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Articles 1 - 30 of 13865

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Hybrid Unsupervised Clustering-Based Anomaly Detection Method, Guo Pu, Lijuan Wang, Jun Shen, Fang Dong Jan 2021

A Hybrid Unsupervised Clustering-Based Anomaly Detection Method, Guo Pu, Lijuan Wang, Jun Shen, Fang Dong

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

In recent years, machine learning-based cyber intrusion detection methods have gained increasing popularity. The number and complexity of new attacks continue to rise; therefore, effective and intelligent solutions are necessary. Unsupervised machine learning techniques are particularly appealing to intrusion detection systems since they can detect known and unknown types of attacks as well as zero-day attacks. In the current paper, we present an unsupervised anomaly detection method, which combines Sub-Space Clustering (SSC) and One Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM) to detect attacks without any prior knowledge. The proposed approach is evaluated using the well-known NSL-KDD dataset. The experimental results demonstrate ...


Towards A More Effective Bidirectional Lstm-Based Learning Model For Human-Bacterium Protein-Protein Interactions, Huaming Chen, Jun Shen, Lei Wang, Yaochu Jin Jan 2021

Towards A More Effective Bidirectional Lstm-Based Learning Model For Human-Bacterium Protein-Protein Interactions, Huaming Chen, Jun Shen, Lei Wang, Yaochu Jin

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

The identification of protein-protein interaction (PPI) is one of the most important tasks to understand the biological functions and disease mechanisms. Although numerous databases of biological interactions have been published in debt to advanced high-throughput technology, the study of inter-species protein-protein interactions, especially between human and bacterium pathogens, remains an active yet challenging topic to harness computational models tackling the complex analysis and prediction tasks. In this paper, we comprehensively revisit the prediction task of human-bacterium protein-protein interactions (HB-PPI), which is a first ever endeavour to report an empirical evaluation in learning and predicting HB-PPI based on machine learning models ...


Using Cost-Sensitive Learning And Feature Selection Algorithms To Improve The Performance Of Imbalanced Classification, Fang Feng, Kuan-Ching Li, Jun Shen, Qingguo Zhou, Xuhui Yang Jan 2020

Using Cost-Sensitive Learning And Feature Selection Algorithms To Improve The Performance Of Imbalanced Classification, Fang Feng, Kuan-Ching Li, Jun Shen, Qingguo Zhou, Xuhui Yang

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Imbalanced data problem is widely present in network intrusion detection, spam filtering, biomedical engineering, finance, science, being a challenge in many real-life data-intensive applications. Classifier bias occurs when traditional classification algorithms are used to deal with imbalanced data. As already known, the General Vector Machine (GVM) algorithm has good generalization ability, though it does not work well for the imbalanced classification. Additionally, the state-of-the-art Binary Ant Lion Optimizer (BALO) algorithm has high exploitability and fast convergence rate. Based on these facts, we have proposed in this paper a Cost-sensitive Feature selection General Vector Machine (CFGVM) algorithm based on GVM and ...


Microstructural Evolution Of Hybrid Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced With Sic Nanoparticles And Graphene/Graphite Prepared By Powder Metallurgy, Jiangshan Zhang, Qing Liu, Shufeng Yang, Zhixin Chen, Qiang Liu, Zhengyi Jiang Jan 2020

Microstructural Evolution Of Hybrid Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced With Sic Nanoparticles And Graphene/Graphite Prepared By Powder Metallurgy, Jiangshan Zhang, Qing Liu, Shufeng Yang, Zhixin Chen, Qiang Liu, Zhengyi Jiang

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

© 2020 Chinese Materials Research Society The dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles is of significance to the microstructure and properties of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites. In this study, two hybrid enhancers, SiC-graphite and SiC-graphene nanosheets (GNSs), were incorporated into aluminum matrix composites using powder metallurgy. The dispersion of the reinforcements and microstructural evolution of the composites were characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that thin GNSs accelerated the deformation of the aluminum particles, and defects were introduced into the carbonaceous phases during the ball milling process. Al4C3 needles generated during ...


