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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Primary Goals, Information-Giving And Men's Understanding: A Qualitative Study Of Australian And Uk Doctors' Varied Communication About Psa Screening, Kristen Pickles, Stacy M. Carter, Lucie Rychetnik, Kirsten Mccaffery, Vikki A. Entwistle Jan 2017

Primary Goals, Information-Giving And Men's Understanding: A Qualitative Study Of Australian And Uk Doctors' Varied Communication About Psa Screening, Kristen Pickles, Stacy M. Carter, Lucie Rychetnik, Kirsten Mccaffery, Vikki A. Entwistle

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objectives (1) To characterise variation in general practitioners' (GPs') accounts of communicating with men about prostate cancer screening using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, (2) to characterise GPs' reasons for communicating as they do and (3) to explain why and under what conditions GP communication approaches vary. Study design and setting A grounded theory study. We interviewed 69 GPs consulting in primary care practices in Australia (n=40) and the UK (n=29). Results GPs explained their communication practices in relation to their primary goals. In Australia, three different communication goals were reported: to encourage asymptomatic men to either have ...


Using Unannounced Standardised Patients As A Quality Improvement Tool To Improve Primary Care, Heike Schutze, Elizabeth Harris, Mark Fort Harris Jan 2017

Using Unannounced Standardised Patients As A Quality Improvement Tool To Improve Primary Care, Heike Schutze, Elizabeth Harris, Mark Fort Harris

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 2nd International Conference on General Practice & Primary Care, 18-19 September 2017, Zurich, Switzerland


Physical Activity And Fitness Outcomes Of A Lifestyle Intervention For Primary Care Patients With Depression And Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Trial, Adrienne Forsyth, Frank P. Deane, Peter G. Williams Jan 2016

Physical Activity And Fitness Outcomes Of A Lifestyle Intervention For Primary Care Patients With Depression And Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Trial, Adrienne Forsyth, Frank P. Deane, Peter G. Williams

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Patients currently being treated for depression and/or anxiety were referred by their GP and randomised to a 12-week individually tailored diet and exercise lifestyle intervention or an attention control group. Assessments at baseline and 12 weeks included the Active Australia Survey for self-reported physical activity, chair stands, arm curls and a 3-min step test to measure physical fitness. Intent-to-treat analyses using linear mixed modelling showed both groups significantly improved participation in physical activity and muscular endurance. There were no significant differences in improvement between groups. The only group by time interaction was found for body mass index and indicated ...


Use Of Mobile And Cordless Phones And Cognition In Australian Primary School Children: A Prospective Cohort Study, Mary Redmayne, Catherine L. Smith, Geza Benke, Rodney J. Croft, Anna Dalecki, Christina Dimitriadis, Jordy Kaufman, Skye Macleod, Malcolm R. Sim, Rory Wolfe, Michael J. Abramson Jan 2016

Use Of Mobile And Cordless Phones And Cognition In Australian Primary School Children: A Prospective Cohort Study, Mary Redmayne, Catherine L. Smith, Geza Benke, Rodney J. Croft, Anna Dalecki, Christina Dimitriadis, Jordy Kaufman, Skye Macleod, Malcolm R. Sim, Rory Wolfe, Michael J. Abramson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Use of mobile (MP) and cordless phones (CP) is common among young children, but whether the resulting radiofrequency exposure affects development of cognitive skills is not known. Small changes have been found in older children. This study focused on children's exposures to MP and CP and cognitive development. The hypothesis was that children who used these phones would display differences in cognitive function compared to those who did not. Methods: We recruited 619 fourth-grade students (8-11 years) from 37 schools around Melbourne and Wollongong, Australia. Participants completed a short questionnaire, a computerised cognitive test battery, and the Stroop ...


