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University of Wollongong

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Therapeutic Effects Of Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment On Psychological Symptoms And Cognitive Function In Regular Cannabis Users: A Pragmatic Open-Label Clinical Trial, Nadia Solowij, Samantha J. Broyd, Camilla Beale, Julie-Anne Prick, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Chao Suo, Peter Galettis, Nagesh B. Pai, Shanlin Fu, Rodney J. Croft, Jennifer H. Martin, Murat Yucel Jan 2018

Therapeutic Effects Of Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment On Psychological Symptoms And Cognitive Function In Regular Cannabis Users: A Pragmatic Open-Label Clinical Trial, Nadia Solowij, Samantha J. Broyd, Camilla Beale, Julie-Anne Prick, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Chao Suo, Peter Galettis, Nagesh B. Pai, Shanlin Fu, Rodney J. Croft, Jennifer H. Martin, Murat Yucel

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Chronic cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition and elevated psychological symptoms, particularly psychotic-like experiences.


Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment Effects On Hippocampal Subfield Volumes In Current Cannabis Users, Camilla Beale, Samantha J. Broyd, Yann Chye, Mark M. Schira, Peter Galettis, Jennifer H. Martin, Murat Yucel, Nadia Solowij Jan 2018

Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment Effects On Hippocampal Subfield Volumes In Current Cannabis Users, Camilla Beale, Samantha J. Broyd, Yann Chye, Mark M. Schira, Peter Galettis, Jennifer H. Martin, Murat Yucel, Nadia Solowij

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

No abstract provided.


More Standing And Just As Productive: Effects Of A Sit-Stand Desk Intervention On Call Center Workers' Sitting, Standing, And Productivity At Work In The Opt To Stand Pilot Study, Josephine Chau, William Sukala, Karla Fedel, Anna Do, Lina Engelen, Megan Kingham, Amanda Sainsbury, Adrian E. Bauman Jan 2016

More Standing And Just As Productive: Effects Of A Sit-Stand Desk Intervention On Call Center Workers' Sitting, Standing, And Productivity At Work In The Opt To Stand Pilot Study, Josephine Chau, William Sukala, Karla Fedel, Anna Do, Lina Engelen, Megan Kingham, Amanda Sainsbury, Adrian E. Bauman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This study evaluated the effects of sit-stand desks on workers' objectively and subjectively assessed sitting, physical activity, and productivity. This quasi-experimental study involved one intervention group (n = 16) and one comparison group (n = 15). Participants were call center employees from two job-matched teams at a large telecommunications company in Sydney, Australia (45% female, 33 ± 11 years old). Intervention participants received a sit-stand desk, brief training, and daily e-mail reminders to stand up more frequently for the first 2 weeks post-installation. Control participants carried out their usual work duties at seated desks. Primary outcomes were workday sitting and physical activity assessed ...


The (Possibly Negative) Effects Of Physical Activity On Executive Functions: Implications Of The Changing Metabolic Costs Of Brain Development, Steven J. Howard, Caylee J. Cook, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Shane A. Norris, Catherine E. Draper Jan 2016

The (Possibly Negative) Effects Of Physical Activity On Executive Functions: Implications Of The Changing Metabolic Costs Of Brain Development, Steven J. Howard, Caylee J. Cook, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Shane A. Norris, Catherine E. Draper

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: An area of growth in physical activity research has involved investigating effects of physical activity on children's executive functions. Many of these efforts seek to increase the energy expenditure of young children as a healthy and low-cost way to affect physical, health, and cognitive outcomes. Methods: We review theory and research from neuroscience and evolutionary biology, which suggest that interventions seeking to increase the energy expenditure of young children must also consider the energetic trade-offs that occur to accommodate changing metabolic costs of brain development. Results: According to Life History Theory, and supported by recent evidence, the high ...


"Get-Up" Study Rationale And Protocol: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial To Evaluate The Effects Of Reduced Sitting On Toddlers' Cognitive Development, Rute Santos, Dylan P. Cliff, Steven J. Howard, Sanne Veldman, Ian M. R Wright, Eduarda Sousa-Sa, Joao R. Pereira, Anthony D. Okely Jan 2016

"Get-Up" Study Rationale And Protocol: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial To Evaluate The Effects Of Reduced Sitting On Toddlers' Cognitive Development, Rute Santos, Dylan P. Cliff, Steven J. Howard, Sanne Veldman, Ian M. R Wright, Eduarda Sousa-Sa, Joao R. Pereira, Anthony D. Okely

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background The educational and cognitive differences associated with low socioeconomic status begin early in life and tend to persist throughout life. Coupled with the finding that levels of sedentary time are negatively associated with cognitive development, and time spent active tends to be lower in disadvantaged circumstances, this highlights the need for interventions that reduce the amount of time children spend sitting and sedentary during childcare. The proposed study aims to assess the effects of reducing sitting time during Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) services on cognitive development in toddlers from low socio-economic families. Methods/Design We will implement ...


