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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

How Cognitive Ability And Financial Literacy Shape The Demand For Financial Advice At Older Ages, Hugh Hoikwang Kim, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell Jan 2020

How Cognitive Ability And Financial Literacy Shape The Demand For Financial Advice At Older Ages, Hugh Hoikwang Kim, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

We investigate how cognitive ability and financial literacy shape older Americans’ demand for financial advice. Using an experimental module at the Health and Retirement Study, we show that cognitive ability and financial literacy strongly improve the quality but not the quantity of financial advice sought: more financially literate and cognitively able seek financial help from professionals. They also utilize more ‘free’ financial advice that may entail potential conflicts of interest. Finally, among those not seeking financial advice, people with higher cognitive function tend to distrust financial advisors, leading them to avoid these services.


Persistence Of Non-Communicable Diseases, Affluence And Inequality In India, Veena S. Kulkarni, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha Dec 2019

Persistence Of Non-Communicable Diseases, Affluence And Inequality In India, Veena S. Kulkarni, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

This study builds on the extant literature by highlighting the persistence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), their cross-associations, and how these diseases are linked to different forms of inequality-socio-economic, gaps in affluence measured by asset quartile, and in the overall economic environment, based on a nation-wide panel survey, India Human Development Survey 2015. A multinomial probit specification is used to analyse NCD outcomes. Those at the bottom of the caste hierarchy and least wealthy exhibit lowest vulnerability to NCDs despite their deprivation and limited access to healthcare facilities while those at the higher end of the caste hierarchy and the wealthiest ...


Long-Term Care Financing In The United States, Puja Upadhyay, Janet Weiner Oct 2019

Long-Term Care Financing In The United States, Puja Upadhyay, Janet Weiner

Issue Briefs

In the United States, people who need long-term care (LTC) face a system with large gaps in care, which they must rely on friends and family to fill. Medicaid finances the majority of paid LTC, but people must exhaust their resources to qualify. Medicare and private health insurance do not cover LTC, and the private market for long-term care insurance is failing. Unpaid family and friends provide most long-term services, but the value of their services is rarely reflected in debates about LTC financing and delivery. Beyond the value of the services, this system has costs to the economy, as ...


Cross-National Differences In Gain-Domain Risk Preferences Among Older Populations: Judgment And Decision-Making Behaviors In Rapidly Aging Countries, Samuel Joo, Suyoung Baek May 2019

Cross-National Differences In Gain-Domain Risk Preferences Among Older Populations: Judgment And Decision-Making Behaviors In Rapidly Aging Countries, Samuel Joo, Suyoung Baek

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

This research explores the systematic, cross-national differences in choice-inferred risk preferences between American and South Korean ("Korean") elders. A total of four different same groups--American elders, Korean elders, American young adults, and Korean young adults--were surveyed. All four groups were asked to partake in a two-part questionnaire: one pertaining to their background information and the other consisting of a set of gain-domain choice questions based on hypothetical lottery situations. The result of the study highlights three statistically significant (a=0.05) findings among the groups surveyed: (1) The Korean elderly group tends to be more risk-averse than the American elderly ...


Household Debt And Aging In Japan, Charles Yuji Horioka, Yoko Niimi May 2019

Household Debt And Aging In Japan, Charles Yuji Horioka, Yoko Niimi

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

In this paper, we analyze the borrowing behavior of Japanese households in comparison to the other Group of Seven (G7) countries and also broken down by the age group of the household head. We find that pre-retirement households (households with a head in the 50-59 age group) in Japan do not have inordinate amounts of debt and that their financial health is satisfactory. However, we also find that households with a head in the 30-39 age group have shown a sharp increase in debt holdings in recent years, due partly to the fact that tax breaks for housing purchase, reforms ...


Aging, Disability And Disease In India, Veena S. Kulkarni, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha Oct 2018

Aging, Disability And Disease In India, Veena S. Kulkarni, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Obtaining detailed evidence on disabilities and their covariates is important as India’s elderly population (60 years or more) is growing three times faster than the population as a whole. This study is the first of its kind to provide an analysis of disability and its covariates among the elderly in 2012, based on the India Human Development Survey 2015, a nationally representative panel survey. Our analysis throws light on factors associated with (reported) disabilities in 2012.Given better reporting of disabilities in 2012, we examine the role of their covariates in 2005. Variations in both disabilities by count and ...


