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University of Wollongong

Education

Effects

2013

Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial To Differentiate The Acute Cognitive And Mood Effects Of Chlorogenic Acid From Decaffeinated Coffee, David A. Camfield, Beata Y. Silber, Andrew B. Scholey, Karen Nolidin, Antionette Goh, Con Stough Jan 2013

A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial To Differentiate The Acute Cognitive And Mood Effects Of Chlorogenic Acid From Decaffeinated Coffee, David A. Camfield, Beata Y. Silber, Andrew B. Scholey, Karen Nolidin, Antionette Goh, Con Stough

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In the current study, sixty healthy older adults aged 50 years or older, and who were light to moderate coffee drinkers, were administered 6g of a decaffeinated green coffee blend (NESCAFÉ Green Blend coffee; GB) or 540mg pure chlorogenic acids (CGA) or placebo in a double-blind acute cross-over design, with cognitive and mood assessments pre-dose, 40-mins and 120-mins post-dose. The primary outcome measure was accuracy in Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP). Secondary cognitive outcome measures included RVIP reaction time as well as Inspection time (IT), Jensen Box decision/reaction times, serial subtraction and N-Back working memory. Secondary mood measures included ...


The Effects Of Inhibitory Control Training On Alcohol Consumption, Implicit Alcohol-Related Cognitions And Brain Electrical Activity, Claire Bowley, Cameron Faricy, Bronwyn Hegarty, Stuart J. Johnstone, Janette L. Smith, Peter J. Kelly, Jacqueline A. Rushby Jan 2013

The Effects Of Inhibitory Control Training On Alcohol Consumption, Implicit Alcohol-Related Cognitions And Brain Electrical Activity, Claire Bowley, Cameron Faricy, Bronwyn Hegarty, Stuart J. Johnstone, Janette L. Smith, Peter J. Kelly, Jacqueline A. Rushby

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This study aimed to replicate findings that alcohol consumption and positive implicit beer-related cognitions can be reduced using inhibitory control (IC) training, with the addition of an active training control. Frontal EEG asymmetry, an objective psychophysiological index of approach motivation, was used as a dependent measure to examine training outcomes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two IC training conditions (Beer NoGo or Beer Go) or a Brief Alcohol Intervention (BAI) (i.e. the active training control). The IC training tasks consistently paired a stimulus that required a response with images of water (Beer NoGo) or images of beer ...


The Effects Of Maternal Emotional Wellbeing On Mother-Adolescent Communication And Youth Emotional Wellbeing, Young Ju Shin, Jeong Kyu Lee, Michelle Miller-Day Jan 2013

The Effects Of Maternal Emotional Wellbeing On Mother-Adolescent Communication And Youth Emotional Wellbeing, Young Ju Shin, Jeong Kyu Lee, Michelle Miller-Day

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Communication among children and their parents is consequential for children's development and adjustment. These concerns are particularly relevant for mothers in low-income households, who are more likely to experience depressive symptoms and low self-efficacy than mothers in other socioeconomic groups, with these problems often negatively impacting the emotional wellbeing of children in the household. This study examined associations among maternal emotional wellbeing, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescents' emotional wellbeing in a sample of 93 low-income mothers and adolescents. The results indicated that high reports of maternal self-efficacy were significantly related to perceptions of open and satisfying mother-adolescent communication. In addition ...


Varying Task Difficulty In The Go/Nogo Task: The Effects Of Inhibitory Control, Arousal, And Perceived Effort On Erp Components, Nicholas Benikos, Stuart J. Johnstone, Steven J. Roodenrys Jan 2013

Varying Task Difficulty In The Go/Nogo Task: The Effects Of Inhibitory Control, Arousal, And Perceived Effort On Erp Components, Nicholas Benikos, Stuart J. Johnstone, Steven J. Roodenrys

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Similar to other executive functions, inhibitory control is thought to be a dynamic process that can be influenced by variations in task difficulty. However, little is known about how different task parameters alter inhibitory performance and processing as a task becomes more difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of varying task difficulty, via manipulation of reaction time deadline (RTD), on measures of inhibitory control, perceived effort, and task-related arousal (indexed by skin conductance level). Sixty adults completed a visual Go/Nogo task (70% Go) after being randomly assigned to one of three task difficulty conditions ...


Effects Of Simultaneously Observing And Making Gestures While Studying Grammar Animations On Cognitive Load And Learning, Lysanne S. Post, Tamara Van Gog, Fred Paas, Rolf A. Zwaan Jan 2013

Effects Of Simultaneously Observing And Making Gestures While Studying Grammar Animations On Cognitive Load And Learning, Lysanne S. Post, Tamara Van Gog, Fred Paas, Rolf A. Zwaan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This study examined whether simultaneously observing and making gestures while studying animations would lighten cognitive load and facilitate the acquisition of grammatical rules. In contrast to our hypothesis, results showed that children in the gesturing condition performed worse on the posttest than children in the non-gesturing, control condition. A more detailed analysis of the data revealed an expertise reversal effect, indicating that this negative effect on posttest performance materialized for children with lower levels of general language skills, but not for children with higher levels of general language skills. The finding that for children with lower language ability, cognitive load ...


