Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Pennsylvania

2015

Discipline
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 417

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Race And The Haitian Constitution Of 1805, Julia Gaffield Dec 2015

Race And The Haitian Constitution Of 1805, Julia Gaffield

Unique at Penn

Essay on a manuscript Spanish translation of the Haitian Constitution held by the Kislak Center.


The Philosophies And Practices Of Alcoholics Anonymous From A Psychodynamic Perspective, Noah Kass Dec 2015

The Philosophies And Practices Of Alcoholics Anonymous From A Psychodynamic Perspective, Noah Kass

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Although predominantly ignored in the existing literature, psychodynamic perspectives on addiction are relevant to understanding the twelve-step program known as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). This dissertation analyzes specific psychodynamic perspectives on addiction including ego psychology, object relations theory, self-psychology, and attachment theory, as well as their derivations and the philosophies and practices of AA outlined in AA literature. These literatures are integrated to inform the findings and recommendations section, justifying certain AA practices while offering recommendations to improve the overall effectiveness of AA. Findings concentrate on AA helping members transition from utilizing primitive to mature defense mechanisms; manage volatile emotions in ...


A Pilot Study Of Cross-Cultural Immersion As A Pedagogical Approach For Teaching Cultural Competence, Monica M. Murray Smith Dsw Dec 2015

A Pilot Study Of Cross-Cultural Immersion As A Pedagogical Approach For Teaching Cultural Competence, Monica M. Murray Smith Dsw

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

A PILOT STUDY OF CROSS-CULTURAL IMMERSION AS A PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH FOR TEACHING CULTURAL COMPETENCE

Problem: Cultural differences between social workers and clients impede effective helping. The CSWE requires accredited social work programs to provide effective cross-cultural learning opportunities.

Objectives: This study examined cross-cultural immersion as a pedagogical approach for cultural competence compared to the usual instructional method in terms of awareness, knowledge, and skills.

Design: Employing a quasi-experimental nonequivalent comparison group design, the study measured the effectiveness of cross-cultural immersion experiences by comparing two groups of students. The comparison group (n=6) received instruction as usual through didactic teaching methods ...


Medical Students In The Emergency Department And Patient Length Of Stay, Kimon Ionnides, Mira Mamtani, Frances S. Shofer, Dylan S. Small, Sean Hennessey, Benjamin Abella, Kevin Scott Dec 2015

Medical Students In The Emergency Department And Patient Length Of Stay, Kimon Ionnides, Mira Mamtani, Frances S. Shofer, Dylan S. Small, Sean Hennessey, Benjamin Abella, Kevin Scott

Statistics Papers

Quantitative assessments of how trainees affect patient care have been limited, especially in the emergency department (ED). A US study by Pitts et al found that supervised resident visits were associated with greater resource use, including longer length of stay (LOS) in the ED. As EDs host more core clerkship courses, less experienced students have become involved in bedside care. This study examined the association between the presence of medical students in the ED and patient LOS, an established patient-centered outcome and marker of ED performance.


Stakeholders' Involvement And Participation In The Internet Governance Ecosystem: An African Perspective, Enrico Calandro Dec 2015

Stakeholders' Involvement And Participation In The Internet Governance Ecosystem: An African Perspective, Enrico Calandro

Internet Policy Observatory

From an African perspective, internet governance requires not only an understanding of the variability in access to and use of the internet across the continent, but also an understanding of the disparities between developed and developing countries’ abilities to effectively participate in global internet governance debates. Few developing countries participate in these debates, and even fewer are active in agenda-setting for global internet governance.

This paper seeks to understand how these factors transect with the notion of multistakeholder participation as a form of governance for internet policymaking, which is often informed by assumptions from more mature markets and Western democracies ...


Comparing The Effectiveness Of Individualistic, Altruistic, And Competitive Incentives In Motivating Completion Of Mental Exercises, Heather Schofield, George Loewenstein, Jessica Kopsic, Kevin G. Volpp Dec 2015

Comparing The Effectiveness Of Individualistic, Altruistic, And Competitive Incentives In Motivating Completion Of Mental Exercises, Heather Schofield, George Loewenstein, Jessica Kopsic, Kevin G. Volpp

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

This study examines the impact of individually oriented, purely altruistic, and a hybrid of competitive and cooperative monetary reward incentives on older adults’ completion of cognitive exercises and cognitive function. We find that all three incentive structures approximately double the number of exercises completed during the six-week active experimental period relative to a no incentive control condition. However, the altruistic and cooperative/competitive incentives led to different patterns of participation, with significantly higher inter-partner correlations in utilization of the software, as well as greater persistence once incentives were removed. Provision of all incentives significantly improved performance on the incentivized exercises ...