Aging, Depression, Non-Communicable Diseases And Disabilities In South Africa, Manoj K. Pandey, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha Jul 2018

Aging, Depression, Non-Communicable Diseases And Disabilities In South Africa, Manoj K. Pandey, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

This is the first study that offers a comprehensive analysis of depression among the old (60+ years) in South Africa. This study uses four waves of a panel survey of the South Africa National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) during 2008-2014. A state-of-art econometric methodology has been used to unravel the factors underlying depression among the old over the period 2008-2014. Depending on whether the dependent variable is binary (self-reported depression for ≥ 3 days in a week) or continuous (as in measures of overall depression and severe depression), we use random effects probit with Mundlak adjustment or simply random effects with ...


Aging And The Gains From Marriage, Toban Wiebe Jan 2018

Aging And The Gains From Marriage, Toban Wiebe

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Men and women have distinct marriage patterns over the lifecycle. In the contemporary USA, marriages for women are concentrated earlier in the lifecycle, whereas for men they are spread out later in the lifecycle. In particular, this means that men are more likely than women to get married in middle age and beyond. This difference is especially pronounced for remarriages — men are far more likely than women to remarry after the age of 30. As a result, there are far more single women than single men over the age of 40. This difference in remarriage patterns cannot be explained by ...


Health And Mortality Patterns Among Migrants In France, Myriam Khlat, Michel Guillot Mar 2017

Health And Mortality Patterns Among Migrants In France, Myriam Khlat, Michel Guillot

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Emotion And Sleep Alterations On Hippocampus-Dependent Memory Consolidation, Robin Kay Yuan Jan 2017

The Effects Of Emotion And Sleep Alterations On Hippocampus-Dependent Memory Consolidation, Robin Kay Yuan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The activity of hippocampal place cells is thought to generate the contextual representations in which episodic memories are embedded. However, new memories are susceptible to disruption until they undergo a process known as consolidation, becoming more permanent over time. This dissertation examines how changes in emotion and alterations in sleep patterns influence hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation. I first investigated the role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor fear learning by administering a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor into the dorsal or ventral hippocampus at different stages of contextual fear conditioning. Then, using long-term electrophysiological recordings of place cells in ...


Longitudinal Studies Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Aging And Behavior Using A Microfabricated Multi-Well Device, Matthew Alexander Churgin Jan 2017

Longitudinal Studies Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Aging And Behavior Using A Microfabricated Multi-Well Device, Matthew Alexander Churgin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The roundworm C. elegans is a powerful model organism for dissecting the genetics of behavior and aging. The central genetic pathways regulating lifespan, such as insulin signaling, were first identified in worms. C. elegans is also the only animal for which a full map of all neural synpatic connections, or connectome, exists. However, current manual and automated methods are unable to efficiently monitor and quantify behavioral phenotypes which unfold over long time scales. Therefore, it has been difficult to study phenotypes such as long-term behavior states and behavioral changes with age in worms. To address these limitations, here I describe ...


Cognitive Health Among Older Adults: Evidence From Rural Sub-Saharan Africa, Collin F. Payne, Iliana V. Kohler, Chiwoza Bandawe, Kathy A. Lawler, Hans-Peter Kohler Jul 2016

Cognitive Health Among Older Adults: Evidence From Rural Sub-Saharan Africa, Collin F. Payne, Iliana V. Kohler, Chiwoza Bandawe, Kathy A. Lawler, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Cognitive health is an important dimension of well-being in older ages, but few studies have investigated cognitive health in sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) growing population of mature adults (= persons age 45+). We use data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to document the age and gender patterns of cognitive health, the contextual and life-course correlates of poor cognitive health, and the understudied linkages between cognitive and physical/mental well-being. Surprisingly, the age-pattern of decline in cognitive health for both men and women is similar to that observed in the U.S. We also find that women ...


Seven Life Priorities In Retirement, Surya Kolluri, Cynthia Hutchins May 2016

Seven Life Priorities In Retirement, Surya Kolluri, Cynthia Hutchins

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

As more and more Baby Boomers turn 65 and reach retirement age, they are reshaping the landscape of the retirement phase with a shift in their mindset; they are pursuing old dreams, exploring new opportunities, and thinking about retirement in an entirely new manner. Bank of America Merrill Lynch partnered with Age Wave to examine how Americans are preparing for retirement and analyze the seven life priorities that are most important to today’s retirees: Health, Home, Family, Work Giving, Finances, and Leisure. Although there is much optimism and opportunity that comes with this new wave of retirement, there is ...


