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Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Trauma Reactions In The Offender, Mitchell K. Byrne Jan 2000

Trauma Reactions In The Offender, Mitchell K. Byrne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The psychological sequelae to an incident, objectively defined as 'traumatic', may range from no reaction or mild depression through to dissociative experiences and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper I intend to survey more severe responses to trauma as experienced by offenders, in particular, violent offenders. While the symptomology overlap, the two key trauma reactions discussed are PTSD and Dissociative Disorders. The importance of dissociation has recently been emphasized by Gershuny and Thayer (1999) who have found that not only is dissociation associated with trauma but that those who do dissociate are more likely to experience higher Ievels of ...


Learning To Assess School Mathematics: Context, Multimedia And Transfer, Janice Herrington, Anthony Herrington, Len Sparrow Jan 2000

Learning To Assess School Mathematics: Context, Multimedia And Transfer, Janice Herrington, Anthony Herrington, Len Sparrow

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The study set out to explore the use of a multimedia program on assessment strategies within a preservice teacher mathematics method unit, and to investigate the extent of transfer to classroom practice. A multimedia program was designed to incorporate characteristics of 'situated' learning environments. Preservice teachers used the program in their mathematics method classes, and they and their supervising teachers were interviewed regarding their use of assessment strategies while on professional practice. Results show that all students used a variety of assessment strategies, and according to the beliefs of the students themselves, were influenced in their use of strategies by ...


Diet Composition And Insulin Action In Animals Models, Leonard Storlien, J A. Higgins, T C. Thomas, John Brown, Hongqin Wang, Xu-Feng Huang, Paul Else Jan 2000

Diet Composition And Insulin Action In Animals Models, Leonard Storlien, J A. Higgins, T C. Thomas, John Brown, Hongqin Wang, Xu-Feng Huang, Paul Else

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Critical insights into the etiology of insulin resistance have been gained by the use of animal models where insulin action has been modulated by strictly controlled dietary interventions not possible in human studies. Overall, the literature has moved from a focus on macronutrient proportions to understanding the unique effects of individual subtypes of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Substantial evidence has now accumulated for a major role of dietary fat subtypes in insulin action. Intake of saturated fats is strongly linked to development of obesity and insulin resistance, while that of polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) is not. This is consistent with observations ...


Attempted Suicide: Listening To And Learning From Young People, Susan Gair, Peter J. Camilleri Jan 2000

Attempted Suicide: Listening To And Learning From Young People, Susan Gair, Peter J. Camilleri

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Suicide has become a major international health issue. Australia records one of the highest youth suicide rates in the world and Queensland has one of the highest suicide rates in Australia. This study sought insights into the suicide attempts of young men and women who survived. In-depth interviews were conducted in Townsville, Queensland, with a small group of young men and women aged 16-24 to explore the circumstances leading to the attempted suicide, the help sought and their suggestions for more effective intervention. The findings offer insight into the needs of local at-risk youth and provide suggestions for intervention services ...


Odyssey Renewed: Towards A New Aesthetics Of Video Gaming, Jason Wilson Jan 2000

Odyssey Renewed: Towards A New Aesthetics Of Video Gaming, Jason Wilson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The first home video-gaming console, the Magnavox Odyssey, was released in 1972. Its limited graphical capacities led Magnavox to ship it with a number of plastic overlays for the user's television that would admit a little variety into the then relatively crude gaming experience, limited to a built-in, Pong-like game. Computer and video games have come a long way since then, but it often seems as if critical approaches to gaming have continued shuffling through these plastic films, taking transformations of the screen, or on-screen events, for the whole of the gaming experience. It seems to me that reflection ...


Researching Case Management: Making It A 'Fact'?, Peter J. Camilleri Jan 2000

Researching Case Management: Making It A 'Fact'?, Peter J. Camilleri

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Case management has become a very important part of the human and health services and has also been cemented in legislation in the US, the UK and Australia and implemented in various practice settings and programs. A review on case management is presented considering its historic origins, concepts and the various researches done on it.


