHQ-12, which assesses the presence of psychological symptoms. The GP recorded the reasons for each consultation, and was interviewed at the end of each day about selected patients, to determine their opinion about the type of psychological problems experienced. Results. Three-quarters of selected GPs (76%) agreed to participate. 96% of ...


Cumulenic And Heterocumulenic Anions: Potential Interstellar Species?, Stephen J. Blanksby, Andrew M. Mcanoy, Suresh Dua, John H. Bowie Jan 2001

Cumulenic And Heterocumulenic Anions: Potential Interstellar Species?, Stephen J. Blanksby, Andrew M. Mcanoy, Suresh Dua, John H. Bowie

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

A recent theoretical investigation by Terzieva & Herbst of linear carbon chains, Cn where n ≥ 6, in the interstellar medium has shown that these species can undergo efficient radiative association to form the corresponding anions. An experimental study by Barckholtz, Snow & Bierbaumof these anions has demonstrated that they do not react efficiently with molecular hydrogen, leading to the possibility of detectable abundances of cumulene-type anions in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments. Here we present a series of electronic structure calculations which examine possible anionic candidates for detection in these media, namely the anion analogues of the previously identified interstellar cumulenes ...


East Salt Sparingly - Sprinkle, Don't Shake!, K E. Charlton, P L. Jooste Jan 2001

East Salt Sparingly - Sprinkle, Don't Shake!, K E. Charlton, P L. Jooste

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The salt-blood pressure hypothesis states that an excessive salt intake leads to an increase in blood pressure in genetically susceptible persons and, if high intake is maintained long term, ultimately leads to sustained hypertension. It is estimated that about 3.3 million South Africans (12.6% and 16.3% of adult men and women, respectively) are hypertensive. However, not all subjects within a particular population respond equally to exposure to high-salt diets. Methods to identify those who are 'salt sensitive' remain in the research domain; therefore a population approach to the restriction of dietary salt intake is warranted. The message ...


South African Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: Testing Of The Preliminary Guidelines Among Women In Kwazulu-Natal And The Western Cape, P Love, E Maunder, M Green, F Ross, J Smale-Lovely, K Charlton Jan 2001

South African Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: Testing Of The Preliminary Guidelines Among Women In Kwazulu-Natal And The Western Cape, P Love, E Maunder, M Green, F Ross, J Smale-Lovely, K Charlton

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Aim. To assess the appropriateness of the preliminary South African food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) as a nutrition education tool for women in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and the Western Cape (WC) in terms of comprehension, interpretation and implementation. Methods. This was a qualitative study using focus group discussions. Focus groups were held in five magisterial districts within KZN, and the Cape Town metropolitan area of the WC, to evaluate the comprehensibility and applicability of the FBDGs. Groups were randomly selected according to settlement type (non-urban, urban informal, urban formal) and ethnicity (black, coloured (of mixed origin), Indian, white) to reflect the KZN ...


The Common Ovine Shiga Toxin 2-Containing Escherichia Coli Serotypes And Human Isolates Of The Same Serotypes Possess A Stx2d Toxin Type, Vidiya Ramachandran, Michael A. Hornitzky, Karl A. Bettelheim, Mark J. Walker, Steven P. Djordjevic Jan 2001

The Common Ovine Shiga Toxin 2-Containing Escherichia Coli Serotypes And Human Isolates Of The Same Serotypes Possess A Stx2d Toxin Type, Vidiya Ramachandran, Michael A. Hornitzky, Karl A. Bettelheim, Mark J. Walker, Steven P. Djordjevic

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) has been reported as the main Shiga toxin associated with human disease. In addition, the Stx2 toxin type can have a profound impact on the degree of tissue damage in animal models. We have characterized the stx2 subtype of 168 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates of which 146 were derived from ovine sources (principally feces and meat) and 22 were isolated from humans. The ovine STEC isolates were of serotypes that have been shown to occur commonly in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy sheep. The major stx2 subtype in the ovine isolates was ...


Mesospheric Temperatures From Observations Of The Hydroxyl (6-2) Emission Above Davis, Antarctica: A Comparison Of Rotational And Doppler Measurements, J L. Innis, Frances Phillips, G B. Burns, P A. Greet, W J R French, P L. Dyson Jan 2001

Mesospheric Temperatures From Observations Of The Hydroxyl (6-2) Emission Above Davis, Antarctica: A Comparison Of Rotational And Doppler Measurements, J L. Innis, Frances Phillips, G B. Burns, P A. Greet, W J R French, P L. Dyson

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

We present observations of the hydroxyl (6–2) airglow lines from ~ 87 km altitude obtained at Davis station, Antarctica, in the austral winter of 1999. Nine nights of observations were made of the P-branch near λ840 nm with a Czerny-Turner scanning spectrometer (CTS); at the same time, high-resolution Fabry-Perot Spectrometer (FPS) spectra were collected of the Q1(1) doublet at λ834 nm. Rotational temperatures were determined from the CTS observations, while Doppler temperatures were derived from the line-widths of the FPS Q1(1) spectra. Absolute temperatures determined by these methods are uncertain by ~ 2 and ~ 20 K, respectively ...