Estimating Ambiguity Preferences And Perceptions In Multiple Prior Models: Evidence From The Field, Stephen G. Dimmock Dec 2015

Estimating Ambiguity Preferences And Perceptions In Multiple Prior Models: Evidence From The Field, Stephen G. Dimmock

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

No abstract provided.


Finding The Pope's Message In The American Hog Industry, Brooke Reczka Dec 2015

Finding The Pope's Message In The American Hog Industry, Brooke Reczka

Penn Sustainability Review

No abstract provided.


Ecomodernism: The Future Of Environmentalism? An Interview With Mark Lynas Dec 2015

Ecomodernism: The Future Of Environmentalism? An Interview With Mark Lynas

Penn Sustainability Review

No abstract provided.


Disaster Risk And Its Implications For Asset Pricing, Jerry Tsai, Jessica A. Wachter Dec 2015

Disaster Risk And Its Implications For Asset Pricing, Jerry Tsai, Jessica A. Wachter

Finance Papers

After lying dormant for more than two decades, the rare disaster framework has emerged as a leading contender to explain facts about the aggregate market, interest rates, and financial derivatives. In this article, we survey recent models of disaster risk that provide explanations for the equity premium puzzle, the volatility puzzle, return predictability, and other features of the aggregate stock market. We show how these models can also explain violations of the expectations hypothesis in bond pricing as well as the implied volatility skew in option pricing. We review both modeling techniques and results and consider both endowment and production ...


Land Water Conservation Fund, Jisoo Kim Dec 2015

Land Water Conservation Fund, Jisoo Kim

Penn Sustainability Review

No abstract provided.


Hydro Power: Those Damn Dams, Rosalie Chen Dec 2015

Hydro Power: Those Damn Dams, Rosalie Chen

Penn Sustainability Review

No abstract provided.


Cap And Trade Emissionstrading: For Market-Based Regulation, Neha Goswami Dec 2015

Cap And Trade Emissionstrading: For Market-Based Regulation, Neha Goswami

Penn Sustainability Review

No abstract provided.


Sustainability Of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Stocks: The Problem Of Overfishing, Erini Lemos Dec 2015

Sustainability Of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Stocks: The Problem Of Overfishing, Erini Lemos

Penn Sustainability Review

No abstract provided.


Wave Energy, Sasha Klebnikov Dec 2015

Wave Energy, Sasha Klebnikov

Penn Sustainability Review

No abstract provided.


Sinking Feelings: Environmental Knowledge Of Tangier Island, Oscar Serpell Dec 2015

Sinking Feelings: Environmental Knowledge Of Tangier Island, Oscar Serpell

Penn Sustainability Review

No abstract provided.


Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, Matthew Chan Dec 2015

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, Matthew Chan

Penn Sustainability Review

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Editor Dec 2015

Letter From The Editor

Penn Sustainability Review

No abstract provided.


The New College House: Sustainable Or Disposable?, Karen Chi Dec 2015

The New College House: Sustainable Or Disposable?, Karen Chi

Penn Sustainability Review

No abstract provided.


Pain And Preferences: Observed Decisional Conflict And The Convergence Of Preferences, Rom Y. Schrift, Moty Amar Dec 2015

Pain And Preferences: Observed Decisional Conflict And The Convergence Of Preferences, Rom Y. Schrift, Moty Amar

Marketing Papers

Decision making often entails conflict. In many situations, the symptoms of such decisional conflict are conspicuous. This article explores an important and unexamined question: How does observing someone else experiencing decisional conflict impact our own preferences? The authors show that observing others' emotional conflict and agony over an impending decision makes the observer's preferences converge to those of the conflicted actor (i.e., choose similarly). Thus this article contributes to the social influence literature by demonstrating that observers' preferences are not only influenced by an actor's ultimate choice, but also by the process leading to this choice. For ...


Using The Whole Brain To Improve Strategic Reasoning, Roderick Gilkey, Ricardo Caceda, Andrew Bate, Diana C. Robertson, Clint Kilts Dec 2015

Using The Whole Brain To Improve Strategic Reasoning, Roderick Gilkey, Ricardo Caceda, Andrew Bate, Diana C. Robertson, Clint Kilts

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

Traditional views of strategic reasoning have emphasized the role of cognitive analytic processes, often to the neglect of affective and social behavioral functions. This bias has influenced both the theory and the practice of strategic planning. Neuroscientific research holds the promise of identifying a much broader range of human capacities that contribute to the ability to engage and excel in strategic reasoning. Our study of the strategic reasoning performance of a group of mid-career business leaders identified the engagement of social and emotional brain processes that play an important role in strategic thinking ability. In identifying the neural processing correlates ...