An In Situ Synchrotron Study Of The Localized B2↔B19' Phase Transformation In An Ni-Ti Alloy Subjected To Uniaxial Cyclic Loading-Unloading With Incremental Strains, Xiaohui Bian, Ahmed A. Saleh, Peter Lynch, Christopher Davies, Azdiar Adil Gazder, Elena V. Pereloma Jan 2020

An In Situ Synchrotron Study Of The Localized B2↔B19' Phase Transformation In An Ni-Ti Alloy Subjected To Uniaxial Cyclic Loading-Unloading With Incremental Strains, Xiaohui Bian, Ahmed A. Saleh, Peter Lynch, Christopher Davies, Azdiar Adil Gazder, Elena V. Pereloma

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

© 2020. High-resolution in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was applied to study a cold-drawn and solution-treated 56Ni-44Tiwt% alloy subjected to uniaxial cyclic loading-unloading with incremental strains. The micro-mechanical behaviour associated with the partial and repeated B2↔B19' phase transformation at the centre of the sample gauge length was studied with respect to the macroscopic stress-strain response. The lattice strains of the (110)B2 and different B19' grain families are affected by (i) the transformation strain, the load-bearing capacity of both phases and the strain continuity maintained at/near the B2-B19' interfaces at the centre of the gauge length, and (ii) the ...


Really Real And Virtually Real: Celebrating The Works Of Bert Flugelman, Michael K. Organ, Grant C. White, Karen L. Illesca, Nathan L. Riggir, Phillippa J. Webb Jan 2020

Really Real And Virtually Real: Celebrating The Works Of Bert Flugelman, Michael K. Organ, Grant C. White, Karen L. Illesca, Nathan L. Riggir, Phillippa J. Webb

Senior Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Education) - Papers

University of Wollongong Library's Wry ARTificer exhibition, featuring the work of Bert Flugelman, blended physical and virtual environments as a practical showcase of the organisation's digital capabilities. A range of technologies were utilised, including the Microsoft Hololens augmented reality platform and 3D digitisation and modelling techniques. The exhibition stimulated collaboration between diverse communities of practice, including curators, archivists, learning technologists, software developers and librarians, to deliver an exciting and innovative interpretation of Flugelman's life and work.


Aggregatable Certificateless Designated Verifier Signature, Pairat Thorncharoensri, Willy Susilo Jan 2020

Aggregatable Certificateless Designated Verifier Signature, Pairat Thorncharoensri, Willy Susilo

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

In recent years, the Internet of Things (IoT) devices have become increasingly deployed in many industries and generated a large amount of data that needs to be processed in a timely and efficient manner. Using aggregate signatures, it provides a secure and efficient way to handle large numbers of digital signatures with the same message. Recently, the privacy issue has been concerned about the topic of data sharing on the cloud. To provide the integrity, authenticity, authority, and privacy on the data sharing in the cloud storage, the notion of an aggregatable certificateless designated verifier signature scheme (ACLDVS) was proposed ...


[Review] John Simons. Obaysch: A Hippopotamus In Victorian London. Animal Publics Series, Edited By Fiona Probyn-Rapsey And Melissa Boyde, Sydney University Press, 2019. 226 Pp, Wendy Woodward Jan 2020

[Review] John Simons. Obaysch: A Hippopotamus In Victorian London. Animal Publics Series, Edited By Fiona Probyn-Rapsey And Melissa Boyde, Sydney University Press, 2019. 226 Pp, Wendy Woodward

Animal Studies Journal

[Review] John Simons. Obaysch: A Hippopotamus in Victorian London. Animal Publics Series, edited by Fiona Probyn-Rapsey and Melissa Boyde, Sydney University Press, 2019. 226 pp. John Simons’ riveting biography of a hippo invites the reader into the experience of Obaysch who was captured on the Nile in 1849 then became a ‘star’ animal in the Regent’s Park Zoological Gardens in London. Obaysch is not just figured symbolically, politically and culturally, as so many historical animals are; Simons entices him from the archives to inhabit his own embodied narrative – a process which springs him from entrapment as a spectacle behind ...