Chronic Effects Of Cannabis On Sensory Gating, Samantha J. Broyd, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Rodney Croft, Anna Dalecki, Juanita Todd, Patricia T. Michie, Stuart J. Johnstone, Nadia Solowij Jan 2013

Chronic Effects Of Cannabis On Sensory Gating, Samantha J. Broyd, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Rodney Croft, Anna Dalecki, Juanita Todd, Patricia T. Michie, Stuart J. Johnstone, Nadia Solowij

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Chronic cannabis use has been associated with neurocognitive deficits, alterations in brain structure and function, and with psychosis. This study investigated the effects of chronic cannabis use on P50 sensory-gating in regular users, and explored the association between sensory gating, cannabis use history and the development of psychotic-like symptoms. Twenty controls and 21 regular cannabis users completed a P50 paired-click (S1 and S2) paradigm with an inter-pair interval of 9. s. The groups were compared on P50 amplitude to S1 and S2, P50 ratio (S2/S1) and P50 difference score (S1-S2). While cannabis users overall did not differ from controls ...


Event-Rate Effects In The Flanker Task: Erps And Task Performance In Children With And Without Ad/Hd, Stuart J. Johnstone, Daniel Galletta Jan 2013

Event-Rate Effects In The Flanker Task: Erps And Task Performance In Children With And Without Ad/Hd, Stuart J. Johnstone, Daniel Galletta

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Demanding tasks require a greater amount of effort, in which case individuals are required to alter their energetic-state to a level appropriate to perform the task. According to the Cognitive-Energetic Model (CEM), children with AD/HD are unable to effectively modulate their energetic state, leading to task underperformance. Using an Eriksen flanker task with varying event-rates, the current study compared the ability of typically-developing children and children with AD/HD to modulate their energetic state. In line with the CEM, it was predicted that children with AD/HD would underperform in the fast and slow event-rates. Results indicated that the ...


Can Working Memory Predict Target-To-Target Interval Effects In The P300?, Genevieve Z. Steiner, Robert J. Barry, Craig J. Gonsalvez Jan 2013

Can Working Memory Predict Target-To-Target Interval Effects In The P300?, Genevieve Z. Steiner, Robert J. Barry, Craig J. Gonsalvez

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

It has been suggested that the P300 component of the ERP is an electrophysiological index of memory-updating processes associated with task-relevant stimuli. Component magnitude varies with the time separating target stimuli (target-to-target interval: TTI), with longer TTIs eliciting larger P300 amplitudes. According to the template-update perspective, TTI effects observable in the P300 reflect the updating of stimulus-templates in working memory (WM). The current study explored whether young adults' memory-task ability could predict TTI effects in P300. EEG activity was recorded from 50 university students (aged 18–25 years) while they completed an auditory equiprobable Go/NoGo task with manipulations of ...


The Effects Of A Multi-Component Higher-Functioning Autism Anti-Stigma Program On Adolescent Boys, Jessica J. Staniland, Mitchell K. Byrne Jan 2013

The Effects Of A Multi-Component Higher-Functioning Autism Anti-Stigma Program On Adolescent Boys, Jessica J. Staniland, Mitchell K. Byrne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

A six-session higher-functioning autism anti-stigma program incorporating descriptive, explanatory and directive information was delivered to adolescent boys and the impact upon knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions towards peers with autism was evaluated. Participants were seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade students (N = 395) from regular classes in a mainstream school. Two-eighth-grade classes were randomly allocated to the intervention condition and all remaining students were either allocated to the no-intervention peer or no-intervention non-peer condition. The anti-stigma program improved the knowledge and attitudes, but not the behavioural intentions of participants towards their peers with autism. Knowledge and attitudinal changes were maintained at follow-up ...


Combined Cognitive And State-Control Training For Children With And Without Ad/Hd: Effects On Behaviour, Working Memory And Resting Eeg, Rebecca Bonfield, Stuart Johnstone, Kirsten Johnson, Stephanie Carrigan, Steven Roodenrys, Sue Bennett, Emily Church, Jacob Sargeant Jan 2013

Combined Cognitive And State-Control Training For Children With And Without Ad/Hd: Effects On Behaviour, Working Memory And Resting Eeg, Rebecca Bonfield, Stuart Johnstone, Kirsten Johnson, Stephanie Carrigan, Steven Roodenrys, Sue Bennett, Emily Church, Jacob Sargeant

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 23rd Australasian Society for Psychophysiology Conference, 20-22 Nov 2013, Wollongong, Australia


The Effects Of Multivitamin Supplementation On Diurnal Cortisol Secretion And Perceived Stress, David A. Camfield, Mark A. Wetherell, Andrew B. Scholey, Katherine H. M Cox, Erin Fogg, David J. White, Jerome Sarris, Marni Kras, Con Stough, Avni Sali, Andrew Pipingas Jan 2013