Activating Primary Care Copd Patients With Multi-Morbidity (Apcom) Pilot Project, Sameera Ansari, Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Sarah Dennis, Nicholas Arnold Zwar Jan 2016

Activating Primary Care Copd Patients With Multi-Morbidity (Apcom) Pilot Project, Sameera Ansari, Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Sarah Dennis, Nicholas Arnold Zwar

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract from the 8th International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) World Conference, 25-28 May 2016, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Primary Healthcare System Of Pakistan: Challenges To Self-Management Of Type 2 Diabetes, Rashid M. Ansari, Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Nicholas Arnold Zwar Jan 2016

Primary Healthcare System Of Pakistan: Challenges To Self-Management Of Type 2 Diabetes, Rashid M. Ansari, Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Nicholas Arnold Zwar

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This review article is aimed at describing the primary healthcare system of Pakistan and its challenges in the face of epidemic of type 2 diabetes, focusing particularly on the middle-aged population of rural area of Pakistan. The main concern in Pakistan is that its middle-aged population is facing the onslaught of obesity and overweight due to lack of physical activity. In addition unhealthy eating habits making it more difficult for this population to control their weight. All these factors are contributing to a high risk of type 2 diabetes for the population of Pakistan. This article provides insight into the ...


Doctors' Approaches To Psa Testing And Overdiagnosis In Primary Healthcare: A Qualitative Study, Kristen Pickles, Stacy M. Carter, Lucie Rychetnik Jan 2015

Doctors' Approaches To Psa Testing And Overdiagnosis In Primary Healthcare: A Qualitative Study, Kristen Pickles, Stacy M. Carter, Lucie Rychetnik

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objectives (1) To explain general practitioners' (GPs') approaches to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and overdiagnosis; (2) to explain how GPs reason about their PSA testing routines and (3) to explain how these routines influence GPs' personal experience as clinicians. Setting Primary care practices in Australia including men's health clinics and rural practices with variable access to urology services. Participants 32 urban and rural GPs within Australia. We included GPs of varying ages, gender (11 female), clinical experience and patient populations. All GPs interested in participating in the study were included. Primary and secondary outcome measure(s) Data were analysed ...


Adventures With Mr Monkey: Stimulating Creative Writing In The Primary School Classroom Through Play, Chloe Gordon Jan 2015

Adventures With Mr Monkey: Stimulating Creative Writing In The Primary School Classroom Through Play, Chloe Gordon

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The importance of learning through play is now accepted as an integral component of early childhood classrooms. However, including opportunities for play in the primary school classroom can be challenging when competing with an overcrowded school curriculum. In this article I share my reflections on how I used play to stimulate my Year one students' creative writing in 2013.


How Finger Tracing Of Temperature Graphs On An Ipad Can Support Primary School Students' Learning, Shirley Agostinho, Sharon K. Tindall-Ford, Paul Ginns, Steven J. Howard, Wayne Leahy, Fred Paas Jan 2015

How Finger Tracing Of Temperature Graphs On An Ipad Can Support Primary School Students' Learning, Shirley Agostinho, Sharon K. Tindall-Ford, Paul Ginns, Steven J. Howard, Wayne Leahy, Fred Paas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 8th Cognitive Load Theory Conference, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, June 15th - 17th, 2015.


How Primary School Students Can Self-Manage Cognitive Load When Presented With Redundant Information, Faisal Mirza, Shirley Agostinho, Sharon K. Tindall-Ford, Fred Paas Jan 2015

How Primary School Students Can Self-Manage Cognitive Load When Presented With Redundant Information, Faisal Mirza, Shirley Agostinho, Sharon K. Tindall-Ford, Fred Paas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 8th Cognitive Load Theory Conference, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, June 15th - 17th, 2015.


Activating Primary Care Copd Patients With Multi-Morbidity (Apcom) Pilot Project: Study Protocol, Sameera Ansari, Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Sarah Dennis, Nicholas Arnold Zwar Jan 2015

Activating Primary Care Copd Patients With Multi-Morbidity (Apcom) Pilot Project: Study Protocol, Sameera Ansari, Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Sarah Dennis, Nicholas Arnold Zwar

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Poster presented at the 2015 Primary Health Care Research Conference, 29-31 July 2015, Adelaide, Australia.


