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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Effects Of Inhibitory Control Training On Alcohol Consumption, Implicit Alcohol-Related Cognitions And Brain Electrical Activity, Claire Bowley, Cameron Faricy, Bronwyn Hegarty, Stuart J. Johnstone, Janette L. Smith, Peter J. Kelly, Jacqueline A. Rushby Jan 2013

The Effects Of Inhibitory Control Training On Alcohol Consumption, Implicit Alcohol-Related Cognitions And Brain Electrical Activity, Claire Bowley, Cameron Faricy, Bronwyn Hegarty, Stuart J. Johnstone, Janette L. Smith, Peter J. Kelly, Jacqueline A. Rushby

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This study aimed to replicate findings that alcohol consumption and positive implicit beer-related cognitions can be reduced using inhibitory control (IC) training, with the addition of an active training control. Frontal EEG asymmetry, an objective psychophysiological index of approach motivation, was used as a dependent measure to examine training outcomes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two IC training conditions (Beer NoGo or Beer Go) or a Brief Alcohol Intervention (BAI) (i.e. the active training control). The IC training tasks consistently paired a stimulus that required a response with images of water (Beer NoGo) or images of beer ...


The Effects Of Maternal Emotional Wellbeing On Mother-Adolescent Communication And Youth Emotional Wellbeing, Young Ju Shin, Jeong Kyu Lee, Michelle Miller-Day Jan 2013

The Effects Of Maternal Emotional Wellbeing On Mother-Adolescent Communication And Youth Emotional Wellbeing, Young Ju Shin, Jeong Kyu Lee, Michelle Miller-Day

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Communication among children and their parents is consequential for children's development and adjustment. These concerns are particularly relevant for mothers in low-income households, who are more likely to experience depressive symptoms and low self-efficacy than mothers in other socioeconomic groups, with these problems often negatively impacting the emotional wellbeing of children in the household. This study examined associations among maternal emotional wellbeing, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescents' emotional wellbeing in a sample of 93 low-income mothers and adolescents. The results indicated that high reports of maternal self-efficacy were significantly related to perceptions of open and satisfying mother-adolescent communication. In addition ...


Varying Task Difficulty In The Go/Nogo Task: The Effects Of Inhibitory Control, Arousal, And Perceived Effort On Erp Components, Nicholas Benikos, Stuart J. Johnstone, Steven J. Roodenrys Jan 2013

Varying Task Difficulty In The Go/Nogo Task: The Effects Of Inhibitory Control, Arousal, And Perceived Effort On Erp Components, Nicholas Benikos, Stuart J. Johnstone, Steven J. Roodenrys

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Similar to other executive functions, inhibitory control is thought to be a dynamic process that can be influenced by variations in task difficulty. However, little is known about how different task parameters alter inhibitory performance and processing as a task becomes more difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of varying task difficulty, via manipulation of reaction time deadline (RTD), on measures of inhibitory control, perceived effort, and task-related arousal (indexed by skin conductance level). Sixty adults completed a visual Go/Nogo task (70% Go) after being randomly assigned to one of three task difficulty conditions ...


Effects Of Simultaneously Observing And Making Gestures While Studying Grammar Animations On Cognitive Load And Learning, Lysanne S. Post, Tamara Van Gog, Fred Paas, Rolf A. Zwaan Jan 2013

Effects Of Simultaneously Observing And Making Gestures While Studying Grammar Animations On Cognitive Load And Learning, Lysanne S. Post, Tamara Van Gog, Fred Paas, Rolf A. Zwaan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This study examined whether simultaneously observing and making gestures while studying animations would lighten cognitive load and facilitate the acquisition of grammatical rules. In contrast to our hypothesis, results showed that children in the gesturing condition performed worse on the posttest than children in the non-gesturing, control condition. A more detailed analysis of the data revealed an expertise reversal effect, indicating that this negative effect on posttest performance materialized for children with lower levels of general language skills, but not for children with higher levels of general language skills. The finding that for children with lower language ability, cognitive load ...


Chronic Effects Of Cannabis On Sensory Gating, Samantha J. Broyd, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Rodney Croft, Anna Dalecki, Juanita Todd, Patricia T. Michie, Stuart J. Johnstone, Nadia Solowij Jan 2013

Chronic Effects Of Cannabis On Sensory Gating, Samantha J. Broyd, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Rodney Croft, Anna Dalecki, Juanita Todd, Patricia T. Michie, Stuart J. Johnstone, Nadia Solowij

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Chronic cannabis use has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, alterations in brain structure and function, and with psychosis. This study investigated the effects of chronic cannabis use on P50 sensory-gating in regular users, and explored the association between sensory gating, cannabis use history and the development of psychotic-like symptoms. Twenty controls and 21 regular cannabis users completed a P50 paired-click (S1 and S2) paradigm with an inter-pair interval of 9. s. The groups were compared on P50 amplitude to S1 and S2, P50 ratio (S2/S1) and P50 difference score (S1-S2). While cannabis users overall did not differ from controls ...


