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Articles 2311 - 2340 of 2376

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

John's $12 Tonic: Press Coverage Of The Government's Selling Of A Private Health Insurance Rebate, Stacy M. Carter, Simon Chapman Jan 2001

John's $12 Tonic: Press Coverage Of The Government's Selling Of A Private Health Insurance Rebate, Stacy M. Carter, Simon Chapman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objective: To document representations of the 1998 introduction of a 30% rebate on private health insurance in the three most-read daily Sydney newspapers. Methods: Thematic frame analysis of 131 newspaper articles. Results: The rebate was opposed through two frames: that it was ineffective and unfair, and that it was politically motivated. Four supportive frames were more complex: the rebate was justified by claims that public health care was collapsing, that responsible citizens should pay for their own health care, and that individuals would benefit financially. There was also a focus on the political battle in the Senate. The newspaper with ...


Worshipping At The Alpine Altar: Promoting Tobacco In A World Without Advertising, Stacy M. Carter Jan 2001

Worshipping At The Alpine Altar: Promoting Tobacco In A World Without Advertising, Stacy M. Carter

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

"Glisten. The party to go with your glamourpuss dress." "Glisten. Music to go with your rock star hair." "Glisten. Cocktails to go with your spanking ring." ("Minimum age 18. Photo ID required. Tobacco & alcohol products for sale.") Three highly stylised advertisements, one for each by-line, and each featuring a young woman on the dancefloor flaunting dress, hair and ring respectively, had been splashed in expensive full colour across the street music press and on the Wavesnet website (www.wavesnet.net) for weeks. On the night of Thursday 6 September at least some glamourpusses believed the hype at the high profile ...


Offender Risk And Needs Assessment: Some Current Issues And Suggestions, Mitchell K. Byrne, Stuart Byrne, Katherine Hillman, Emma Stanley Jan 2001

Offender Risk And Needs Assessment: Some Current Issues And Suggestions, Mitchell K. Byrne, Stuart Byrne, Katherine Hillman, Emma Stanley

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Crime impacts upon the community at multiple levels, causing distress and loss for the victims, and feelings of insecurity for the public, as well as adding to the drain on financial resources for governments. This makes the accurate identification of risk of reoffending and the determination of efficacious rehabilitation strategies imperative. Key principles in cognitive and behavioural psychology can contribute to this task. This paper will review the issue of risk assessment and describe the applicability of functional analysis to forensic psychology. Two studies by the authors will be used to illustrate concepts raised in this review. The paper will ...


International Patterns Of Teacher Discontent, Catherine Scott, Barbara Stone, Stephen Dinham Jan 2001

International Patterns Of Teacher Discontent, Catherine Scott, Barbara Stone, Stephen Dinham

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This article reports the results of research into the career motivation and satisfaction of a sample of over 3,000 teachers and school administrators in four countries: Australia, New Zealand, England, and the USA. Using the participants' own words, we explore the effects on educators of recent international educational change, understood here as a subcategory of more general social trends. Bourdieu's concepts of the Right and Left Hands of the state are used to interpret the experience of teaching in a climate where, while more is expected and demanded of schools, and schools and teachers are scrutinised as never ...


Cognitive And Social/Behavioural Development At 3-4 Years In Relation To Family Background, Edward Melhuish, Louise Quinn, Kathy Sylva, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart, Kathleen Mcsherry, Mark Mccrory Jan 2001

Cognitive And Social/Behavioural Development At 3-4 Years In Relation To Family Background, Edward Melhuish, Louise Quinn, Kathy Sylva, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart, Kathleen Mcsherry, Mark Mccrory

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This longitudinal study assesses the attainment and development of children followed between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Over 700 children were recruited to the study during 1998 and 1999 from 80 pre-school centres. Both qualitative and quantitative methods (including multilevel modelling) are used to explore the effects of pre-school experience on children's cognitive attainment and social/behavioural development at entry to school and any continuing effects on such outcomes up to 7 years of age. In addition to the effects of preschool experience, the study investigates the contribution to children's development of individual and family characteristics ...


What Makes A Problem An Ethical Problem? An Empirical Perspective On The Nature Of Ethical Problems In General Practice, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer Jan 2001

What Makes A Problem An Ethical Problem? An Empirical Perspective On The Nature Of Ethical Problems In General Practice, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Whilst there has been considerable debate about the fit between moral theory and moral reasoning in everyday life, the way in which moral problems are defined has rarely been questioned. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with 15 general practitioners (GPs) in South Australia to argue that the way in which the bioethics literature defines an ethical dilemma captures only some of the range of lay views about the nature of ethical problems. The bioethics literature has defined ethical dilemmas in terms of conflict and choice between values, beliefs and options for action. While some of the ...