Modelling The Contribution Of Walking Between Home And School To Daily Physical Activity In Primary Age Children, Rebecca M. Stanley, Carol Maher, James Dollman Jan 2015

Modelling The Contribution Of Walking Between Home And School To Daily Physical Activity In Primary Age Children, Rebecca M. Stanley, Carol Maher, James Dollman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background

The purpose of this study was to identify the independent association of frequency of walking trips between home and school with daily physical activity in a sample of school-aged children.

Methods

Participants were 109 children (mean age = 12.05 years [±0.71]) attending nine primary schools in Adelaide, South Australia. Physical activity was derived from accelerometers with total counts as the outcome variable. Transport patterns were self-reported for each of the previous five school days. Walking trips were summed for each day and across the school week. The relationship between the number of active transport journeys and individual school ...


People With Multiple Unhealthy Lifestyles Are Less Likely To Consult Primary Healthcare, Xiaoqi Feng, Federico Girosi, Ian S. Mcrae Jan 2014

People With Multiple Unhealthy Lifestyles Are Less Likely To Consult Primary Healthcare, Xiaoqi Feng, Federico Girosi, Ian S. Mcrae

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background Behavioural interventions are often implemented within primary healthcare settings to prevent type 2 diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases. Although smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and poor diet are associated with poorer health that may lead a person to consult a general practitioner (GP), previous work has shown that unhealthy lifestyles cluster among low socioeconomic groups who are less likely to seek primary healthcare. Therefore, it is uncertain whether behavioural interventions in primary healthcare are reaching those in most need. This study investigated patterns of GP consultations in relation to the clustering of unhealthy lifestyles among a large sample of ...


Using The Cycle Of Learning To Differentiate For Students With Diverse Needs In Primary Schools, Amanda A. Webster Jan 2014

Using The Cycle Of Learning To Differentiate For Students With Diverse Needs In Primary Schools, Amanda A. Webster

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Teachers are increasingly required to teach students with diverse needs in today's schools. The aim of the current study was to trial an action-planning and mentoring process based on the Cycle of Learning pedagogical framework to help teachers and school leaders plan and implement effective practices for students with diverse needs in their classrooms. Openended interviews were utilised to evaluate outcomes for students and teachers as a result of their work with mentors and the action-planning process. Participants reported they had more confidence and skills to teach students with diverse needs and students were more engaged.


Diagnosis Of Copd In The Context Of Multi-Morbidity: Primary Care Patients' Perspectives, Sameera Ansari, Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Sarah Dennis, Nicholas Arnold Zwar Jan 2014

Diagnosis Of Copd In The Context Of Multi-Morbidity: Primary Care Patients' Perspectives, Sameera Ansari, Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Sarah Dennis, Nicholas Arnold Zwar

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Presentation made at the PHAA 43rd Annual Conference, 15-17 September 2014, Perth, Australia.


Improving Awareness, Attitudes And Uptake Of The Australian Physical A Ctivity G Uidelines Among Primary School Students, Their Teachers And Parents, Lyn Phillipson, Danika Hall Jan 2014

Improving Awareness, Attitudes And Uptake Of The Australian Physical A Ctivity G Uidelines Among Primary School Students, Their Teachers And Parents, Lyn Phillipson, Danika Hall

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the International Social Marketing Conference 2014, 17-18 July 2014, Melbourne, Australia


Effects Of Problem Solving After Worked Example Study On Primary School Children's Monitoring Accuracy, Martine Baars, Tamara Van Gog, Anique De Bruin, Fred Paas Jan 2014

Effects Of Problem Solving After Worked Example Study On Primary School Children's Monitoring Accuracy, Martine Baars, Tamara Van Gog, Anique De Bruin, Fred Paas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Research on expository text has shown that the accuracy of students' judgments of learning (JOLs) can be improved by instructional interventions that allow students to test their knowledge of the text. The present study extends this research, investigating whether allowing students to test the knowledge they acquired from studying a worked example by means of solving an identical problem, either immediately or delayed, would enhance JOL accuracy. Fifth grade children (i) gave an immediate JOL, (ii) a delayed JOL, (iii) solved a problem immediately and then gave a JOL, (iv) solved a problem immediately and gave a delayed JOL, or ...