Aging And Competence In Decision Making, Wandi Bruine De Bruin May 2016

Aging And Competence In Decision Making, Wandi Bruine De Bruin

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

Around the world, average life expectancy is increasing. Adults of all ages face important decisions that affect their life outcomes and overall well-being. This paper reviews recent developments in research on age differences in decision-making competence. The measurement of age differences in decision-making competence is grounded in normative theories of decision making, which posit how people should be making decisions, as well as descriptive research, which aims to examine how people actually make decisions. Studies on age differences in decision making have shown mixed patterns of results, perhaps because of having included a wide range of decision-making competence tasks. Each ...


Three Essays On Social Stratification, Gender And Health, Yeonjin Lee Jan 2016

Three Essays On Social Stratification, Gender And Health, Yeonjin Lee

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on health inequalities that arise from interactions between education, gender, and socio-cultural context: gender disparities in the educational gradients in weight status, the gender-specific relationship between mortality of parents and offspring's educational attainment, and the association between adult literacy and self-rated health in 17 developed countries. Methodologically, I use multinomial regression, quantile regression, Cox proportional hazards models, and country fixed-effect approaches aligning my analytic strategies with the nature and scope of the research questions.

The first chapter focuses on whether weight status is socially patterned by the interplay between human capital, economic, and ...


Essays On Aging-Related Disease In The U.S. Population, Ezra Isaac Fishman Jan 2016

Essays On Aging-Related Disease In The U.S. Population, Ezra Isaac Fishman

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

I research three topics in adult morbidity in the United States, focusing on two increasingly prevalent chronic diseases, diabetes and dementia. In the first essay, I investigate changes in age-specific diabetes prevalence across cohorts born in the 20th century and use the cross-cohort comparisons to generate model age patterns of diabetes prevalence and incidence. I show that most of the increase in diabetes prevalence over time is attributable to increases in age-specific prevalence from one cohort to the next. Because the risk of diabetes is embodied in cohorts, diabetes prevalence is likely to increase in the future even if the ...


Lifetime Risk Of Dementia In The United States, Ezra Fishman Dec 2015

Lifetime Risk Of Dementia In The United States, Ezra Fishman

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Dementia is increasingly recognized as a major source of disease burden in the United States, on par with heart disease and cancer. Little research has evaluated the lifecycle implications of dementia. To address this research gap, this article uses the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) to provide the first nationally representative, longitudinal estimates of the probability that a dementia-free person will develop dementia later in life. I estimate that for the 1920 birth cohort, the average dementia-free 70 year old male had a 23.7% (SE: 2.9%) lifetime probability of developing dementia, and the average dementia-free 70 year ...


Individual Differences In The Neural Signature Of Subjective Value Among Older Adults, Kameko Halfmann, William Hedgcock, Joseph W. Kable, Natalie L. Denburg Jun 2015

Individual Differences In The Neural Signature Of Subjective Value Among Older Adults, Kameko Halfmann, William Hedgcock, Joseph W. Kable, Natalie L. Denburg

Departmental Papers (Psychology)

Some healthy older adults show departures from standard decision-making patterns exhibited by younger adults. We asked if such departures are uniform or if heterogeneous aging processes can designate which older adults show differing decision patterns. Thirty-three healthy older adults with varying decision-making patterns on a complex decision task (the Iowa Gambling Task) completed an intertemporal choice task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We examined whether value representation in the canonical valuation network differed across older adults based on complex decision-making ability. Older adults with advantageous decision patterns showed increased activity in the valuation network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex ...


Health And Aging In Low-Resource Contexts: Three Essays On Healthy Life Expectancy In The Developing World, Collin Frederick Payne Jan 2015

Health And Aging In Low-Resource Contexts: Three Essays On Healthy Life Expectancy In The Developing World, Collin Frederick Payne

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The population of the world is getting older. In 2010, worldwide, there were about 524 million people over the age of 65; by 2050, over 1.5 billion people will be in this age group. This shift in population will not affect only developed countries, however—much of this increase in the elderly population will occur in low- and middle-income countries. As populations age, low-income countries will need to invest in health care for older adults and in disease prevention programs to prevent or delay the onset of non-communicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, and cancer). Past research on ...