Infusing Physical Activities Into The Classroom: Effects On Preschool Children's Geography Learning, Myrto-Foteini Mavilidi, Anthony D. Okely, Paul A. Chandler, Fred Paas Jan 2016

Infusing Physical Activities Into The Classroom: Effects On Preschool Children's Geography Learning, Myrto-Foteini Mavilidi, Anthony D. Okely, Paul A. Chandler, Fred Paas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In this intervention study, we investigated the effects of physical activities that were integrated into a geography task on preschool children's learning performance and enjoyment. Eight childcare centers with 87 four-to-five-year-old children were randomly assigned across an integrated physical activity condition, an unintegrated physical activity condition, and a control condition without physical activity. Children learned the names and a typical animal from each of the six continents using a floor-mounted world map with soft toy animals. Both learning conditions with physical activities showed higher performance than the learning condition without physical activities on an immediate retention test, and on ...


Acute And Chronic Effects Of Cannabinoids On Human Cognition-A Systematic Review, Samantha J. Broyd, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Camilla Beale, Murat Yucel, Nadia Solowij Jan 2016

Acute And Chronic Effects Of Cannabinoids On Human Cognition-A Systematic Review, Samantha J. Broyd, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Camilla Beale, Murat Yucel, Nadia Solowij

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition during acute intoxication as well as in the unintoxicated state in long-term users. However, the evidence has been mixed and contested, and no systematic reviews of the literature on neuropsychological task-based measures of cognition have been conducted in an attempt to synthesize the findings. We systematically review the empirical research published in the past decade (from January 2004 to February 2015) on acute and chronic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids and on persistence or recovery after abstinence. We summarize the findings into the major categories of the cognitive domains investigated, considering sample ...


Effects Of Integrated Physical Exercises And Gestures On Preschool Children's Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning, Myrto-Foteini Mavilidi, Anthony D. Okely, Paul A. Chandler, Dylan P. Cliff, Fred Paas Jan 2015

Effects Of Integrated Physical Exercises And Gestures On Preschool Children's Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning, Myrto-Foteini Mavilidi, Anthony D. Okely, Paul A. Chandler, Dylan P. Cliff, Fred Paas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Research suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body movements (i.e., gestures) were investigated in a foreign language vocabulary task. Participants were 111 preschool children of 15 childcare centers, who were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Participants had to learn 14 Italian words in a 4-week teaching program. They were tested on their memory for the words during, directly after, and 6 weeks after the ...


Effects Of Observing And Making Movements On Learning, Sahar Bokosmaty, Fred Paas Jan 2015

Effects Of Observing And Making Movements On Learning, Sahar Bokosmaty, Fred Paas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 8th Cognitive Load Theory Conference, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, June 15th - 17th, 2015.


Reducing Cognitive Load: The Effects Of Gesturing On Children's Effective Working Memory Capacity, Sahar Bokosmaty, Steven J. Howard, Myrto-Foteini Mavilidi, Fred Paas Jan 2015

Reducing Cognitive Load: The Effects Of Gesturing On Children's Effective Working Memory Capacity, Sahar Bokosmaty, Steven J. Howard, Myrto-Foteini Mavilidi, Fred Paas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 8th Cognitive Load Theory Conference, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, June 15th - 17th, 2015.


Interactive Effects Of Early And Recent Exposure To Stressful Contexts On Cortisol Reactivity In Middle Childhood, Sara R. Jaffee, Tara Mcfarquhar, Suzanne Stevens, Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky Jan 2015

Interactive Effects Of Early And Recent Exposure To Stressful Contexts On Cortisol Reactivity In Middle Childhood, Sara R. Jaffee, Tara Mcfarquhar, Suzanne Stevens, Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background Given mixed findings as to whether stressful experiences and relationships are associated with increases or decreases in children's cortisol reactivity, we tested whether a child's developmental history of risk exposure explained variation in cortisol reactivity to an experimentally induced task. We also tested whether the relationship between cortisol reactivity and children's internalizing and externalizing problems varied as a function of their developmental history of stressful experiences and relationships. Method Participants included 400 children (M = 9.99 years, SD = 0.74 years) from the Children's Experiences and Development Study. Early risk exposure was measured by children ...