Animal Studies Journal 2020 9(1): Cover Page, Table Of Contents, Editorial And Contributor Biographies, Melissa Boyde Jan 2020

Animal Studies Journal 2020 9(1): Cover Page, Table Of Contents, Editorial And Contributor Biographies, Melissa Boyde

Animal Studies Journal

Animal Studies Journal 2020 9(1): Cover Page, Table of Contents, Editorial and Contributor Biographies.


[Review] The Routledge Companion To Animal-Human History. Edited By Hilda Kean And Philip Howell, Routledge, 2019. 560 Pp, Wendy Woodward Jan 2020

[Review] The Routledge Companion To Animal-Human History. Edited By Hilda Kean And Philip Howell, Routledge, 2019. 560 Pp, Wendy Woodward

Animal Studies Journal

[Review] The Routledge Companion to Animal-Human History. Edited by Hilda Kean and Philip Howell, Routledge, 2019. 560 pp.


The Ethical, Legal And Social Implications Of Using Artificial Intelligence Systems In Breast Cancer Care, Stacy M. Carter, Wendy Rogers, Khin Than Win, Helen Frazer, Bernadette Richards, Nehmat Houssami Jan 2020

The Ethical, Legal And Social Implications Of Using Artificial Intelligence Systems In Breast Cancer Care, Stacy M. Carter, Wendy Rogers, Khin Than Win, Helen Frazer, Bernadette Richards, Nehmat Houssami

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Breast cancer care is a leading area for development of artificial intelligence (AI), with applications including screening and diagnosis, risk calculation, prognostication and clinical decision-support, management planning, and precision medicine. We review the ethical, legal and social implications of these developments. We consider the values encoded in algorithms, the need to evaluate outcomes, and issues of bias and transferability, data ownership, confidentiality and consent, and legal, moral and professional responsibility. We consider potential effects for patients, including on trust in healthcare, and provide some social science explanations for the apparent rush to implement AI solutions. We conclude by anticipating future ...


Risk Factors Associated With Suicidal Ideation And Suicide Attempts In Bhutan: An Analysis Of The 2014 Bhutan Steps Survey Data, Tashi Dendup, Yun Zhao, Tandin Dorji, Sonam Phuntsho Jan 2020

Risk Factors Associated With Suicidal Ideation And Suicide Attempts In Bhutan: An Analysis Of The 2014 Bhutan Steps Survey Data, Tashi Dendup, Yun Zhao, Tandin Dorji, Sonam Phuntsho

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Suicide is a major public health problem globally. Data on the factors influencing suicidal behaviours that can inform prevention policies are limited in Bhutan. This study used the dataset of the nationally-representative Bhutan STEPS Survey conducted in 2014 that assessed the non-communicable disease risk factors. Using a backward elimination approach, multiple logistic regression analysis accounting for the complex survey design was performed to identify the factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in adults separately. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 3.1% and 0.7%, respectively. We found female gender, being unemployed, low and middle ...


Social Value And Its Impact Through Widening Participation: A Review Of Four Programs Working With Primary, Secondary & Higher Education Students, Jioji Ravulo, Shannon Said, Jim Micsko, Gayl Purchase Jan 2020

Social Value And Its Impact Through Widening Participation: A Review Of Four Programs Working With Primary, Secondary & Higher Education Students, Jioji Ravulo, Shannon Said, Jim Micsko, Gayl Purchase

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

In 2017 the Office of Widening Participation conducted a program- wide analysis of the Social Return On Investment (SROI) to evaluate the impact of four Widening Participation programs at Western Sydney University (WSU). The programs evaluated were Fast Forward, Strive Towards Educational Participation and Success (STEPS), First Foot Forward, and Pasifika Achievement To Higher Education (PATHE). The overlapping aim amongst the four programs is to increase higher education participation rates, particularly for students coming from low socio-economic backgrounds. The SROI framework provided a holistic analysis by intertwining qualitative and quantitative data. The analysis showed that each program-albeit with differences-produced a ...