Natural Symptoms? The Intersection Of Social, Biological, And Genetic Determinants Of Depression In Later Life, Jason Schnittker Jun 2014

Natural Symptoms? The Intersection Of Social, Biological, And Genetic Determinants Of Depression In Later Life, Jason Schnittker

PARC Working Paper Series

Purpose. This study explores the social, biological, and genetic determinants of depression in later life. It adds complexity to the idea that later life depression is a natural outgrowth of vascular impairment, antagonistic pleiotropy, or compromised neuroanatomical structures. Approach. The study uses the NAS-NRC Twin Registry of World War II Veterans. The use of twins allows for the exploration of gene-environment interplay. A recent survey instrument associated with the registry contains numerous indicators of health, as well as an established measure of geriatric depression. Findings. The results show that education has a strong negative relationship with depression among those in ...


Linkages Among Fertility, Migration, And Aging In India, Apoorva Jadhav Jan 2014

Linkages Among Fertility, Migration, And Aging In India, Apoorva Jadhav

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

LINKAGES AMONG FERTILITY, MIGRATION, AND AGING IN INDIA

Apoorva Jadhav

Dr. Jere Behrman

Rapid fertility declines in India have been occurring concurrently with economic growth, changing family dynamics, and a rise in the older population- consistent with the demographic transition. This dissertation explores these relationships using the India Human Development Survey (2005-06), Building a Knowledge Base on Population Aging in India (2011), and a qualitative study. First, I investigate the relationship between increased female autonomy in partner choice and length to first birth interval, and find two important mechanisms: Women with more educational attainment are more likely choose their ...


Aging In America: Time To Thrive, Deborah H. Hammons Aug 2013

Aging In America: Time To Thrive, Deborah H. Hammons

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

A demographic phenomenon occurring in recent decades in the United States suggests that individuals approaching their retirement years will have unprecedented leisure time available to them. This project surveys literature on aging research, reviews positive psychology research regarding how to achieve well-being, and blends these two fields of research into a discussion of pathways to positive aging, in order to provide this information to individuals who wish to thrive in the second half of their lives. By using foundational tenets of positive psychology such as character strengths, positive emotions, engagement in activities, meaning, and relationships, individuals can develop strategies to ...


Bridging The Gap Between Adult Children And Their Aging Parents: Developing And Assessing A Life Review Education Program, Kathryn M. Brzozowski Dsw, Lcsw May 2013

Bridging The Gap Between Adult Children And Their Aging Parents: Developing And Assessing A Life Review Education Program, Kathryn M. Brzozowski Dsw, Lcsw

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Bridging the Gap Between Adult Children and Their Aging Parents: Developing and Assessing a Life Review Education Program

Abstract

Background: The parent-child relationship is one of the most influential and integral relationships in the life of both members of the dyad. Studies show that the parent-child relationship continues to maintain a place of great importance throughout the life course. In the steadily aging population of the United States, the value of the parent-child relationship is often minimized or overlooked by shifting the focus from a role of parent/child to patient/caregiver. Purpose: The purpose of this mixed-methods exploratory study ...


Change And Impact Of Microrna Modification With Age In Drosophila Melanogaster, Masashi Abe Jan 2013

Change And Impact Of Microrna Modification With Age In Drosophila Melanogaster, Masashi Abe

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

microRNAs (miRNAs) are 20~24nt small RNAs that are critical for many biological aspects, from development to age-associated processes. Starting from the identification of the first miRNA, lin-4, hundreds of miRNAs have been discovered across species. To reveal the role of miRNAs in aging, studies have profiled changes in miRNA levels with age. However, increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs show heterogeneity in length and sequence in different biological contexts. Despite the observation of such heterogeneity, it is largely unknown how such heterogeneity is generated, and whether it is biologically regulated or important. Here we report the characterization of a novel ...