Event-Rate Effects In The Flanker Task: Erps And Task Performance In Children With And Without Ad/Hd, Stuart J. Johnstone, Daniel Galletta Jan 2013

Event-Rate Effects In The Flanker Task: Erps And Task Performance In Children With And Without Ad/Hd, Stuart J. Johnstone, Daniel Galletta

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Demanding tasks require a greater amount of effort, in which case individuals are required to alter their energetic-state to a level appropriate to perform the task. According to the Cognitive-Energetic Model (CEM), children with AD/HD are unable to effectively modulate their energetic state, leading to task underperformance. Using an Eriksen flanker task with varying event-rates, the current study compared the ability of typically-developing children and children with AD/HD to modulate their energetic state. In line with the CEM, it was predicted that children with AD/HD would underperform in the fast and slow event-rates. Results indicated that the ...


Can Working Memory Predict Target-To-Target Interval Effects In The P300?, Genevieve Z. Steiner, Robert J. Barry, Craig J. Gonsalvez Jan 2013

Can Working Memory Predict Target-To-Target Interval Effects In The P300?, Genevieve Z. Steiner, Robert J. Barry, Craig J. Gonsalvez

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

It has been suggested that the P300 component of the ERP is an electrophysiological index of memory-updating processes associated with task-relevant stimuli. Component magnitude varies with the time separating target stimuli (target-to-target interval: TTI), with longer TTIs eliciting larger P300 amplitudes. According to the template-update perspective, TTI effects observable in the P300 reflect the updating of stimulus-templates in working memory (WM). The current study explored whether young adults' memory-task ability could predict TTI effects in P300. EEG activity was recorded from 50 university students (aged 18–25 years) while they completed an auditory equiprobable Go/NoGo task with manipulations of ...


The Effects Of A Multi-Component Higher-Functioning Autism Anti-Stigma Program On Adolescent Boys, Jessica J. Staniland, Mitchell K. Byrne Jan 2013

The Effects Of A Multi-Component Higher-Functioning Autism Anti-Stigma Program On Adolescent Boys, Jessica J. Staniland, Mitchell K. Byrne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

A six-session higher-functioning autism anti-stigma program incorporating descriptive, explanatory and directive information was delivered to adolescent boys and the impact upon knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions towards peers with autism was evaluated. Participants were seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade students (N = 395) from regular classes in a mainstream school. Two-eighth-grade classes were randomly allocated to the intervention condition and all remaining students were either allocated to the no-intervention peer or no-intervention non-peer condition. The anti-stigma program improved the knowledge and attitudes, but not the behavioural intentions of participants towards their peers with autism. Knowledge and attitudinal changes were maintained at follow-up ...


Combined Cognitive And State-Control Training For Children With And Without Ad/Hd: Effects On Behaviour, Working Memory And Resting Eeg, Rebecca Bonfield, Stuart Johnstone, Kirsten Johnson, Stephanie Carrigan, Steven Roodenrys, Sue Bennett, Emily Church, Jacob Sargeant Jan 2013

Combined Cognitive And State-Control Training For Children With And Without Ad/Hd: Effects On Behaviour, Working Memory And Resting Eeg, Rebecca Bonfield, Stuart Johnstone, Kirsten Johnson, Stephanie Carrigan, Steven Roodenrys, Sue Bennett, Emily Church, Jacob Sargeant

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 23rd Australasian Society for Psychophysiology Conference, 20-22 Nov 2013, Wollongong, Australia


The Effects Of Multivitamin Supplementation On Diurnal Cortisol Secretion And Perceived Stress, David A. Camfield, Mark A. Wetherell, Andrew B. Scholey, Katherine H. M Cox, Erin Fogg, David J. White, Jerome Sarris, Marni Kras, Con Stough, Avni Sali, Andrew Pipingas Jan 2013

The Effects Of Multivitamin Supplementation On Diurnal Cortisol Secretion And Perceived Stress, David A. Camfield, Mark A. Wetherell, Andrew B. Scholey, Katherine H. M Cox, Erin Fogg, David J. White, Jerome Sarris, Marni Kras, Con Stough, Avni Sali, Andrew Pipingas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Recent evidence suggests that dietary intake of vitamins, in particular the B-vitamins including B6, B9 and B12 may have a number of positive effects on mood and stress. Given the effects of stress on a range of biological mechanisms including the endocrine system, it could be reasonably expected that multivitamin supplementation may also affect markers of these mechanisms such as diurnal cortisol secretion. In the current double-blind placebo-controlled study 138 adults (aged 20 to 50 years) were administered a multivitamin containing B-vitamins versus placebo over a 16-week period. Salivary cortisol measurements were taken at waking, 15-min, 30-min and at bedtime ...