A Test Of The Renewable Resources Model Of Multiple Gains And Multiple Losses, Sandra C. Jones Jan 2001

A Test Of The Renewable Resources Model Of Multiple Gains And Multiple Losses, Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Eight choice scenarios were used to test Linville and Fischer's (1991) Renewable Resources Model, which predicts that people will prefer to separate multiple gains over time and also to separate multiple losses over time, the latter prediction being contrary to Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) Prospect Theory. The Renewable Resources Model was tested under conditions that, theoretically, should enhance the dual separation outcomes. However, in seven of the eight choice scenarios, complete reversals of these outcomes were observed B that is, the participants in the experiments preferred to combine multiple gains and to combine multiple losses. Explanations of these ...


What Do I Do With The Rest Of The Class? The Nature Of Teaching Learning Activities, Brian L. Cambourne Jan 2001

What Do I Do With The Rest Of The Class? The Nature Of Teaching Learning Activities, Brian L. Cambourne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Cambourne discusses using teaching-learning activities that revolve around the use of small groups. He relates how teachers can keep the rest of their class productively engaged in learning as the teacher works with individuals or small groups.


Perceptual Grouping In Two Visually Reliant Species: Humans (Homo Sapiens) And Australian Sea Lions (Neophoca Cinerea), Darren Burke, Paul Everingham, Tracey Rogers, Melinda Hinton, Sophie Hall-Aspland Jan 2001

Perceptual Grouping In Two Visually Reliant Species: Humans (Homo Sapiens) And Australian Sea Lions (Neophoca Cinerea), Darren Burke, Paul Everingham, Tracey Rogers, Melinda Hinton, Sophie Hall-Aspland

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Kurylo, van Nest, and Knepper (1997 Journal of Comparative Psychology 111 126 - 134) have recently shown that hooded rats are able to judge the global orientation of an array of elements if orientation is signalled by the perceptual-grouping principle of proximity, but not if it is signalled by element alignment. Using a procedure designed to overcome some potential problems with the experiment of Kurylo et al, we found the same distinction in the perceptual processing of Australian sea lions. The sea lions were able to judge the orientation of arrays containing strong proximity and similarity information, but performed at chance ...


'I Think Condoms Are Good But, Aai, I Hate Those Things': Condom Use Among Adolescents And Young People In A Southern African Township, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Catherine Campbell Jan 2001

'I Think Condoms Are Good But, Aai, I Hate Those Things': Condom Use Among Adolescents And Young People In A Southern African Township, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Catherine Campbell

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Levels of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection are high amongst South African youth, with one recent survey reporting levels of 18.9% amongst 17-20 year olds and 43.1% amongst 21-25 year olds. In these groups levels of knowledge about HIV are high, but perceived vulnerability and reported condom use are low. Much existing research into youth HIV in developing countries relies on survey measures which use individual knowledge, attitudes and reported behaviour as variables in seeking to explain HIV transmission amongst this group. This paper reports on a focus group study that seeks to complement existing individual-level quantitative findings with ...


Kidsmart: The Phase 1 Uk Evaluation 2000-2001, John Siraj-Blatchford, Iram Siraj-Blatchford Jan 2001

Kidsmart: The Phase 1 Uk Evaluation 2000-2001, John Siraj-Blatchford, Iram Siraj-Blatchford

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

As the first phase of their Kidsmart programme in the UK, IBM donated a total of 27 of their Young Explorer Early Learning Centres, complete with Edmark educational software to 14 nurseries in 1999. These Early Learning Centres were initially developed by Little Tykes to serve the needs of 3 to 7 year olds and the Kidsmart aim has been to support early childhood educators in their efforts to apply this new technology to stimulate the development of children's social and cognitive skills. The UK initiative has also involved the British Association for Early Childhood Education (Early Education), who ...