Regulation Of Drosophila Rest: Activity Rhythms By A Microrna And Aging, Wenyu Luo Jan 2012

Regulation Of Drosophila Rest: Activity Rhythms By A Microrna And Aging, Wenyu Luo

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Although there has been much progress in deciphering the molecular basis of the circadian clock, major questions remain about clock mechanisms and about the control of behavior and physiology by the clock. In particular, mechanisms that transmit time-of-day signals from the clock and produce rhythmic behaviors are poorly understood. Also, it is not known why rest:activity rhythms break down with age. In this thesis, we used a Drosophila model to address some of these questions. We identified a pathway that is required downstream of the clock for rhythmic rest:activity and also explored the mechanisms that account for deterioration ...


The Impact Of The Progresa/Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program On Health And Related Outcomes For The Aging In Mexico, Jere R. Behrman, Susan W. Parker Oct 2011

The Impact Of The Progresa/Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program On Health And Related Outcomes For The Aging In Mexico, Jere R. Behrman, Susan W. Parker

PARC Working Paper Series

Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs link public transfers to human capital investment in hopes of alleviating current poverty and reducing its intergenerational transmission. Whereas nearly all studies of their impacts have focused on youth, these CCT programs may also have an impact on aging adults, by increasing household resources or inducing changes in allocations of time of various household members, that may be of substantial interest, particularly given the rapid aging of most populations. This paper contributes to this under-researched area by examining health and work impacts on the aging for the best-known and most influential of these programs, the ...


Intergenerational Transfers In The Era Of Hiv/Aids: Evidence From Rural Malawi, Iliana V. Kohler, Hans-Peter Kohler, Philip Anglewicz, Jere R. Behrman May 2011

Intergenerational Transfers In The Era Of Hiv/Aids: Evidence From Rural Malawi, Iliana V. Kohler, Hans-Peter Kohler, Philip Anglewicz, Jere R. Behrman

PSC Working Paper Series

Intergenerational transfers and relations in sub-Saharan Africa are only poorly understood, despite the alleged importance of family networks and family resource transfers to ameliorate the implications of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the effect of the epidemic on the availability of kin and the structure of multi-generational families. Our analyses fill an important niche in the literature by using innovative longitudinal data from rural Malawi that includes extensive information on intergenerational transfer relations across three generations living in a context characterized by high poverty, a generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic and high levels of morbidity and mortality. We estimate the age ...


The Promotion Of Successful Aging Through Mindfulness Skills Training, Kielty Turner May 2010

The Promotion Of Successful Aging Through Mindfulness Skills Training, Kielty Turner

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

This dissertation aims to contribute to the social work literature regarding successful aging. Specifically, the purpose of this study is to investigate if Mindfulness Meditation training (MM) is a possible method to promote successful aging.

The first chapter of the proposal is an article, “Mindfulness: The present moment in clinical social work”, which has been published in Clinical Social Work Journal (Turner, 2009). Chapter One provides an understanding of the concept of mindfulness as well as the research into the neurological and behavioral benefits of mindfulness skills training. Four specific therapy protocols, which incorporate mindfulness skills including MBSR, are described ...


Portfolio Choice In Retirement: Health Risk And The Demand For Annuities, Housing, And Risky Assets, Motohiro Yogo Aug 2009

Portfolio Choice In Retirement: Health Risk And The Demand For Annuities, Housing, And Risky Assets, Motohiro Yogo

PARC Working Paper Series

This paper develops a consumption and portfolio-choice model of a retiree who allocates wealth in four asset classes: a riskless bond, a risky asset, a real annuity, and housing. The retiree chooses health expenditure endogenously in response to stochastic depreciation of health. The model is calibrated to explain the joint dynamics of health expenditure, health, and asset allocation for retirees in the Health and Retirement Study, aged 65 and older. The calibrated model is used to assess the welfare gain from private annuitization. The welfare gain ranges from 13 percent of wealth at age 65 for those in worst health ...


The Age Of Reason: Financial Decisions Over The Lifecycle, Sumit Agarwal, John C. Driscoll, Xavier Gabaix, David Laibson Jun 2007

The Age Of Reason: Financial Decisions Over The Lifecycle, Sumit Agarwal, John C. Driscoll, Xavier Gabaix, David Laibson

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

The sophistication of financial decisions varies with age: middle-aged adults borrow at lower interest rates and pay fewer fees compared to both younger and older adults. We document this pattern in ten financial markets. The measured effects cannot be explained by observed risk characteristics. The sophistication of financial choices peaks around age 53 in our cross-sectional data. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that financial sophistication rises and then falls with age, although the patterns that we observe represent a mix of age effects and cohort effects.