Acute Effects Of Different Multivitamin Mineral Preparations With And Without Guaraná On Mood, Cognitive Performance And Functional Brain Activation, Andrew Scholey, Isabelle Bauer, Chris Neale, Karen Savage, David Camfield, David White, Silvia Maggini, Andrew Pipingas, Con Stough, Matthew Hughes Jan 2013

Acute Effects Of Different Multivitamin Mineral Preparations With And Without Guaraná On Mood, Cognitive Performance And Functional Brain Activation, Andrew Scholey, Isabelle Bauer, Chris Neale, Karen Savage, David Camfield, David White, Silvia Maggini, Andrew Pipingas, Con Stough, Matthew Hughes

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Previous work has identified the positive effects of the acute administration of a multivitamin-guaraná preparation during an effortful executive/working memory task. Here, we aimed to differentiate the effects of multivitamins with and without guaraná and to examine the neural substrates of such effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, balanced crossover design, 20 participants (mean age 29 ± 5.54 years) consumed multivitamin preparations with or without guaraná (Berocca® Performance and Boost, respectively) and a placebo. Thirty minutes post-treatment, they underwent neurocognitive assessment, consisting of a 10 min Cognitive Demand Battery, with mood ratings taken ...


A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating The Neurocognitive Effects Of Lacprodan® Pl-20, A Phospholipid-Rich Milk Protein Concentrate, In Elderly Participants With Age-Associated Memory Impairment: The Phospholipid Intervention For Cognitive Ageing Reversal (Plicar): Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Andrew B. Scholey, David A. Camfield, Matthew E. Hughes, Will Woods, Con K. Stough, David J. White, Shakuntla V. Gondalia, Pernille D. Frederiksen Jan 2013

A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating The Neurocognitive Effects Of Lacprodan® Pl-20, A Phospholipid-Rich Milk Protein Concentrate, In Elderly Participants With Age-Associated Memory Impairment: The Phospholipid Intervention For Cognitive Ageing Reversal (Plicar): Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Andrew B. Scholey, David A. Camfield, Matthew E. Hughes, Will Woods, Con K. Stough, David J. White, Shakuntla V. Gondalia, Pernille D. Frederiksen

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) is of major societal concern in an ageing population, with the development of dietary supplements providing a promising avenue for amelioration of associated deficits. Despite initial interest in the use of phospholipids (PLs) for ARCD, in recent years there has been a hiatus in such research. Because of safety concerns regarding PLs derived from bovine cortex, and the equivocal efficacy of soybean-derived PLs, there is an important need for the development of new PL alternatives. Phospholipids derived from milk proteins represent one potential candidate treatment.

Methods: In order to reduce the effects of age-associated memory ...


Intensity And Trial Effects From Simple Auditory Stimuli In A Dishabituation Paradigm, Brett Macdonald, Robert Barry Jan 2013

Intensity And Trial Effects From Simple Auditory Stimuli In A Dishabituation Paradigm, Brett Macdonald, Robert Barry

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 23rd Australasian Society for Psychophysiology Conference, 20-22 Nov 2013, Wollongong, Australia


Identifying The Quality Of Life Effects Of Urinary Incontinence With Depression In An Australian Population, Jodie C. Avery, Nigel P. Stocks, Paul Duggan, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Anne Taylor, Robert Goldney, Alastair Maclennan Jan 2013

Identifying The Quality Of Life Effects Of Urinary Incontinence With Depression In An Australian Population, Jodie C. Avery, Nigel P. Stocks, Paul Duggan, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Anne Taylor, Robert Goldney, Alastair Maclennan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background

To explore the additive effect of urinary incontinence, in people with comorbid depression, on health related quality of life.

Methods

Males and females, 15 to 95 years (n = 3010, response rate 70.2%) were interviewed face to face in the 1998 Autumn South Australian Health Omnibus Survey.

Results

Self-reported urinary incontinence was found in 20.3% (n=610), and depression as defined by the PRIME-MD in 15.2% (n=459) of the survey population. Urinary incontinence with comorbid depression was found in 4.3% of the overall population. Univariate analysis showed that respondents with urinary incontinence and comorbid depression ...


