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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Impact Evaluation Of A Folate Education Campaign With And Without The Use Of A Health Claim, P. G. Williams, J. Mchenery, Anne Mcmahon, H. Anderson Oct 2001

Impact Evaluation Of A Folate Education Campaign With And Without The Use Of A Health Claim, P. G. Williams, J. Mchenery, Anne Mcmahon, H. Anderson

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Objective To measure the impact of a Kellogg/Northcott Society multimedia folate education campaign, run nationally from July 1998 to June 1999, with and without the use of health claims.

Method Three national telephone surveys of over 500 Australian women aged 18-44 in July and November 1998 and May 1999.

Results Awareness of the role of folate in the prevention of birth defects rose by 8% in the first 6 months of the campaign (without health claims) and by 15% in the second half (when health claims were incorporated). Awareness of the recommendation to take folate before pregnancy rose from ...


Seagrass Species - Are They Spectrally Distinct?, S. K. Fyfe, A. G. Dekker Jul 2001

Seagrass Species - Are They Spectrally Distinct?, S. K. Fyfe, A. G. Dekker

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The spectral reflectance of 3 species of seagrass was measured in different habitats at 3 estuaries in southeastern Australia during each of the 4 seasons of 2000. Seagrass species were spectrally distinct regardless of whether the leaves were fouled by epibionts even though spatial and temporal variability in reflectance was observed within each species. The visible wavelengths that penetrate water fortunately coincide with the regions of maximum absorption by plant photosynthetic and accessory pigments. Mapping of benthic plants to species level is possible using a hyperspectral sensor that has narrow bands centred on pigment-related spectral features in the visible, e ...


Sugar: Is There A Need For A Dietary Guideline?, P. G. Williams Mar 2001

Sugar: Is There A Need For A Dietary Guideline?, P. G. Williams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

There have been dietary guidelines in Australia since 1979 and all editions have included recommendations about sugar. This paper reviews changing recommendations in Australia, current levels of conumption, recent studies on the potential effects of nutrient dilution and dental caries, and discusses potential risks associated with a dietary guideline.


Effects Of Horizontal And Vertical Additive Disparity Noise On Stereoscopic Corrugation Detection, Stephen A. Palmisano, Robert S Allison, Ian Howard Jan 2001

Effects Of Horizontal And Vertical Additive Disparity Noise On Stereoscopic Corrugation Detection, Stephen A. Palmisano, Robert S Allison, Ian Howard

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Stereoscopic corrugation detection in the presence of horizontal- and vertical- additive disparity noise was examined using a signal detection paradigm. Random-dot stereograms either represented a 3-D square-wave surface with various amounts of Gaussian-distributed additive disparity noise or had the same disparity values randomly redistributed. Stereoscopic detection of 2 arcmin peak amplitude corrugations was found to tolerate significantly greater amplitudes of vertical-disparity noise than horizontal-disparity noiseirrespective of whether the corrugations were horizontally or vertically oriented. However, this directional difference in tolerance to disparity noise was found to reverse when the corrugation and noise amplitudes were increased (so as to produce equivalent ...


Implementation Of Malnutrition Screening And Assessment By Dietitians: Malnutrition Exists In Acute And Rehabilitation Settings, Eleanor Beck, Mandy Carrie, Kelly Lambert, Shellie Mason, Marianna Milosavljevic, Craig Patch Jan 2001

Implementation Of Malnutrition Screening And Assessment By Dietitians: Malnutrition Exists In Acute And Rehabilitation Settings, Eleanor Beck, Mandy Carrie, Kelly Lambert, Shellie Mason, Marianna Milosavljevic, Craig Patch

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The prevalence of malnutrition within hospital settings is a major concern to all health care workers. The recent development of a simple screening tool for use in such settings has increased the opportunity to identify at-risk patients in a reasonable time frame during their admission. This paper outlines the implementation of a routine nutrition screening and assessment, performed completely by dietitians, across both acute and rehabilitation settings. Dietitians were able to screen, on average, 72% of eligible patients, which ensured timely dietetic intervention. The routine malnutrition screening and assessment process highlighted differences (P < 0.01) in the rates of malnutrition between the acute wards (range 7 to 14%) and rehabilitation ward (49%). Significant differences between acute and rehabilitation patients were also found within the majority of individual diagnostic groups, including all surgery, fractures, cardiovascular incidents and respiratory illness (P < 0.01). The identification of rates of malnutrition between different wards, diagnoses and institutional settings provides dietetic managers with a sophisticated tool that can assist in the allocation of dietetic resources. This operational framework for routine screening of nutritionally at-risk patients in hospital, enables dietitians to develop patient outcomes and an effective nutrition care model.


Believability Of Anti-Drug Advertising As A Function Of Marijuana Usage Experience, Sandra C. Jones, John R. Rossiter Jan 2001

Believability Of Anti-Drug Advertising As A Function Of Marijuana Usage Experience, Sandra C. Jones, John R. Rossiter

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Marijuana use is on the increase in Australia, particularly among teenagers. Information dissemination is likely to become the main vehicle for minimizing the harms associated with marijuana use, so there is a clear need to develop informative and convincing communication strategies to target young (potential and incipient) marijuana users. However, the Federal Government’s “zero tolerance” approach to drug use is accompanied by anti-drug messages that may lack credibility with young people who already use, or have used, marijuana. Cognitive dissonance theory, as well as research with warning labels on other products such as cigarettes, suggests that young people who ...