Learning To Dance, Skye Playsted Jan 2020

Learning To Dance, Skye Playsted

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


"A Big Influence On My Teaching Career And My Life": A Longitudinal Study Of Learning To Teach English Pronunciation, Michael S. Burri, Amanda Ann Baker Jan 2020

"A Big Influence On My Teaching Career And My Life": A Longitudinal Study Of Learning To Teach English Pronunciation, Michael S. Burri, Amanda Ann Baker

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Inquiry into learning to teach pronunciation is a growing area within the second language teacher education research paradigm. To what extent this learning process extends into instructors' early years of teaching pronunciation has yet to be explored. This article is a response to this need by exploring the 3.5-year trajectory of five teachers learning to teach English pronunciation. The study was conducted in two phases. In Phase 1, pre- and post-course questionnaires, weekly observations of the lectures, focus groups interviews, final post-course interviews, and the participants' final assessment task were triangulated to examine the development of participants' cognitions during ...


International Federation Of Clinical Neurophysiology (Ifcn) - Eeg Research Workgroup: Recommendations On Frequency And Topographic Analysis Of Resting State Eeg Rhythms. Part 1: Applications In Clinical Research Studies, Claudio Babiloni, Robert J. Barry, Erol Basar, Katarzyna Blinowska, Andrzej Cichocki, Wilhelmus Drinkenburg, Wolfgang Klimesch, Robert T. Knight, Fernando Lopes Da Silva, Paul Nunez, Robert Oostenveld, Jaeseung Jeong, Roberto Pascual-Marqui, P Valdes-Sosa, Mark Hallett Jan 2020

International Federation Of Clinical Neurophysiology (Ifcn) - Eeg Research Workgroup: Recommendations On Frequency And Topographic Analysis Of Resting State Eeg Rhythms. Part 1: Applications In Clinical Research Studies, Claudio Babiloni, Robert J. Barry, Erol Basar, Katarzyna Blinowska, Andrzej Cichocki, Wilhelmus Drinkenburg, Wolfgang Klimesch, Robert T. Knight, Fernando Lopes Da Silva, Paul Nunez, Robert Oostenveld, Jaeseung Jeong, Roberto Pascual-Marqui, P Valdes-Sosa, Mark Hallett

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

2019 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology In 1999, the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN) published "IFCN Guidelines for topographic and frequency analysis of EEGs and EPs" (Nuwer et al., 1999). Here a Workgroup of IFCN experts presents unanimous recommendations on the following procedures relevant for the topographic and frequency analysis of resting state EEGs (rsEEGs) in clinical research defined as neurophysiological experimental studies carried out in neurological and psychiatric patients: (1) recording of rsEEGs (environmental conditions and instructions to participants; montage of the EEG electrodes; recording settings); (2) digital storage of rsEEG and control data; (3) computerized visualization of ...


A Systematic Review Of Parent And Caregiver Mental Health Literacy, Diarmuid Hurley, Christian Swann, Mark S. Allen, Helen L. Ferguson, Stewart A. Vella Jan 2020

A Systematic Review Of Parent And Caregiver Mental Health Literacy, Diarmuid Hurley, Christian Swann, Mark S. Allen, Helen L. Ferguson, Stewart A. Vella

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. This study aimed to systematically review the current body of research on parent and caregiver mental health literacy. Electronic databases were searched in January 2018 with 21 studies meeting inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis of quantitative and qualitative studies was conducted. Findings across studies suggest that parents and caregivers had limited mental health knowledge. Factors associated with help-seeking included cultural and religious beliefs, financial and knowledge barriers, fear and mistrust of treatment services, and stigma. Notable limitations include non-representative samples, cross-sectional research designs, and use of inconsistent and non-validated study ...


Normal Variations In Personality Predict Eating Behavior, Oral Health, And Partial Syndrome Bulimia Nervosa In Adolescent Girls, Mark S. Allen, Davina A. Robson, Sylvain Laborde Jan 2020

Normal Variations In Personality Predict Eating Behavior, Oral Health, And Partial Syndrome Bulimia Nervosa In Adolescent Girls, Mark S. Allen, Davina A. Robson, Sylvain Laborde

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

2020 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Eating disorders are among the most prevalent disorders in adolescence and can have negative consequences including poor quality of life, medical complications, and even death. This study addresses whether normal variations in personality relate to eating behavior and eating disorder symptomatology in adolescent girls. Participants were a near-representative sample of Australian adolescent girls (n = 1,676). Three personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness) were assessed at age 12 and again at age 14, and self-reported eating and weight management behaviors were assessed at age 14. After controlling for sociodemographic ...