Over Het Meten Van De Sensitiviteit Bij Professionele Verzorg(St)Ers, Frits Goossens, Edward Melhuish Jan 2000

Over Het Meten Van De Sensitiviteit Bij Professionele Verzorg(St)Ers, Frits Goossens, Edward Melhuish

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Much research indicates the importance of interactional experience for young children in developing their competence. In particular sensitivity in interaction has been associated with beneficial developmental outcomes and is often regarded as a central component of good quality child care. This study considers some alternative ways of measuring the sensitivity of caregivers. Thirty professional caregiver-infant dyads were observed in three different situations: in the laboratury during free-play (1), during a task (2) and at the nursery itself while caring for 10 infants with a colleague (3). Results indicated that their sensitivity was highest in situation 1; this score was significantly ...


Options For The Assessment And Reporting Of Primary Students In The Key Learning Area Of Science To Be Used For The Reporting Of Nationally Comparable Outcomes Of Schooling Within The Context Of The National Goals For Schooling In The Twenty-First Century, Samuel Ball, Ian D. Rae, Jim S. Tognolini Jan 2000

Options For The Assessment And Reporting Of Primary Students In The Key Learning Area Of Science To Be Used For The Reporting Of Nationally Comparable Outcomes Of Schooling Within The Context Of The National Goals For Schooling In The Twenty-First Century, Samuel Ball, Ian D. Rae, Jim S. Tognolini

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The National Education Performance Monitoring Taskforce (NEPMT) was established in April 1999 by the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA). The taskforce was called upon inter alia to develop performance measures as the basis for national reporting. One such area was science.


Severe Maternal Psychopathology And Infant-Mother Attachment, A E. Hipwell, Frits Goossens, Edward Melhuish, R Kumar Jan 2000

Severe Maternal Psychopathology And Infant-Mother Attachment, A E. Hipwell, Frits Goossens, Edward Melhuish, R Kumar

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Eighty-two mother-infant dyads, comprising women with psychiatric disorder and individually matched controls, were followed up over the children's 1st year of life. The mothers with mental illness consisted of two subgroups: first, 25 severely mentally ill mothers who had been admitted to a psychiatric unit with their infants; and second, 16 mothers from a community sample meeting research diagnostic criteria for unipolar, nonpsychotic depression. With the exception of six dyads in the in-patient group, observations were made of the mother-infant interaction and the quality of the infant-mother attachment relationship at 12 months. The nature and course of the mothers ...


Online Support For Preservice Mathematics Teachers In Schools, Anthony Herrington, Janice Herrington, Arshad Omari Jan 2000

Online Support For Preservice Mathematics Teachers In Schools, Anthony Herrington, Janice Herrington, Arshad Omari

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper describes the development of a web-based resource designed to support preservice mathematics teachers on school practice. The development of the site resulted in part from a needs analysis conducted with a focus group of students. The purpose of the focus group discussion was to gain from the students their ideas about the type of support that would be most helpful to them as they prepare to teach mathematics lessons, and how the university might be able to assist in these sometimes prolonged periods in school where they are without their traditional support structures. As a result of these ...


Visually Directed Walking To Briefly Glimpsed Targets Is Not Biased Toward Fixation Location, John W. Philbeck Jan 2000

Visually Directed Walking To Briefly Glimpsed Targets Is Not Biased Toward Fixation Location, John W. Philbeck

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

When observers indicate the magnitude of a previously viewed spatial extent by walking without vision to each endpoint, there is little evidence of the perceptual collapse in depth associated with some other methods (eg visual matching). One explanation is that both walking and matching are perceptually mediated, but that the perceived layout is task-dependent. In this view, perceived depth beyond 2 - 3 m is typically distorted by an equidistance effect, whereby the egocentric distances of nonfixated portions of the depth interval are perceptually pulled toward the fixated point. Action-based responses, however, recruit processes that enhance perceptual accuracy as the stimulus ...


Preservice Teachers' Understanding And Representation Of Equality Of Fractions In A Javabars Environment, Mohan Chinnappan Jan 2000

Preservice Teachers' Understanding And Representation Of Equality Of Fractions In A Javabars Environment, Mohan Chinnappan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In recent years, considerable research effort has been invested in identifying the nature of the knowledge that drives mathematics teachers’ actions in the classroom. While this investigation has generated a useful body of information, there has been little information about changes in the character of this knowledge when teaching involves the use of technology. In this paper, I address this issue by examining a group of preservice primary mathematics teachers’ understanding of fractions. The participants were required to order fractions within software called JavaBars. The results suggest that, while the preservice teachers had built up robust knowledge about fractions, they ...