A Review Of The Consistency Of Pamphlets Promoting Mammographic Screening In Australia, Sandra C. Jones Jan 2001

A Review Of The Consistency Of Pamphlets Promoting Mammographic Screening In Australia, Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in Australia and the most common cause of cancer death in Australian women. Early detection of breast cancers with mammography has the potential to dramatically reduce mortality rates. Thus, there is an obvious need for clear, accurate information about breast cancer screening to be disseminated to Australian women. A 1997 review of breast cancer screening pamphlets in Australia noted some inconsistencies in the nature and content of the information provided, and recommended that these be addressed. The current study, conducted in January 2001, examined whether consistency has improved since the ...


Regulation Of Alcohol Advertising In Australia: Case Study Of A Failure, Sandra C. Jones, R. J. Donovan Jan 2001

Regulation Of Alcohol Advertising In Australia: Case Study Of A Failure, Sandra C. Jones, R. J. Donovan

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The aim of this paper is to further the bridging of marketing theory and practice by disseminating to marketing practitioners the results of a recent study conducted for a public health audience. This paper has direct implications for the practice of ethical marketing and advertising of alcohol beverages in Australia. The study was designed to assess young people’s perceived messages in three ads for a vodka-based pre-mixed alcohol beverage, and to assess the extent to which the ads appeared to be consistent with the industry’s voluntary code. Two convenience samples of young people, one aged 15-16 years and ...


Dealing With Diversity: Incorporating Cultural Sensitivity Into Professional Midwifery Practice, Moira Williamson, Lindsey Harrison Jan 2001

Dealing With Diversity: Incorporating Cultural Sensitivity Into Professional Midwifery Practice, Moira Williamson, Lindsey Harrison

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

In the Australian College of Midwives, Code of Ethics, Section 11. Practice of Midwifery, the following is stated "A. Midwives provide care for women and childbearing families with respect for cultural diversity while also working to eliminate harmful practices within those same cultures." However, it is difficult to know what is meant by "respect for cultural diversity". This paper presents the results of a critical review of the health literature. There is surprisingly little consensus about the meaning of terms such as cultural sensitivity and cultural appropriate care. Nor are there reflections on incorporating these concepts into practice. It could ...


Physician Communication Skills: Results Of A Survey Of General/Family Practitioners In Newfoundland, F D. Ashbury, Donald C. Iverson, Boris Kralj Jan 2001

Physician Communication Skills: Results Of A Survey Of General/Family Practitioners In Newfoundland, F D. Ashbury, Donald C. Iverson, Boris Kralj

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Purpose: To describe the attitudes related to communication skills, confidence in using commnication skills, and use of communication skills during the physician-patient encounter among a population-based sample of family physicians. Procedures: A mailed survey, distributed to all family physicians and general practitioners currently practicing in Newfoundland. The questionnaire was designed to collect data in five general areas participant demographics, physician confidence in using specific communication strategies, perceived adequacy of time spent by physicians with their patients, physician use of specific communication strategies with the adult patients they saw in the prior week, and physician use of specific communication strategies during ...


Phinocytic Loading Of Cytochrome C Into Intact Cells Specifically Induces Caspase-Dependent Permeabilization Of Mitochondria: Evidence For A Cytochrome C Feedback Loop, K. J. Gilmore, H. E. Quinn, M. R. Wilson Jan 2001

Phinocytic Loading Of Cytochrome C Into Intact Cells Specifically Induces Caspase-Dependent Permeabilization Of Mitochondria: Evidence For A Cytochrome C Feedback Loop, K. J. Gilmore, H. E. Quinn, M. R. Wilson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Previous studies introduced cytochrome c into intact cells via the disruptive techniques of microinjection or electroporation to provide support for the hypothesis that, in whole cells, cytochrome c release from mitochondria triggers caspase activation and other degradative changes. However, the types of measurements that could be undertaken with these techniques was limited. We used the simple and relatively gentle technique of pinocytic loading to demonstrate that, in intact cells, cytosolic cytochrome c specifically induced activation of caspase-3- and -9-like enzymes, and a loss of mitochondrial polarization coincident with an increase in mitochondrial permeability. Our results support the prediction from in ...


Conducting Polymer-Carbon Nanotubes Composites, May Tahhan, N. Barisci, Gordon G. Wallace Jan 2001

Conducting Polymer-Carbon Nanotubes Composites, May Tahhan, N. Barisci, Gordon G. Wallace

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

During the course of this work, three different approaches to the formation of conducting polymer/carbon nanotube (CP/CNT) composites were investigated. The first approach involved the preparation of CNT dispersions using Poly methoxy aniline-5-sulfonic acid (PMAS) as a stabilizer. The second approach investigated involved the use of CNT as the dopant in the electropolymerization of CPs. The third approach involved the electrochemical deposition of a thin polymer film onto the surface of CNT paper. These CNT/CP composites were characterized to determine capacitance, conductivity and mechanical strength.