Generic Versus Content-Driven Assessment, Jim S. Tognolini Jan 2001

Generic Versus Content-Driven Assessment, Jim S. Tognolini

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In my Masters class I pose the question "How would you respond to the statement : Schools should teach students skills rather than content"? In replying to the question I expect students to make the point that while skills are important, they have to be applied to something, that something is content. I firmly believe that the dichotomy set up between content and skills is a false one. The relationship is one of emphasis and relativity. This paper considers how some of the states and territories have addressed or are currently addressing the relationship between skills and content in a number ...


Options For The Assessment And Reporting Of Primary Students In The Key Learning Area Of Science To Be Used For The Reporting Of Nationally Comparable Outcomes Of Schooling Within The Context Of The National Goals For Schooling In The Twenty-First Century, Samuel Ball, Ian D. Rae, Jim S. Tognolini Jan 2000

Options For The Assessment And Reporting Of Primary Students In The Key Learning Area Of Science To Be Used For The Reporting Of Nationally Comparable Outcomes Of Schooling Within The Context Of The National Goals For Schooling In The Twenty-First Century, Samuel Ball, Ian D. Rae, Jim S. Tognolini

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The National Education Performance Monitoring Taskforce (NEPMT) was established in April 1999 by the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA). The taskforce was called upon inter alia to develop performance measures as the basis for national reporting. One such area was science.


Severe Maternal Psychopathology And Infant-Mother Attachment, A E. Hipwell, Frits Goossens, Edward Melhuish, R Kumar Jan 2000

Severe Maternal Psychopathology And Infant-Mother Attachment, A E. Hipwell, Frits Goossens, Edward Melhuish, R Kumar

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Eighty-two mother-infant dyads, comprising women with psychiatric disorder and individually matched controls, were followed up over the children's 1st year of life. The mothers with mental illness consisted of two subgroups: first, 25 severely mentally ill mothers who had been admitted to a psychiatric unit with their infants; and second, 16 mothers from a community sample meeting research diagnostic criteria for unipolar, nonpsychotic depression. With the exception of six dyads in the in-patient group, observations were made of the mother-infant interaction and the quality of the infant-mother attachment relationship at 12 months. The nature and course of the mothers ...


Enhancing Offender Recall Of Their Crime As A Strategy To Improve Treatment Responsivity, Mitchell K. Byrne Jan 2000

Enhancing Offender Recall Of Their Crime As A Strategy To Improve Treatment Responsivity, Mitchell K. Byrne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 34th Annual Conference of the Australian Psychological Society 'The Brain Games' 3rd-7th October 2000 National Convention Centre, Canberra ACT


Quality Of Life Related To Fear Of Falling And Hip Fracture In Older Women: A Time Trade Off Study, Glenn P. Salkeld, Ian D. Cameron, Robert Cumming, S Easter, J Seymour, S E. Kurrle, S Quine Jan 2000

Quality Of Life Related To Fear Of Falling And Hip Fracture In Older Women: A Time Trade Off Study, Glenn P. Salkeld, Ian D. Cameron, Robert Cumming, S Easter, J Seymour, S E. Kurrle, S Quine

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

OBJECTIVE:

To estimate the utility (preference for health) associated with hip fracture and fear of falling among older women.

DESIGN:

Quality of life survey with the time trade off technique. The technique derives an estimate of preference for health states by finding the point at which respondents show no preference between a longer but lower quality of life and a shorter time in full health.

SETTING:

A randomised trial of external hip protectors for older women at risk of hip fracture.

PARTICIPANTS:

194 women aged >/= 75 years enrolled in the randomised controlled trial or who were eligible for the trial ...


Key Issues In The Provision Of Correctional Services For Women, Mitchell K. Byrne, Kevin Howells Jan 2000

Key Issues In The Provision Of Correctional Services For Women, Mitchell K. Byrne, Kevin Howells

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The time has arrived for a more detailed analysis of the specific needs of female offenders. Even though there is an increasing prevalence, internationally, of women in prison, there is a perception in the literature that governments and correctional systems have failed to deliver reforms and changes in the management of women prisoners. The extent of need identified in the international literature is of relevance to Australia, where the number of female prisoners also appears to be on the increase - in 1983 women comprised 3.9% of the entire prison population, in 1990, 5.4% and in 1998: 6%. Easteal ...