Quality Of Life Related To Fear Of Falling And Hip Fracture In Older Women: A Time Trade Off Study, Glenn P. Salkeld, Ian D. Cameron, Robert Cumming, S Easter, J Seymour, S E. Kurrle, S Quine Jan 2000

Quality Of Life Related To Fear Of Falling And Hip Fracture In Older Women: A Time Trade Off Study, Glenn P. Salkeld, Ian D. Cameron, Robert Cumming, S Easter, J Seymour, S E. Kurrle, S Quine

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

OBJECTIVE:

To estimate the utility (preference for health) associated with hip fracture and fear of falling among older women.

DESIGN:

Quality of life survey with the time trade off technique. The technique derives an estimate of preference for health states by finding the point at which respondents show no preference between a longer but lower quality of life and a shorter time in full health.

SETTING:

A randomised trial of external hip protectors for older women at risk of hip fracture.

PARTICIPANTS:

194 women aged >/= 75 years enrolled in the randomised controlled trial or who were eligible for the trial ...


Enhancing Offender Recall Of Their Crime As A Strategy To Improve Treatment Responsivity, Mitchell K. Byrne Jan 2000

Enhancing Offender Recall Of Their Crime As A Strategy To Improve Treatment Responsivity, Mitchell K. Byrne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 34th Annual Conference of the Australian Psychological Society 'The Brain Games' 3rd-7th October 2000 National Convention Centre, Canberra ACT


Key Issues In The Provision Of Correctional Services For Women, Mitchell K. Byrne, Kevin Howells Jan 2000

Key Issues In The Provision Of Correctional Services For Women, Mitchell K. Byrne, Kevin Howells

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The time has arrived for a more detailed analysis of the specific needs of female offenders. Even though there is an increasing prevalence, internationally, of women in prison, there is a perception in the literature that governments and correctional systems have failed to deliver reforms and changes in the management of women prisoners. The extent of need identified in the international literature is of relevance to Australia, where the number of female prisoners also appears to be on the increase - in 1983 women comprised 3.9% of the entire prison population, in 1990, 5.4% and in 1998: 6%. Easteal ...


Female Offenders Are Different Form Male Offenders: Anger As An Example, Jennifer Suter, Mitchell K. Byrne Jan 2000

Female Offenders Are Different Form Male Offenders: Anger As An Example, Jennifer Suter, Mitchell K. Byrne

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Anger is a common, universally experienced emotion, which occurs on a continuum from mild annoyance to rage or fury (Daffenbacher et al., 1996). Anger is likely to occur when a person believes their personal rights or codes have been violated. Similarly, anger can occur when a person feels powerless or threatened (Horn and Towl, 1997). Anger consists of interrelated, reciprocal components (Novaco, 1975). Environmental circumstances often trigger anger. Physiological symptoms can serve to alert the individual that they are angry, and can help them provide a label to that anger. Cognitions refer to the individual's style of thinking about ...


The Carletonville-Mothusimpilo Project: Limiting Transmission Of Hiv Through Community-Based Interventions, Brian G. Williams, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Catherine Campbell, D Taljaard, Eleanor Gouws, S Moema, Z Mzaidume, B Rasego Jan 2000

The Carletonville-Mothusimpilo Project: Limiting Transmission Of Hiv Through Community-Based Interventions, Brian G. Williams, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Catherine Campbell, D Taljaard, Eleanor Gouws, S Moema, Z Mzaidume, B Rasego

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

For all of the last century, the economy of South Africa, and so also of its neighbouring countries, has depended on migrant labour from rural areas. This is particularly so for the mining industry, especially hard-rock mining, and this has led to a system of 'oscillating' migration whereby men from rural areas come to live and work on the mines, without their wives or families, but return home regularly. This pattern of oscillating migration is an important determinant of health and, especially at the start of the epidemic, contributed to the spread of HIV in the region. In this paper ...


Porter And Sheppard, A World Of Difference: Society, Nature, Development, Noel Castree Jan 2000

Porter And Sheppard, A World Of Difference: Society, Nature, Development, Noel Castree

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Book review of: P. W. Porter and E.S. Sheppard, A World of Difference: Society, Nature, Development. New York: Guilford Press, 1998. 602 pp. ISBN 1-57230-324-7 (paperback).