The Effects Of Regular Long-Term Cannabis Use On Auditory Mismatch Negativity (Mmn), Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Samantha J. Broyd, Rodney J. Croft, Patricia T. Michie, Juanita Todd, Stuart J. Johnstone, Robyn Murray, Nadia Solowij Jan 2012

The Effects Of Regular Long-Term Cannabis Use On Auditory Mismatch Negativity (Mmn), Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Samantha J. Broyd, Rodney J. Croft, Patricia T. Michie, Juanita Todd, Stuart J. Johnstone, Robyn Murray, Nadia Solowij

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 3rd Biennial Schizophrenia International Research Conference Florence, Italy 14-18 April 2012


Effects Of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration On Human Encoding And Recall Memory Function: A Pharmacological Fmri Study, Matthijs G. Bossong, Gerry Jager, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Lineke Zuurman, J Martijn Jansma, Mitul A. Mehta, Joop M. A Van Gerven, Rene S. Kahn, Nick F. Ramsey Jan 2012

Effects Of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration On Human Encoding And Recall Memory Function: A Pharmacological Fmri Study, Matthijs G. Bossong, Gerry Jager, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Lineke Zuurman, J Martijn Jansma, Mitul A. Mehta, Joop M. A Van Gerven, Rene S. Kahn, Nick F. Ramsey

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Deficits in memory function are an incapacitating aspect of various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Animal studies have recently provided strong evidence for involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in memory function. Neuropsychological studies in humans have shown less convincing evidence but suggest that administration of cannabinoid substances affects encoding rather than recall of information. In this study, we examined the effects of perturbation of the eCB system on memory function during both encoding and recall. We performed a pharmacological MRI study with a placebo-controlled, crossover design, investigating the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhalation on associative memory-related brain function in 13 ...


Evidence For Involvement Of The Insula In The Psychotropic Effects Of Thc In Humans: A Double-Blind, Randomized Pharmacological Mri Study, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Matthijs G. Bossong, Gerry Jager, Gert Kristo, Matthias J. P Van Osch, Fernando Zelaya, Rene S. Kahn, Nick F. Ramsey Jan 2011

Evidence For Involvement Of The Insula In The Psychotropic Effects Of Thc In Humans: A Double-Blind, Randomized Pharmacological Mri Study, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Matthijs G. Bossong, Gerry Jager, Gert Kristo, Matthias J. P Van Osch, Fernando Zelaya, Rene S. Kahn, Nick F. Ramsey

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The main reason for recreational use of cannabis is the 'high', the primary psychotropic effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This psychoactive compound of cannabis induces a range of subjective, physical and mental reactions. The effect on heart rate is pronounced and complicates bloodflow-based neuroimaging of psychotropic effects of THC. In this study we investigated the effects of THC on baseline brain perfusion and activity in association with the induction of 'feeling high'. Twenty-three subjects participated in a pharmacological MRI study, where we applied arterial spin labelling (ASL) to measure perfusion, and resting-state functional MRI to assess blood oxygen level-dependent ...


Examining The Protective Effects Of Brand Equity In The Keepin' It Real Substance Use Prevention Curriculum, Jeong Kyu Lee, Michael L. Hecht Jan 2011

Examining The Protective Effects Of Brand Equity In The Keepin' It Real Substance Use Prevention Curriculum, Jeong Kyu Lee, Michael L. Hecht

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using a cross-sectional data (N = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding's effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, keepin' it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher-order ...


Examining Brain-Cognition Effects Of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation In The Left Temporal And Left Prefrontal Cortex In An Object Working Memory Task, R B. Silberstein, A Pipingas, J Song, David Camfield, P J. Nathan, C Stough Jan 2011

Examining Brain-Cognition Effects Of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation In The Left Temporal And Left Prefrontal Cortex In An Object Working Memory Task, R B. Silberstein, A Pipingas, J Song, David Camfield, P J. Nathan, C Stough

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE) is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms of age related cognitive impairment, with preclinical evidence pointing to a pro-cholinergic effect. While a number of behavioral studies have reported improvements to working memory (WM) associated with GBE, electrophysiological studies of GBE have typically been limited to recordings during a resting state. The current study investigated the chronic effects of GBE on steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) topography in nineteen healthy middle-aged (50-61 year old) male participants whilst completing an object WM task. A randomized double-blind crossover design was employed in which participants were allocated to receive 14 ...