Impact Of Copd Diagnosis In The Face Of Multi-Morbidity: Primary Care Patients' Perspectives, Sameera Ansari, Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Sarah Dennis, Nicholas Arnold Zwar Jan 2014

Impact Of Copd Diagnosis In The Face Of Multi-Morbidity: Primary Care Patients' Perspectives, Sameera Ansari, Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Sarah Dennis, Nicholas Arnold Zwar

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Poster presented at the 2014 Primary Health Care Research Conference, 23-25 July 2014, Canberra, Australia


A Brief Report On Primary Care Service Area Catchment Geographies In New South Wales Australia, Soumya Mazumdar, Xiaoqi Feng, Paul Konings, Ian S. Mcrae, Federico Girosi Jan 2014

A Brief Report On Primary Care Service Area Catchment Geographies In New South Wales Australia, Soumya Mazumdar, Xiaoqi Feng, Paul Konings, Ian S. Mcrae, Federico Girosi

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background To develop a method to use survey data to establish catchment areas of primary care or Primary Care Service Areas. Primary Care Service Areas are small areas, the majority of patients resident in which obtain their primary care services from within the geography. Methods The data are from a large health survey (n =267,153, year 2006-2009) linked to General Practitioner service use data (year 2002-2010) from New South Wales, Australia. Our methods broadly follow those used previously by researchers in the United States of America and Switzerland, with significant modifications to improve robustness. This algorithm allocates post code ...


People With Multiple Unhealthy Lifestyles Are Less Likely To Consult Primary Healthcare. Evidence From 267,153 Australians, Xiaoqi Feng, Federico Girosi, Ian S. Mcrae Jan 2014

People With Multiple Unhealthy Lifestyles Are Less Likely To Consult Primary Healthcare. Evidence From 267,153 Australians, Xiaoqi Feng, Federico Girosi, Ian S. Mcrae

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the Society for Social Medicine 58th Annual Scientific Meeting, 10-12 September 2014, Oxford, United Kingdom


Combining Realism With Rigour: Evaluation Of A National Kitchen Garden Program In Australian Primary Schools, Karen Quinsey, Deanne Condon-Paoloni, James Dawber, Simon Eckermann, David Fildes, Pamela Grootemaat, Darcy Morris, Wendy Nielsen, Heather Yeatman Jan 2013

Combining Realism With Rigour: Evaluation Of A National Kitchen Garden Program In Australian Primary Schools, Karen Quinsey, Deanne Condon-Paoloni, James Dawber, Simon Eckermann, David Fildes, Pamela Grootemaat, Darcy Morris, Wendy Nielsen, Heather Yeatman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper will report on the framework and methods developed to evaluate the implementation and impact of a national garden and kitchen program in Australia.


Social Media Use Among Pre-Service Primary Teachers, Wendy S. Nielsen, Rachel Moll, Teresa Farrell, Nicole Mcdaid, Garry F. Hoban Jan 2013

Social Media Use Among Pre-Service Primary Teachers, Wendy S. Nielsen, Rachel Moll, Teresa Farrell, Nicole Mcdaid, Garry F. Hoban

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This research explores preservice science teachers' social media practices as a first step in considering how to better utilize these tools in preservice teacher education. This is an important issue as these teachers will work with the next generation of students, who are likely to be even more connected through technology tools. We report data from a survey called the Social Media and Science Learning Survey that collects information about proficiencies and frequencies of use for a variety of social media tools for learning science. Results are from a cohort of 119 Australian primary teacher-education students in the context of ...