A Crisis Of Underinsurance Threatens To Scar Rural Australia Permanently, Chloe Lucas, Christine Eriksen, David M. J. S Bowman Jan 2020

A Crisis Of Underinsurance Threatens To Scar Rural Australia Permanently, Chloe Lucas, Christine Eriksen, David M. J. S Bowman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Australia is in the midst of a bushfire crisis that will affect local communities for years, if not permanently, due to a national crisis of underinsurance. Already more than 1,500 homes have been destroyed - with months still to go in the bushfire season. Compare this to 2009, when Victoria's "Black Saturday" fires claimed more than 2,000 homes in February, or 1983, when the "Ash Wednesday" fires destroyed about 2,400 homes in Victoria and South Australia, also in February. The 2020 fire season could end up surpassing these tragedies, despite the lessons learned and improvements in preparedness ...


Strength From Perpetual Grief: How Aboriginal People Experience The Bushfire Crisis, Bhiamie Williamson, Jessica Weir, Vanessa I. Cavanagh Jan 2020

Strength From Perpetual Grief: How Aboriginal People Experience The Bushfire Crisis, Bhiamie Williamson, Jessica Weir, Vanessa I. Cavanagh

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

How do you support people forever attached to a landscape after an inferno tears through their homelands: decimating native food sources, burning through ancient scarred trees and destroying ancestral and totemic plants and animals? The fact is, the experience of Aboriginal peoples in the fire crisis engulfing much of Australia is vastly different to non-Indigenous peoples. Colonial legacies of eradication, dispossession, assimilation and racism continue to impact the lived realities of Aboriginal peoples. Added to this is the widespread exclusion of our peoples from accessing and managing traditional homelands. These factors compound the trauma of these unprecedented fires. As Australia ...


Friday Essay: This Grandmother Tree Connects Me To Country. I Cried When I Saw Her Burned, Vanessa I. Cavanagh Jan 2020

Friday Essay: This Grandmother Tree Connects Me To Country. I Cried When I Saw Her Burned, Vanessa I. Cavanagh

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

I remember brushing my teeth over the green enamel sink. I would gaze out the window at a prominent grandmother and ponder her age. This grandmother had soft pink skin, smooth and dimpled, and incredible curves that burled in places. She stood at least 25 metres tall. She was one of the sentinel trees which stood strong on the property where I grew up in Colo Heights, northwest of Sydney, at the edge of Darkinjung Country. Belonging to the Angophora costata family, she, like me, is part of human and non-human kinship networks that connect us with Country. To begin ...


Measurement Of Spelling Ability: Construction And Validation Of A Phonological, Orthographic And Morphological Pseudo-Word Instrument For Students In Grades 3-6, Tessa Daffern, Ajay Ramful Jan 2020

Measurement Of Spelling Ability: Construction And Validation Of A Phonological, Orthographic And Morphological Pseudo-Word Instrument For Students In Grades 3-6, Tessa Daffern, Ajay Ramful

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Building on current theoretical understandings of how children learn to spell, this paper reports the design and validation of a new pseudo-word dictation test (labelled the Components of Spelling Test: Pseudo-word version) to measure three spelling components underpinning Standard English: phonology, orthography and morphology. For the first phase of the study, the instrument was tested on a calibration sample of 381 students from Grades 3 to 6, aged between 8 and 12 years. Two versions of the test were recursively developed for Grades 3 and 4 (Pseudo-word-G-3-4) and Grades 5 and 6 (Pseudo-word-G-5-6). In the second phase of the study ...