If A Safety Aid Is Present, There Must Be Danger: The Paradoxical Effects Of Hand Sanitizer During A Contamination Exposure Task, Shannon M. Blakey, Brett J. Deacon Jan 2015

If A Safety Aid Is Present, There Must Be Danger: The Paradoxical Effects Of Hand Sanitizer During A Contamination Exposure Task, Shannon M. Blakey, Brett J. Deacon

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Perceptions of danger often arise in the context of feared threat cues, but individuals also rely on other heuristics that lead them to infer danger in ambiguous situations. For example, individuals may interpret their own anxiety or safety-seeking behaviors as indicators of threat. Another potential source of danger information is the mere availability of safety aids in the environment. Although assumed to be helpful, safety aids might paradoxically elicit, rather than alleviate, anxiety. The present study was designed to assess the degree to which concern-relevant safety aids exacerbate distress. Participants (N = 71) completed several self-report measures and engaged in a ...


Effects Of Computer-Based Visual Representation On Mathematics Learning And Cognitive Load, Hsin I. Yung, Fred Paas Jan 2015

Effects Of Computer-Based Visual Representation On Mathematics Learning And Cognitive Load, Hsin I. Yung, Fred Paas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Visual representation has been recognized as a powerful learning tool in many learning domains. Based on the assumption that visual representations can support deeper understanding, we examined the effects of visual representations on learning performance and cognitive load in the domain of mathematics. An experimental condition with visual representations was compared to a control condition without visual representations among primary school students. The hypothesis that learning with visual representations would result in higher learning performance and lower cognitive load than learning without visual representations was confirmed by the results. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.


Online Cognitive Training In Healthy Older Adults: A Preliminary Study On The Effects Of Single Versus Multi-Domain Training, Courtney C. Walton, Alexandra Kavanagh, Luke Downey, Justine Lomas, David A. Camfield, Con Stough Jan 2015

Online Cognitive Training In Healthy Older Adults: A Preliminary Study On The Effects Of Single Versus Multi-Domain Training, Courtney C. Walton, Alexandra Kavanagh, Luke Downey, Justine Lomas, David A. Camfield, Con Stough

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

It has been argued that cognitive training may be effective in improving cognitive performance in healthy older adults. However, inappropriate active control groups often hinder the validity of these claims. Additionally there are relatively few independent empirical studies on popular commercially available cognitive training programs. The current research extends on previous work to explore cognitive training employing a more robust control group. Twenty-eight healthy older adults (age: M = 64.18, SD = 6.9) completed either a multi-faceted online computerised cognitive training program or trained on a simple reaction time task for 20 minutes a day over a 28 day period ...


Why Experts Can Do What They Do: The Effects Of Exogenous Resources On The Domain Impact Level Of Activities (Dila), Tobias Debatin, Manuel Hopp, Wilma Vialle, Albert Ziegler Jan 2015

Why Experts Can Do What They Do: The Effects Of Exogenous Resources On The Domain Impact Level Of Activities (Dila), Tobias Debatin, Manuel Hopp, Wilma Vialle, Albert Ziegler

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In many domains, it is estimated that approximately 10,000 hours of planned learning activities are required to reach an expert level of performance. However, this poses a challenge for learners to balance such extensive learning times with the demands of everyday life. In our study we focused on activities in the domain of chess. We hypothesized that chess-related activities could be better integrated in an individual's life if exogenous resources - specified in the educational capital approach (Ziegler & Baker, 2013) - are sufficiently available. In order to test this hypothesis we introduced the concept of the Domain Impact Level of ...


Participatory Or Deliberative Democracy? Exploring The Mediation Effects Of Perceived Online Deliberation And Online Interactive Activities On Social Outcomes, Kyung Han You, Jeong Kyu Lee, Hyunjin Kang, Eun Go Jan 2015

Participatory Or Deliberative Democracy? Exploring The Mediation Effects Of Perceived Online Deliberation And Online Interactive Activities On Social Outcomes, Kyung Han You, Jeong Kyu Lee, Hyunjin Kang, Eun Go

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Using the structural equation modeling method (N = 811), this study explores the structural relationships among online news consumption, political participation and social trust, with a focus on the mediating effects of online users' deliberative perceptions and news-related online interactive activities. The analysis confirms that users' perceptions of online deliberation exert a significant mediating effect on users' levels of news consumption, political participation, and social trust. Users' interactive civic messaging behaviors, on the other hand, solely enhance participatory intentions. The findings also show that the consumption of political news and the consumption of entertainment news have different effects on users' perceptions ...