Modelling Fire Weather And Fire Spread Rates For Two Bushfires Near Sydney, M S. Speer, L M. Leslie, R Morison, W Catchpole, Ross Bradstock, R Bunker Jan 2001

Modelling Fire Weather And Fire Spread Rates For Two Bushfires Near Sydney, M S. Speer, L M. Leslie, R Morison, W Catchpole, Ross Bradstock, R Bunker

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The observed headfire rates of spread of two severe wildfires in heathlands near Sydney were compared with predictions made using a meteorological model to forecast wind speeds and a new simple empirical fire behaviour model that uses fuel height and wind speed at 2 m above ground to predict rate of spread. The predicted rates of spread, using both actual and predicted wind speeds, compared favourably with observed rates of spread averaged over 2 hours and 5.5 hours for the Bell Range and Royal National Park fires respectively.


New Insights Into Deformation And Fluid Flow Processes In The Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism: Results Of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 190, Gregory F. Moore, Asahiko Taira, Adam Klaus, Luann Becker, Babette Boeckel, Barry A. Cragg, Allison Dean, Chris L. Fergusson, Pierre Henry, Satoshi Hirano, Toshio Hisamitsu, Sabine Hunze, Miriam Kastner, Alex J. Maltman, Julia K. Morgan, Yuki Murakami, Demian M. Saffer, Mario Sanchez-Gomez, Elizabeth J. Screaton, David C. Smith, Arthur J. Spivack, Joan Steurer, Harold J. Tobin, Kohtaro Ujiie, Michael B Underwood, Moyra Wilson Jan 2001

New Insights Into Deformation And Fluid Flow Processes In The Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism: Results Of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 190, Gregory F. Moore, Asahiko Taira, Adam Klaus, Luann Becker, Babette Boeckel, Barry A. Cragg, Allison Dean, Chris L. Fergusson, Pierre Henry, Satoshi Hirano, Toshio Hisamitsu, Sabine Hunze, Miriam Kastner, Alex J. Maltman, Julia K. Morgan, Yuki Murakami, Demian M. Saffer, Mario Sanchez-Gomez, Elizabeth J. Screaton, David C. Smith, Arthur J. Spivack, Joan Steurer, Harold J. Tobin, Kohtaro Ujiie, Michael B Underwood, Moyra Wilson

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The Nankai Trough accretionary prism is considered an “end-member” prism accreting a coarse terrigenous sediment section in a setting with structural simplicity, unparalleled resolution by seismic and other geophysical techniques, and large historic earthquakes. It therefore has been the focus of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drilling to address several unresolved questions concerning accretionary processes and prism evolution. At six sites cored along two transects across the Nankai Trough accretionary prism during ODP Leg 190, lithostratigraphy and sediment diagenesis vary markedly. For the first time, reference sites at the seaward ends of the two transects defined the stratigraphic framework of the ...


Correlation Of Aerosol And Carbon Monoxide At 45 S: Evidence Of Biomass Burning Emissions, Nicholas Jones, Curtis P. Rinsland, J Ben Liley, Jim Rosen Jan 2001

Correlation Of Aerosol And Carbon Monoxide At 45 S: Evidence Of Biomass Burning Emissions, Nicholas Jones, Curtis P. Rinsland, J Ben Liley, Jim Rosen

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Altitude profiles of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and aerosols have been compared from the Network for Stratospheric Change (NDSC) mid-latitude southern hemisphere site at Lauder, New Zealand. The CO mixing ratio profile was derived from infrared spectra recorded with a very high resolution Fourier Transform interferometer using three lines of the (1–0) band between 2057 and 2160 cm−1. The aerosol surface area was derived from balloon-borne backscatter radiation at 940 nm. Both datasets show significant enhancements occurring over the observation site in the austral spring. When displayed together their combined effect illustrates the close correlation between CO and aerosols ...


Putting The Wood Back Into Our Rivers: An Experiment In River Rehabilitation, Andrew P. Brooks, Tim B. Abbe, John Jansen, Matt Taylor, Christopher J. Gippel Jan 2001

Putting The Wood Back Into Our Rivers: An Experiment In River Rehabilitation, Andrew P. Brooks, Tim B. Abbe, John Jansen, Matt Taylor, Christopher J. Gippel

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This paper presents an overview of a project established to assess the effectiveness of woody debris (WD) reintroduction as a river rehabilitation tool. An outline of an experiment is presented that aims to develop and assess the effectiveness of engineered log jams (ELJs) under Australian conditions, and to demonstrate the potential for using a range of ELJs to stabilise a previously de-snagged, high energy gravel-bed channel. Furthermore, the experiment will test the effectiveness of a reach based rehabilitation strategy to increase geomorphic variability and hence habitat diversity. While primarily focusing on the geomorphic and engineering aspects of the rehabilitation strategy ...