A Case Study Of How Using Laptops In A Primary Classroom Facilitated Higher Order Thinking, Amanda Gigliotti, Lisa Carrington, Shirley Agostinho Jan 2013

A Case Study Of How Using Laptops In A Primary Classroom Facilitated Higher Order Thinking, Amanda Gigliotti, Lisa Carrington, Shirley Agostinho

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Research about 1:1 laptop school initiatives highlight benefits for learning, however, there is little research about the impact of such initiatives in the primary school context. This case study reports how a 1:1 laptop program facilitated Higher Order Thinking (HOT) in an upper primary classroom in Australia. The class was observed during one unit of work and Bloom's taxonomy of HOT was used as the analysis framework. Results showed that Higher Order Thinking was evident when laptop tasks encouraged students to take an active role in their learning. HOT was facilitated by students being able to make ...


Rethinking The Literacy Capabilities Of Pre-Service Primary Teachers In Testing Times, Eileen Honan, Beryl Exley, Lisa Kervin, Alyson Simpson, Muriel Wells Jan 2013

Rethinking The Literacy Capabilities Of Pre-Service Primary Teachers In Testing Times, Eileen Honan, Beryl Exley, Lisa Kervin, Alyson Simpson, Muriel Wells

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper demonstrates how teacher accreditation requirements can be responsibly aligned with a scholarly impetus to incorporate digital literacies to prepare pre-service teachers to meet changing educational needs and practices. The assessment initiatives introduced in the newly constructed four year undergraduate Bachelor of Education program at one Australian university are described and analysed in light of the debates surrounding pre-service primary teachers' literacy capabilities. The findings and subsequent discussion have implications for all literacy teacher educators concerned about the impact of standardised assessment practices on the professional future of teachers.


Organizational Communication And Occupational Stress In Australian Catholic Primary Schools, John De Nobile, John Mccormick, Katherine Hoekman Jan 2013

Organizational Communication And Occupational Stress In Australian Catholic Primary Schools, John De Nobile, John Mccormick, Katherine Hoekman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Purpose: This paper reports two related studies of relationships between organizational communication and occupational stress of staff members in Catholic primary schools. Design/methodology/approach: Data from both studies were obtained using survey questionnaires. Participants were staff members of Catholic diocesan primary schools in New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory and Queensland, Australia. Research hypotheses were tested using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Findings: Ten organizational communication factors and four occupational stress domains were identified. Several organizational communication variables were found to be predictors of occupational stress in four identified domains. Practical implications: The findings provide implications for school administrators ...


Healthcare Reform: Implications For Knowledge Translation In Primary Care, Ann Dadich, Hassan Hosseinzadeh Jan 2013

Healthcare Reform: Implications For Knowledge Translation In Primary Care, Ann Dadich, Hassan Hosseinzadeh

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background The primary care sector represents the linchpin of many health systems. However, the translation of evidence-based practices into patient care can be difficult, particularly during healthcare reform. This can have significant implications for patients, their communities, and the public purse. This is aptly demonstrated in the area of sexual health. The aim of this paper is to determine what works to facilitate evidence-based sexual healthcare within the primary care sector. Methods 431 clinicians (214 general practitioners and 217 practice nurses) in New South Wales, Australia, were surveyed about their awareness, their use, the perceived impact, and the factors that ...


A Comparative Analysis Between Primary And Secondary Teachers: A Self-Determination Perspective, Dana J. Perlman, Phil Pearson Jan 2012

A Comparative Analysis Between Primary And Secondary Teachers: A Self-Determination Perspective, Dana J. Perlman, Phil Pearson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The importance of student motivation within a student's educational career can be viewed as a cornerstone to effective pedagogy and student learning. Xiang, Lee and Shen (2001) have indicated that as student's progress throughout the K-12 system, their level of motivation tends to decrease. As such, a question of intrigue is whether teachers within different grade levels provide different motivational instruction. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences between primary and secondary educators ability to provide a motivationally-supportive learning context. Grounded within the self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985), this study utilized a quantitative ...