Understanding The Effects Of Crime On Women: Fear And Well-Being In The Context Of Diverse Relationships, Natalia K. Hanley, Leah Ruppanner Jan 2015

Understanding The Effects Of Crime On Women: Fear And Well-Being In The Context Of Diverse Relationships, Natalia K. Hanley, Leah Ruppanner

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The risk-fear paradox, whereby people who experience the least criminal victimisation report the greatest fear of crime, has been established in the extant literature. That this paradox is gendered, notably that women report greater fear yet are less likely to experience crime, has also been consistently identified. However, there remains a largely unanswered call to explore further the distinctive experiences of women and men. There are likely to be substantial within-group differences as well as between-group differences in experiences of crime and reported fear of crime. For instance, women may experience fear differently by relationship type. Specifically, women in non-traditional ...


Eeg Effects On Electrophysiological And Behavioural Responses During A Cued Cpt, Diana Karamacoska, Robert Barry, Frances De Blasio Jan 2014

Eeg Effects On Electrophysiological And Behavioural Responses During A Cued Cpt, Diana Karamacoska, Robert Barry, Frances De Blasio

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at The 17th World Congress of Psychophysiology (IOP2014) of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (IOP) Hiroshima, Japan, September 23rd to 27th, 2014


Effects Of Vegetable Consumption On Weight Loss: A Review Of The Evidence With Implications For Design Of Randomised Controlled Trials, Linda Tapsell, Alicia Dunning, Eva Warensjo, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Kate Dehlsen Jan 2014

Effects Of Vegetable Consumption On Weight Loss: A Review Of The Evidence With Implications For Design Of Randomised Controlled Trials, Linda Tapsell, Alicia Dunning, Eva Warensjo, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Kate Dehlsen

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Vegetable consumption is a key strategy in many weight loss programs but establishing the evidence that vegetable consumption per se assists with weight loss may be difficult. Creating a dietary energy deficit involves the whole diet, so research on the effects of vegetables may need to consider the whole-dietary model. The aims of this review were to examine the evidence on whether a higher vegetable consumption resulted in greater weight loss in overweight adults (compared to lower intakes) in view of a critique study designs with respect to their potential impact on outcomes. Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic ...


Mapping The Effects Of Prestimulus Eeg Band Amplitude In An Equiprobable Go/Nogo Task, Frances De Blasio, Robert Barry Jan 2014

Mapping The Effects Of Prestimulus Eeg Band Amplitude In An Equiprobable Go/Nogo Task, Frances De Blasio, Robert Barry

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 17th World Congress of Psychophysiology (IOP2014) of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (IOP) Hiroshima, Japan, September 23rd to 27th, 2014


Identifying The Impact Of Local Crime On Mental Health: A Longitudinal Fixed Effects Analysis, Thomas Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng, Gregory Kolt, Bin Jalaludin Jan 2014

Identifying The Impact Of Local Crime On Mental Health: A Longitudinal Fixed Effects Analysis, Thomas Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng, Gregory Kolt, Bin Jalaludin

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the Society for Social Medicine 58th Annual Scientific Meeting, 10-12 September 2014, Oxford, United Kingdom


Opposite Effects Of Thc And Cbd On Auditory Mismatch Negativity: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of Acute Cannabinoid, Nadia Solowij, Samantha J. Broyd, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Patricia Michie, Juanita Todd, Alison L. Jones, A Zuardi, F M. Leweke, Robin Murray, Rodney J. Croft Jan 2014

Opposite Effects Of Thc And Cbd On Auditory Mismatch Negativity: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of Acute Cannabinoid, Nadia Solowij, Samantha J. Broyd, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Patricia Michie, Juanita Todd, Alison L. Jones, A Zuardi, F M. Leweke, Robin Murray, Rodney J. Croft

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract of a poster presentation at the 27th ECNP Congress, Berlin, Germany, 18-21 October 2014.