Persisting Students' Explanations Of And Emotional Responses To Academic Failure, Rola Ajjawi, Mary Dracup, Nadine Zacharias, Sue Bennett, David J. Boud Jan 2020

Persisting Students' Explanations Of And Emotional Responses To Academic Failure, Rola Ajjawi, Mary Dracup, Nadine Zacharias, Sue Bennett, David J. Boud

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Academic failure is an important and personal event in the lives of university students, and the ways they make sense of experiences of failure matters for their persistence and future success. Academic failure contributes to attrition, yet the extent of this contribution and precipitating factors of failure are not well understood. To illuminate this world-wide problem, we analysed institutional data at a large, comprehensive Australian university and surveyed 186 undergraduate students who had failed at least one unit of study in 2016, but were still enrolled in 2017. Academic failure increased the likelihood of course attrition by 4.2 times ...


Exploring Stakeholders' Perceptions Of The Acceptability, Usability, And Dissemination Of The Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines For The Early Years, Rebecca M. Stanley, Rachel A. Jones, Christian F. Swann, Hayley Christian, Julie Sherring, Trevor Shilton, Anthony D. Okely Jan 2020

Exploring Stakeholders' Perceptions Of The Acceptability, Usability, And Dissemination Of The Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines For The Early Years, Rebecca M. Stanley, Rachel A. Jones, Christian F. Swann, Hayley Christian, Julie Sherring, Trevor Shilton, Anthony D. Okely

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background: Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years were recently developed. To maximize the uptake of the guidelines, perceptions of key stakeholders were sought. Methods: Thirty-five stakeholders (11% Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent) participated in focus groups or key informant interviews. Stakeholders included parents of children aged 0-5 years, early childhood educators, and health and policy professionals, recruited using convenience and snowballing techniques. Focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed inductively using thematic analysis. Results: There was general acceptance of the Movement Guidelines. The stakeholders suggested that the Guidelines were highly aspirational and ...


'Social Screens' And 'The Mainstream': Longitudinal Competitors Of Non-Organized Physical Activity In The Transition From Childhood To Adolescence, Byron Kemp, Anne-Maree Parrish, Dylan P. Cliff Jan 2020

'Social Screens' And 'The Mainstream': Longitudinal Competitors Of Non-Organized Physical Activity In The Transition From Childhood To Adolescence, Byron Kemp, Anne-Maree Parrish, Dylan P. Cliff

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) tends to decline during late childhood and adolescence. In Australia, this decline has been shown to occur particularly in non-organized PA (e.g. active play and informal sport). Using a social marketing approach, segments of youth may be identified and targeted based on their profile of alternative activities that compete with non-organized PA during the transition to adolescence. The objectives of this study were to identify and describe segments of youth whose participation in non-organized PA declined between 11 and 13 years, based on changes in other potential competing activities during this period. METHODS: Data were ...


'Jump Start' Childcare-Based Intervention To Promote Physical Activity In Pre-Schoolers: Six-Month Findings From A Cluster Randomised Trial, Anthony D. Okely, Rebecca M. Stanley, Rachel A. Jones, Dylan P. Cliff, Stewart Trost, Donna Berthelsen, Jo Salmon, Marijka Batterham, Simon Eckermann, John Reilly, Ngiare J. Brown, Karen J. Mickle, Steven J. Howard, Trina Hinkley, Xanne Janssen, Paul A. Chandler, Penny L. Cross, Fay L. Gowers Jan 2020

'Jump Start' Childcare-Based Intervention To Promote Physical Activity In Pre-Schoolers: Six-Month Findings From A Cluster Randomised Trial, Anthony D. Okely, Rebecca M. Stanley, Rachel A. Jones, Dylan P. Cliff, Stewart Trost, Donna Berthelsen, Jo Salmon, Marijka Batterham, Simon Eckermann, John Reilly, Ngiare J. Brown, Karen J. Mickle, Steven J. Howard, Trina Hinkley, Xanne Janssen, Paul A. Chandler, Penny L. Cross, Fay L. Gowers

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

BACKGROUND: Participation in adequate levels of physical activity during the early years is important for health and development. We report the 6-month effects of an 18-month multicomponent intervention on physical activity in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings in low-income communities. METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 43 ECEC settings in disadvantaged areas of New South Wales, Australia. Three-year-old children were recruited and assessed in the first half of 2015 with follow-up 6 months later. The intervention was guided by Social Cognitive Theory and included five components. The primary outcome was minutes per hour in total ...