The Sydney Playground Project: Popping The Bubblewrap - Unleashing The Power Of Play: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Of A Primary School Playground-Based Intervention Aiming To Increase Children's Physical Activity And Social Skills, Anita C. Bundy, Geraldine A. Naughton, Paul Tranter, Shirley Wyver, Louise A. Baur, Wendy Schiller, Adrian E. Bauman, Lina Engelen, Jo Ragen, Tim Luckett, Anita Niehues, Gabrielle Stewart, Glenda Jessup, Jennie Brentnall Jan 2011

The Sydney Playground Project: Popping The Bubblewrap - Unleashing The Power Of Play: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Of A Primary School Playground-Based Intervention Aiming To Increase Children's Physical Activity And Social Skills, Anita C. Bundy, Geraldine A. Naughton, Paul Tranter, Shirley Wyver, Louise A. Baur, Wendy Schiller, Adrian E. Bauman, Lina Engelen, Jo Ragen, Tim Luckett, Anita Niehues, Gabrielle Stewart, Glenda Jessup, Jennie Brentnall

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background In the Westernised world, numerous children are overweight and have problems with bullying and mental health. One of the underlying causes for all three is postulated to be a decrease in outdoor free play. The aim of the Sydney Playground Project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of two simple interventions aimed to increase children's physical activity and social skills. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the design of a 3-year cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT), in which schools are the clusters. The study consists of a 13-week intervention and 1 week each of pre-and post-testing. We are recruiting ...


Pupils' Self-Perceptions And Views Of Primary School In Year 5, Pam Sammons, Kathy Sylva, Edward Melhuish, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart, Helena Jelicic, Rebecca Smees, Sofka Barreau, Yvonne Grabbe Jan 2008

Pupils' Self-Perceptions And Views Of Primary School In Year 5, Pam Sammons, Kathy Sylva, Edward Melhuish, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart, Helena Jelicic, Rebecca Smees, Sofka Barreau, Yvonne Grabbe

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The Effective Pre-School and Primary Education 3-11 (EPPE 3-11) project investigates the impact of pre- school, primary school and family on a range of outcomes for a national sample of approximately 2,800 children in England between the ages of 3 and 11 years. This Research Brief presents findings on pupils' Self-perceptions (' Enjoyment of school', 'Anxiety and Isolation', 'Academic self-image' and 'Behavioural self-image' ) and their views of different features of primary school (' Teachers' support for pupils' learning', 'Headteacher qualities' and 'Positive social environment' ) in Year 5. The analyses involved two steps: first, differences in pupils' Self-perceptions and Views of primary ...


Relationships Between Pupils' Self-Perceptions, Views Of Primary School And Their Development In Year 5, Pam Sammons, Kathy Sylva, Edward Melhuish, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart, Helena Jelicic, Sofka Barreau, Yvonne Grabbe, Rebecca Smees Jan 2008

Relationships Between Pupils' Self-Perceptions, Views Of Primary School And Their Development In Year 5, Pam Sammons, Kathy Sylva, Edward Melhuish, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart, Helena Jelicic, Sofka Barreau, Yvonne Grabbe, Rebecca Smees

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This research builds on earlier reports (Sammons et al., 2007) by investigating relationships between children's outcomes in Year 5 and aspects of pupils' self perceptions and their views of primary school measured in Year 5 (age 10) and in Year 2 (age 7) of primary school while controlling for background characteristics. These measures have been derived from a self-report instrument completed by the EPPE 3-11 children. The analyses explored associations between children's progress and development over time and their self-perceptions and views of primary school.