Composite Effects For Static And Dynamic Facial Expressions, Simone Favelle, Alanna Tobin, Romina Palermo Jan 2014

Composite Effects For Static And Dynamic Facial Expressions, Simone Favelle, Alanna Tobin, Romina Palermo

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at The Psychonomic Society 55th Annual Meeting, 20-23 November 2014, Long Beach, United States


We Can Be Happy Upside Down: Inversion Effects For Static And Dynamic Facial Expressions, Simone Favelle, Romina Palermo, Alanna Tobin Jan 2014

We Can Be Happy Upside Down: Inversion Effects For Static And Dynamic Facial Expressions, Simone Favelle, Romina Palermo, Alanna Tobin

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at The 41st Annual Australasian Experimental Psychology Conference, 23-26 April 2014, Brisbane, Australia


Composite Effects For Static And Dynamic Facial Expressions, Alanna Tobin, Simone Favelle, Romina Palermo Jan 2014

Composite Effects For Static And Dynamic Facial Expressions, Alanna Tobin, Simone Favelle, Romina Palermo

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at The 41st Annual Australasian Experimental Psychology Conference, 23-26 April 2014, Brisbane, Australia


The Effects Of Fathers' And Mothers' Reading To Their Children On Language Outcomes Of Children Participating In Early Head Start In The United States, Anna E. Duursma Jan 2014

The Effects Of Fathers' And Mothers' Reading To Their Children On Language Outcomes Of Children Participating In Early Head Start In The United States, Anna E. Duursma

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

It is well known that reading aloud affects children 's language and literacy development. Little is known though, about fathers reading to their children. This study examined paternal and maternal bookreading frequency among 430 low-income families and investigated whether paternal bookreading and maternal bookreading predicted children 's early language and cognitive development and emergent literacy skills. Results demonstrated that mothers read more frequently to their toddlers than fathers but approximately 55% of fathers reported reading at least weekly to their children. Paternal bookreading at 24 and 36 months significantly predicted children's language and cognitive skills at age 36 months ...


Caffeine Effects On Sequential Processing In The Equiprobable Go/Nogo Task, Robert Barry, Frances De Blasio, Adele E. Cave Jan 2014

Caffeine Effects On Sequential Processing In The Equiprobable Go/Nogo Task, Robert Barry, Frances De Blasio, Adele E. Cave

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 17th World Congress of Psychophysiology (IOP2014) of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (IOP) Hiroshima, Japan, September 23rd to 27th, 2014


Effects Of Problem Solving After Worked Example Study On Primary School Children's Monitoring Accuracy, Martine Baars, Tamara Van Gog, Anique De Bruin, Fred Paas Jan 2014

Effects Of Problem Solving After Worked Example Study On Primary School Children's Monitoring Accuracy, Martine Baars, Tamara Van Gog, Anique De Bruin, Fred Paas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Research on expository text has shown that the accuracy of students' judgments of learning (JOLs) can be improved by instructional interventions that allow students to test their knowledge of the text. The present study extends this research, investigating whether allowing students to test the knowledge they acquired from studying a worked example by means of solving an identical problem, either immediately or delayed, would enhance JOL accuracy. Fifth grade children (i) gave an immediate JOL, (ii) a delayed JOL, (iii) solved a problem immediately and then gave a JOL, (iv) solved a problem immediately and gave a delayed JOL, or ...


The Effects Associated With New Public Management-Inspired Change Within Juvenile Justice In New South Wales, Ann Dadich, Brian Stout, Hassan Hosseinzadeh Jan 2014

The Effects Associated With New Public Management-Inspired Change Within Juvenile Justice In New South Wales, Ann Dadich, Brian Stout, Hassan Hosseinzadeh

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This study is the first to examine reactions to, and the management of organisational change within the juvenile justice sector through the public administration lens. This is achieved via a state-wide study on the introduction of a policy framework in eight juvenile justice centres to manage detainee behaviour. Data on centre demographics, framework implementation, and associated outcomes were analysed. Despite the common framework, the eight centres reacted to, and managed organisational change in disparate ways with disparate effects - some of which appear counterintuitive. These findings demonstrate the ways in which organisational context shapes reactions to, and the management of organisational ...


Identifying The Quality Of Life Effects Of Urinary Incontinence With Depression In An Australian Population, Jodie C. Avery, Nigel P. Stocks, Paul Duggan, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Anne Taylor, Robert Goldney, Alastair Maclennan Jan 2013

Identifying The Quality Of Life Effects Of Urinary Incontinence With Depression In An Australian Population, Jodie C. Avery, Nigel P. Stocks, Paul Duggan, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Anne Taylor, Robert Goldney, Alastair Maclennan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background

To explore the additive effect of urinary incontinence, in people with comorbid depression, on health related quality of life.

Methods

Males and females, 15 to 95 years (n = 3010, response rate 70.2%) were interviewed face to face in the 1998 Autumn South Australian Health Omnibus Survey.

Results

Self-reported urinary incontinence was found in 20.3% (n=610), and depression as defined by the PRIME-MD in 15.2% (n=459) of the survey population. Urinary incontinence with comorbid depression was found in 4.3% of the overall population. Univariate analysis showed that respondents with urinary incontinence and comorbid depression ...