Female Offenders Are Different Form Male Offenders: Anger As An Example, Jennifer Suter, Mitchell K. Byrne Jan 2000

Female Offenders Are Different Form Male Offenders: Anger As An Example, Jennifer Suter, Mitchell K. Byrne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Anger is a common, universally experienced emotion, which occurs on a continuum from mild annoyance to rage or fury (Daffenbacher et al., 1996). Anger is likely to occur when a person believes their personal rights or codes have been violated. Similarly, anger can occur when a person feels powerless or threatened (Horn and Towl, 1997). Anger consists of interrelated, reciprocal components (Novaco, 1975). Environmental circumstances often trigger anger. Physiological symptoms can serve to alert the individual that they are angry, and can help them provide a label to that anger. Cognitions refer to the individual's style of thinking about ...


Trauma Reactions In The Offender, Mitchell K. Byrne Jan 2000

Trauma Reactions In The Offender, Mitchell K. Byrne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The psychological sequelae to an incident, objectively defined as 'traumatic', may range from no reaction or mild depression through to dissociative experiences and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper I intend to survey more severe responses to trauma as experienced by offenders, in particular, violent offenders. While the symptomology overlap, the two key trauma reactions discussed are PTSD and Dissociative Disorders. The importance of dissociation has recently been emphasized by Gershuny and Thayer (1999) who have found that not only is dissociation associated with trauma but that those who do dissociate are more likely to experience higher Ievels of ...


Porter And Sheppard, A World Of Difference: Society, Nature, Development, Noel Castree Jan 2000

Porter And Sheppard, A World Of Difference: Society, Nature, Development, Noel Castree

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Book review of: P. W. Porter and E.S. Sheppard, A World of Difference: Society, Nature, Development. New York: Guilford Press, 1998. 602 pp. ISBN 1-57230-324-7 (paperback).


Diet Composition And Insulin Action In Animals Models, Leonard Storlien, J A. Higgins, T C. Thomas, John Brown, Hongqin Wang, Xu-Feng Huang, Paul Else Jan 2000

Diet Composition And Insulin Action In Animals Models, Leonard Storlien, J A. Higgins, T C. Thomas, John Brown, Hongqin Wang, Xu-Feng Huang, Paul Else

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Critical insights into the etiology of insulin resistance have been gained by the use of animal models where insulin action has been modulated by strictly controlled dietary interventions not possible in human studies. Overall, the literature has moved from a focus on macronutrient proportions to understanding the unique effects of individual subtypes of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Substantial evidence has now accumulated for a major role of dietary fat subtypes in insulin action. Intake of saturated fats is strongly linked to development of obesity and insulin resistance, while that of polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) is not. This is consistent with observations ...


Odyssey Renewed: Towards A New Aesthetics Of Video Gaming, Jason Wilson Jan 2000

Odyssey Renewed: Towards A New Aesthetics Of Video Gaming, Jason Wilson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The first home video-gaming console, the Magnavox Odyssey, was released in 1972. Its limited graphical capacities led Magnavox to ship it with a number of plastic overlays for the user's television that would admit a little variety into the then relatively crude gaming experience, limited to a built-in, Pong-like game. Computer and video games have come a long way since then, but it often seems as if critical approaches to gaming have continued shuffling through these plastic films, taking transformations of the screen, or on-screen events, for the whole of the gaming experience. It seems to me that reflection ...


Learning To Assess School Mathematics: Context, Multimedia And Transfer, Janice Herrington, Anthony Herrington, Len Sparrow Jan 2000

Learning To Assess School Mathematics: Context, Multimedia And Transfer, Janice Herrington, Anthony Herrington, Len Sparrow

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The study set out to explore the use of a multimedia program on assessment strategies within a preservice teacher mathematics method unit, and to investigate the extent of transfer to classroom practice. A multimedia program was designed to incorporate characteristics of 'situated' learning environments. Preservice teachers used the program in their mathematics method classes, and they and their supervising teachers were interviewed regarding their use of assessment strategies while on professional practice. Results show that all students used a variety of assessment strategies, and according to the beliefs of the students themselves, were influenced in their use of strategies by ...


Online Support For Preservice Mathematics Teachers In Schools, Anthony Herrington, Janice Herrington, Arshad Omari Jan 2000

Online Support For Preservice Mathematics Teachers In Schools, Anthony Herrington, Janice Herrington, Arshad Omari

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper describes the development of a web-based resource designed to support preservice mathematics teachers on school practice. The development of the site resulted in part from a needs analysis conducted with a focus group of students. The purpose of the focus group discussion was to gain from the students their ideas about the type of support that would be most helpful to them as they prepare to teach mathematics lessons, and how the university might be able to assist in these sometimes prolonged periods in school where they are without their traditional support structures. As a result of these ...