Effects Of Lateral Lesions On Medial Activation During Autobiographical Remembering, Steven J. Howard, Jennifer S. Rabin, Donald T. Stuss, R S. Rosenbaum Jan 2010

Effects Of Lateral Lesions On Medial Activation During Autobiographical Remembering, Steven J. Howard, Jennifer S. Rabin, Donald T. Stuss, R S. Rosenbaum

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at The 20th Annual Rotman Research Institute Conference, 22-26 March 2010, Toronto, Canada


Effects Of Fully-Established Sure Start Local Programmes On 3-Year-Old Children And Their Families Living In England: A Quasi-Experimental Observational Study, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky, Alastair H. Leyland, Jacqueline Barnes Jan 2008

Effects Of Fully-Established Sure Start Local Programmes On 3-Year-Old Children And Their Families Living In England: A Quasi-Experimental Observational Study, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky, Alastair H. Leyland, Jacqueline Barnes

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background

Sure Start Local Programmes (SSLPs) are area-based interventions to improve services for young children and their families in deprived communities, promote health and development, and reduce inequalities. We therefore investigated whether SSLPs affect the wellbeing of 3-year-old children and their families.

Methods

In a quasi-experimental observational study, we compared 5883 3-year-old children and their families from 93 disadvantaged SSLP areas with 1879 3-year-old children and their families from 72 similarly deprived areas in England who took part in the Millennium Cohort Study. We studied 14 outcomes—children's immunisations, accidents, language development, positive and negative social behaviours, and independence ...


The Effects Of Training In Behaviour Modification Strategies On Stress, Burnout, And Therapeutic Attitudes In Frontline Inpatient Mental Health Nurses, Hamish J. Mcleod, Lisa Densley, Kate Chapman Jan 2006

The Effects Of Training In Behaviour Modification Strategies On Stress, Burnout, And Therapeutic Attitudes In Frontline Inpatient Mental Health Nurses, Hamish J. Mcleod, Lisa Densley, Kate Chapman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Psychiatric nursing is a stressful profession associated with high levels of burnout. Previous research has demonstrated that burnout in psychiatric nurses can be reduced via training that improves behaviour modification skills. However, the minimum amount of training required to demonstrate a beneficial effect is unclear. We evaluated the impact of a 4-day behaviour modification training program on stress, burnout, and therapeutic attitudes in nurses who were in frequent daily inpatient contact with patients with severe mental illnesses. Nurses working in the same wards served as a control group. Training improved therapeutic attitudes but did not alter self ratings of job-stress ...


Effects Of Sure Start Local Programmes On Children And Families: Early Findings From A Quasi-Experimental, Cross Sectional Study, Jay Belsky, Edward Melhuish, Jacqueline Barnes, Alastair H. Leyland, Helena Romaniuk Jan 2006

Effects Of Sure Start Local Programmes On Children And Families: Early Findings From A Quasi-Experimental, Cross Sectional Study, Jay Belsky, Edward Melhuish, Jacqueline Barnes, Alastair H. Leyland, Helena Romaniuk

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objective To evaluate the effects of Sure Start local programmes (SSLPs) on children and their families. To assess whether variations in the effectiveness of SSLPs are due to differences in implementation. Design Quasi-experimental cross sectional study using interviews with mothers and cognitive assessment of children aged 36 months who speak English. Setting Socially deprived communities in England: 150 communities with ongoing SSLPs and 50 comparison communities. Participants Mothers of 12 575 children aged 9 months and 3927 children aged 36 months in SSLP areas; mothers of 1509 children aged 9 months and 1101 children aged 36 months in comparison communities ...


Effects Of Supplementation With Purified Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Isoflavones On Plasma Lipids And Insulin Resistance In Healthy Premenopausal Women, Sarah Blakesmith, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Caroline George, George Joannou, Peter Petocz, Samir Samman Jan 2003

Effects Of Supplementation With Purified Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense) Isoflavones On Plasma Lipids And Insulin Resistance In Healthy Premenopausal Women, Sarah Blakesmith, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Caroline George, George Joannou, Peter Petocz, Samir Samman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Consumption of isoflavone-rich soyabean protein is reported to reduce total and LDL-cholesterol, but the specific components responsible are undetermined. In a previous crossover trial we showed that purified isoflavones, derived from red clover (Trifolium pratense), raised HDL3-cholesterol in premenopausal women; however, these findings were inconclusive due to period and carryover effects. In an attempt to overcome this problem, we utilised a parallel study designed to re-examine the effects of purified isoflavones on plasma lipoproteins and markers of insulin resistance in premenopausal women. Twenty-five healthy premenopausal women participated in a double-blind, randomised, parallel study. The treatment group (n 12 ...