Human-Induced Stresses On Mangrove Swamps Along The Kenyan Coast, P. A. O. Abuodha, J. G. Kairo Jan 2001

Human-Induced Stresses On Mangrove Swamps Along The Kenyan Coast, P. A. O. Abuodha, J. G. Kairo

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Mangroves form important ecosystems in Kenya's coastal areas. They produce goods and services that are of environmental, ecological and economic importance to human society. However, mangroves are under continuing pressure from anthropogenic disturbances. A particular concern has been the clearing of mangrove areas to reclaim land for other uses such as aquaculture, salt manufacture, agriculture and housing. About 10 000 ha of mangrove areas have been cleared for salt manufacture between Ngomeni and Karawa, while in Lamu, close to 100 ha of mangrove forest was killed by dredged-up sediment that was deposited during the construction of the Mokowe sea ...


Molecular Dynamics Simulation Of Biomolecular Systems, Wilfred Van Gunsteren, Dirk Bakowies, Roland Buergi, Indira Chandrasekhar, Markus Christen, Xavier Daura, Peter Gee, Alice Glaettli, Tomas Hansson, Chris Oostenbrink, Christine Peter, Jed Pitera, Lukas Schuler, Thereza Soares, Haibo Yu Jan 2001

Molecular Dynamics Simulation Of Biomolecular Systems, Wilfred Van Gunsteren, Dirk Bakowies, Roland Buergi, Indira Chandrasekhar, Markus Christen, Xavier Daura, Peter Gee, Alice Glaettli, Tomas Hansson, Chris Oostenbrink, Christine Peter, Jed Pitera, Lukas Schuler, Thereza Soares, Haibo Yu

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The group for computer-aided chemistry at the ETH Zurich focuses its research on the development of methodology to simulate the behavior of biomolecular systems and the use of simulation techniques to analyze and understand biomolecular processes at the atomic level. Here, the current research directions are briefly reviewed and illustrated with a few examples.


A Glu-496 To Ala Polymorphism Leads To Loss Of Function Of The Human P2x7 Receptor, Ben J. Gu, Weiyi Zhang, Rebecca A. Worthington, Ronald Sluyter, L Phuong Dao-Ung, Stephen Petrou, J A. Barden, James Wiley Jan 2001

A Glu-496 To Ala Polymorphism Leads To Loss Of Function Of The Human P2x7 Receptor, Ben J. Gu, Weiyi Zhang, Rebecca A. Worthington, Ronald Sluyter, L Phuong Dao-Ung, Stephen Petrou, J A. Barden, James Wiley

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

P2X(7) receptor is a ligand-gated cation-selective channel that mediates ATP-induced apoptosis of cells of the immune system. We and others have shown that P2X(7) is nonfunctional both in lymphocytes and monocytes from some subjects. To study a possible genetic basis we sequenced DNA coding for the carboxyl-terminal tail of P2X(7). In 9 of 45 normal subjects a heterozygous nucleotide substitution (1513A-->C) was found, whereas 1 subject carried the homozygous substitution that codes for glutamic acid to alanine at amino acid position 496. Surface expression of P2X(7) on lymphocytes was not affected by this E496A polymorphism ...


Detection Of P2x Purinergic Receptors On Human B Lymphocytes, Ronald Sluyter, J A. Barden, James Wiley Jan 2001

Detection Of P2x Purinergic Receptors On Human B Lymphocytes, Ronald Sluyter, J A. Barden, James Wiley

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

B lymphocytes are known to synthesise the P2X(7) subtype of the P2X purinergic receptor family; however, the identification of the other six P2X subtypes on these cells has been limited by the absence of specific antibodies. In this study, we used a panel of anti-P2X polyclonal antibodies and confocal microscopy to examine the presence of each P2X receptor on human B lymphocytes. We observed that P2X(1), P2X(2), P2X(4) and P2X(7) subtypes, but not P2X(3), P2X(5) and P2X(6) subtypes, are present on B lymphocytes.


Thermoregulation In Juvenile Red Kangaroos (Macropus Rufus) After Pouch Exit: Higher Metabolism And Evaporative Water Requirements, Adam J. Munn, Terence J. Dawson Jan 2001

Thermoregulation In Juvenile Red Kangaroos (Macropus Rufus) After Pouch Exit: Higher Metabolism And Evaporative Water Requirements, Adam J. Munn, Terence J. Dawson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The population dynamics of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) in the Australian arid zone is tightly linked with environmental factors, which partly operate via the survival of juvenile animals. A crucial stage is the young-at-foot (YAF) stage when kangaroos permanently exit the pouch. We have examined the thermal biology of YAF red kangaroos during ages from permanent pouch exit until weaning. Over a wide range of environmental temperatures (ambient temperature [T-a] -5 degrees to 45 degreesC), YAF red kangaroos had a mass-specific metabolism that was generally twice that of adults, considerably higher than would be expected for an adult marsupial of ...