Comparing And Assessing Physical Activity Guidelines For Children And Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review And Analysis, Anne-Maree Parrish, Mark Tremblay, Stephanie Carson, Sanne Veldman, Dylan P. Cliff, Stewart A. Vella, Kar Hau Chong, Maria Nacher, Borja Cruz, Yvonne Ellis, Salome Aubert, Billie Spaven, Mohd Sameeha, Zhuiguang Zhang, Anthony D. Okely Jan 2020

Comparing And Assessing Physical Activity Guidelines For Children And Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review And Analysis, Anne-Maree Parrish, Mark Tremblay, Stephanie Carson, Sanne Veldman, Dylan P. Cliff, Stewart A. Vella, Kar Hau Chong, Maria Nacher, Borja Cruz, Yvonne Ellis, Salome Aubert, Billie Spaven, Mohd Sameeha, Zhuiguang Zhang, Anthony D. Okely

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background: The impact of declining physical activity and increased sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents globally prompted the development of national and international physical activity guidelines. This research aims to systematically identify and compare national and international physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents and appraise the quality of the guidelines to promote best practice in guideline development. Methods: This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) and reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Only national, or international physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour guidelines were included ...


Self-Regulation And Executive Function Longitudinally Predict Advanced Learning In Preschool, Steven J. Howard, Elena Vasseleu Jan 2020

Self-Regulation And Executive Function Longitudinally Predict Advanced Learning In Preschool, Steven J. Howard, Elena Vasseleu

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

While the early years are often regarded as a critical period for establishing and supporting the developmental trajectories of delayed and typically developing children, they also represent a critical time for advanced learners. Yet to support advanced learners, a better understanding of sources and mechanisms of precocious early learning is needed. While there is ample research separately indicating importance of executive functions (EFs) and self-regulation for learning more broadly, it remains unclear whether, which, and to what extent EFs and/or self-regulation might account for the incidence of advanced learning in the prior-to-school years. The current study sought to investigate ...


Teaching Spelling In Context Can Also Be Explicit And Systematic, Tessa Daffern, Kathy Thompson, Luke Ryan Jan 2020

Teaching Spelling In Context Can Also Be Explicit And Systematic, Tessa Daffern, Kathy Thompson, Luke Ryan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This article shares a few practical insights from an intervention study that focussed on building teacher capacity for effective instruction in spelling. For the study, four schools in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) were selected to participate through a stratified random sampling process. In total, 572 students across 31 classes in Years 3 to 6 participated. Of the 31 classes, 14 were involved in a ten-week intervention while the remaining 17 classes formed a 'comparison' group whereby a 'business as usual' approach to teaching spelling was adopted.


Identification And Evaluation Of Risk Of Generalizability Biases In Pilot Versus Efficacy/Effectiveness Trials: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Michael Beets, Robert Weaver, John Ioannidis, Marco Geraci, Keith Brazendale, Lindsay Decker, Anthony D. Okely, David Lubans, Esther Van Sluijs, Russell Jago, Gabrielle Turner-Mcgrievy, James Thrasher, Xiaming Li, Andrew Milat Jan 2020

Identification And Evaluation Of Risk Of Generalizability Biases In Pilot Versus Efficacy/Effectiveness Trials: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Michael Beets, Robert Weaver, John Ioannidis, Marco Geraci, Keith Brazendale, Lindsay Decker, Anthony D. Okely, David Lubans, Esther Van Sluijs, Russell Jago, Gabrielle Turner-Mcgrievy, James Thrasher, Xiaming Li, Andrew Milat

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

BACKGROUND: Preliminary evaluations of behavioral interventions, referred to as pilot studies, predate the conduct of many large-scale efficacy/effectiveness trial. The ability of a pilot study to inform an efficacy/effectiveness trial relies on careful considerations in the design, delivery, and interpretation of the pilot results to avoid exaggerated early discoveries that may lead to subsequent failed efficacy/effectiveness trials. "Risk of generalizability biases (RGB)" in pilot studies may reduce the probability of replicating results in a larger efficacy/effectiveness trial. We aimed to generate an operational list of potential RGBs and to evaluate their impact in pairs of published ...