The Effects Of Multivitamin Supplementation On Diurnal Cortisol Secretion And Perceived Stress, David A. Camfield, Mark A. Wetherell, Andrew B. Scholey, Katherine H. M Cox, Erin Fogg, David J. White, Jerome Sarris, Marni Kras, Con Stough, Avni Sali, Andrew Pipingas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Recent evidence suggests that dietary intake of vitamins, in particular the B-vitamins including B6, B9 and B12 may have a number of positive effects on mood and stress. Given the effects of stress on a range of biological mechanisms including the endocrine system, it could be reasonably expected that multivitamin supplementation may also affect markers of these mechanisms such as diurnal cortisol secretion. In the current double-blind placebo-controlled study 138 adults (aged 20 to 50 years) were administered a multivitamin containing B-vitamins versus placebo over a 16-week period. Salivary cortisol measurements were taken at waking, 15-min, 30-min and at bedtime ...


Acute Effects Of Different Multivitamin Mineral Preparations With And Without Guaraná On Mood, Cognitive Performance And Functional Brain Activation, Andrew Scholey, Isabelle Bauer, Chris Neale, Karen Savage, David Camfield, David White, Silvia Maggini, Andrew Pipingas, Con Stough, Matthew Hughes Jan 2013

Acute Effects Of Different Multivitamin Mineral Preparations With And Without Guaraná On Mood, Cognitive Performance And Functional Brain Activation, Andrew Scholey, Isabelle Bauer, Chris Neale, Karen Savage, David Camfield, David White, Silvia Maggini, Andrew Pipingas, Con Stough, Matthew Hughes

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Previous work has identified the positive effects of the acute administration of a multivitamin-guaraná preparation during an effortful executive/working memory task. Here, we aimed to differentiate the effects of multivitamins with and without guaraná and to examine the neural substrates of such effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, balanced crossover design, 20 participants (mean age 29 ± 5.54 years) consumed multivitamin preparations with or without guaraná (Berocca® Performance and Boost, respectively) and a placebo. Thirty minutes post-treatment, they underwent neurocognitive assessment, consisting of a 10 min Cognitive Demand Battery, with mood ratings taken ...


A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating The Neurocognitive Effects Of Lacprodan® Pl-20, A Phospholipid-Rich Milk Protein Concentrate, In Elderly Participants With Age-Associated Memory Impairment: The Phospholipid Intervention For Cognitive Ageing Reversal (Plicar): Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Andrew B. Scholey, David A. Camfield, Matthew E. Hughes, Will Woods, Con K. Stough, David J. White, Shakuntla V. Gondalia, Pernille D. Frederiksen Jan 2013

A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating The Neurocognitive Effects Of Lacprodan® Pl-20, A Phospholipid-Rich Milk Protein Concentrate, In Elderly Participants With Age-Associated Memory Impairment: The Phospholipid Intervention For Cognitive Ageing Reversal (Plicar): Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Andrew B. Scholey, David A. Camfield, Matthew E. Hughes, Will Woods, Con K. Stough, David J. White, Shakuntla V. Gondalia, Pernille D. Frederiksen

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) is of major societal concern in an ageing population, with the development of dietary supplements providing a promising avenue for amelioration of associated deficits. Despite initial interest in the use of phospholipids (PLs) for ARCD, in recent years there has been a hiatus in such research. Because of safety concerns regarding PLs derived from bovine cortex, and the equivocal efficacy of soybean-derived PLs, there is an important need for the development of new PL alternatives. Phospholipids derived from milk proteins represent one potential candidate treatment.

Methods: In order to reduce the effects of age-associated memory ...


Intensity And Trial Effects From Simple Auditory Stimuli In A Dishabituation Paradigm, Brett Macdonald, Robert Barry Jan 2013

Intensity And Trial Effects From Simple Auditory Stimuli In A Dishabituation Paradigm, Brett Macdonald, Robert Barry

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 23rd Australasian Society for Psychophysiology Conference, 20-22 Nov 2013, Wollongong, Australia


Identifying The Quality Of Life Effects Of Urinary Incontinence With Depression In An Australian Population, Jodie C. Avery, Nigel P. Stocks, Paul Duggan, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Anne Taylor, Robert Goldney, Alastair Maclennan Jan 2013

Identifying The Quality Of Life Effects Of Urinary Incontinence With Depression In An Australian Population, Jodie C. Avery, Nigel P. Stocks, Paul Duggan, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Anne Taylor, Robert Goldney, Alastair Maclennan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background

To explore the additive effect of urinary incontinence, in people with comorbid depression, on health related quality of life.

Methods

Males and females, 15 to 95 years (n = 3010, response rate 70.2%) were interviewed face to face in the 1998 Autumn South Australian Health Omnibus Survey.

Results

Self-reported urinary incontinence was found in 20.3% (n=610), and depression as defined by the PRIME-MD in 15.2% (n=459) of the survey population. Urinary incontinence with comorbid depression was found in 4.3% of the overall population. Univariate analysis showed that respondents with urinary incontinence and comorbid depression ...