Preservice Teachers' Understanding And Representation Of Equality Of Fractions In A Javabars Environment, Mohan Chinnappan Jan 2000

Preservice Teachers' Understanding And Representation Of Equality Of Fractions In A Javabars Environment, Mohan Chinnappan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In recent years, considerable research effort has been invested in identifying the nature of the knowledge that drives mathematics teachers’ actions in the classroom. While this investigation has generated a useful body of information, there has been little information about changes in the character of this knowledge when teaching involves the use of technology. In this paper, I address this issue by examining a group of preservice primary mathematics teachers’ understanding of fractions. The participants were required to order fractions within software called JavaBars. The results suggest that, while the preservice teachers had built up robust knowledge about fractions, they ...


Over Het Meten Van De Sensitiviteit Bij Professionele Verzorg(St)Ers, Frits Goossens, Edward Melhuish Jan 2000

Over Het Meten Van De Sensitiviteit Bij Professionele Verzorg(St)Ers, Frits Goossens, Edward Melhuish

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Much research indicates the importance of interactional experience for young children in developing their competence. In particular sensitivity in interaction has been associated with beneficial developmental outcomes and is often regarded as a central component of good quality child care. This study considers some alternative ways of measuring the sensitivity of caregivers. Thirty professional caregiver-infant dyads were observed in three different situations: in the laboratury during free-play (1), during a task (2) and at the nursery itself while caring for 10 infants with a colleague (3). Results indicated that their sensitivity was highest in situation 1; this score was significantly ...


Visually Directed Walking To Briefly Glimpsed Targets Is Not Biased Toward Fixation Location, John W. Philbeck Jan 2000

Visually Directed Walking To Briefly Glimpsed Targets Is Not Biased Toward Fixation Location, John W. Philbeck

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

When observers indicate the magnitude of a previously viewed spatial extent by walking without vision to each endpoint, there is little evidence of the perceptual collapse in depth associated with some other methods (eg visual matching). One explanation is that both walking and matching are perceptually mediated, but that the perceived layout is task-dependent. In this view, perceived depth beyond 2 - 3 m is typically distorted by an equidistance effect, whereby the egocentric distances of nonfixated portions of the depth interval are perceptually pulled toward the fixated point. Action-based responses, however, recruit processes that enhance perceptual accuracy as the stimulus ...


Researching Case Management: Making It A 'Fact'?, Peter J. Camilleri Jan 2000

Researching Case Management: Making It A 'Fact'?, Peter J. Camilleri

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Case management has become a very important part of the human and health services and has also been cemented in legislation in the US, the UK and Australia and implemented in various practice settings and programs. A review on case management is presented considering its historic origins, concepts and the various researches done on it.


Attempted Suicide: Listening To And Learning From Young People, Susan Gair, Peter J. Camilleri Jan 2000

Attempted Suicide: Listening To And Learning From Young People, Susan Gair, Peter J. Camilleri

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Suicide has become a major international health issue. Australia records one of the highest youth suicide rates in the world and Queensland has one of the highest suicide rates in Australia. This study sought insights into the suicide attempts of young men and women who survived. In-depth interviews were conducted in Townsville, Queensland, with a small group of young men and women aged 16-24 to explore the circumstances leading to the attempted suicide, the help sought and their suggestions for more effective intervention. The findings offer insight into the needs of local at-risk youth and provide suggestions for intervention services ...


The Carletonville-Mothusimpilo Project: Limiting Transmission Of Hiv Through Community-Based Interventions, Brian G. Williams, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Catherine Campbell, D Taljaard, Eleanor Gouws, S Moema, Z Mzaidume, B Rasego Jan 2000

The Carletonville-Mothusimpilo Project: Limiting Transmission Of Hiv Through Community-Based Interventions, Brian G. Williams, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Catherine Campbell, D Taljaard, Eleanor Gouws, S Moema, Z Mzaidume, B Rasego

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

For all of the last century, the economy of South Africa, and so also of its neighbouring countries, has depended on migrant labour from rural areas. This is particularly so for the mining industry, especially hard-rock mining, and this has led to a system of 'oscillating' migration whereby men from rural areas come to live and work on the mines, without their wives or families, but return home regularly. This pattern of oscillating migration is an important determinant of health and, especially at the start of the epidemic, contributed to the spread of HIV in the region. In this paper ...