Improving Exercise Adherence And Physical Measures In English-Speaking Latina Women, Lorena Martin, Joseph S. Signorile, Barbara E. Kahn, Andrew W. Perkins, Soyeon Ahn, Arlette C. Perry Dec 2015

Improving Exercise Adherence And Physical Measures In English-Speaking Latina Women, Lorena Martin, Joseph S. Signorile, Barbara E. Kahn, Andrew W. Perkins, Soyeon Ahn, Arlette C. Perry

Marketing Papers

Background: Epidemiological data have established that lack of physical activity increases risk factors for chronic diseases. Data also suggests that physical activity participation is lowest in minority women, particularly Latinas, and that the nature of the exercise and attitudes toward exercise may influence exercise adherence. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hypertrophy training (HT) or power training (PT) used concomitantly with evaluative conditioning (EC) or neutral conditioning (NC) on exercise adherence as well as in physical and psychosocial variables in Latina women. EC is a behavioral method using paired stimuli to develop and strengthen new ...


Trust Promotes Unethical Behavior: Excessive Trust, Opportunistic Exploitation, And Strategic Exploitation, Jeremy A. Yip, Maurice E. Schweitzer Dec 2015

Trust Promotes Unethical Behavior: Excessive Trust, Opportunistic Exploitation, And Strategic Exploitation, Jeremy A. Yip, Maurice E. Schweitzer

Finance Papers

Trust is critical for our cooperation and effective working relationships, but trust also enables exploitation and unethical behavior. Prior trust research has disproportionately focused on the benefits of trust, even though some of the most egregious unethical behaviors occur because of misplaced trust. Targets of exploitation misplace their trust, because they rely on the wrong cues and are exploited by people who either opportunistically or strategically take advantage of their trust. We call for future work to explore the critical link between trust and unethical behavior.


A Structural Model Of Employee Behavioral Dynamics In Enterprise Social Media, Yan Huang, Param Vir Singh, Anindya Ghose Dec 2015

A Structural Model Of Employee Behavioral Dynamics In Enterprise Social Media, Yan Huang, Param Vir Singh, Anindya Ghose

Finance Papers

We develop and estimate a dynamic structural framework to analyze the social-media content creation and consumption behavior of employees within an enterprise. We focus, in particular, on employees’ blogging behavior. The model incorporates two key features that are ubiquitous in blogging forums: users face (1) a trade-off between blog posting and blog reading; and (2) a trade-off between work-related and leisure-related content. We apply the model to a unique data set comprising the complete details of the blog posting and reading behavior of employees over a 15-month period at a Fortune 1000 IT services and consulting firm. Despite getting a ...


The Urban Green Wars: Struggling For Working-Class Control Of Cities Is Crucial To Bringing Down Carbon Emissions, Daniel Aldana Cohen Dec 2015

The Urban Green Wars: Struggling For Working-Class Control Of Cities Is Crucial To Bringing Down Carbon Emissions, Daniel Aldana Cohen

Departmental Papers (Sociology)

About half the planet's carbon dioxide emissions originate in urban areas: the cities and suburbs where a growing majority of humanity lives. To survive this century, we'll have to live together in new ways. Few issues are as fundamental to climate politics as this one. And few are as visceral: the urban is rapidly becoming one of the chief terrains of twenty-first century struggle.


Identifying The Effects Of Social Media On Health Behavior: Data From A Large-Scale Online Experiment, Jingwen Zhang, Devon Brackbill, Sijia Yang, Damon Centola Dec 2015

Identifying The Effects Of Social Media On Health Behavior: Data From A Large-Scale Online Experiment, Jingwen Zhang, Devon Brackbill, Sijia Yang, Damon Centola

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Sedentary lifestyle is an escalating epidemic. Little is known about whether or how social media can be used to design a cost-effective solution for sedentary lifestyle. In this article we describe the data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that evaluated two prominent strategies for conducting exercise interventions using elements of social media: motivational media campaigns and online peer networks. The data file includes 217 participants’ basic demographic information, number of exercise class enrollments over 13 weeks, and self-reported number of days for exercise activities in the previous 7 days at baseline. Among the 217, 164 also have data on ...


Five Years After Dodd-Frank: Unintended Consequences And Room For Improvement, David A. Skeel Dec 2015

Five Years After Dodd-Frank: Unintended Consequences And Room For Improvement, David A. Skeel

Wharton Public Policy Initiative Issue Briefs

This brief offers a 5-year retrospective on Dodd-Frank, pointing out aspects of the legislation that would benefit from correction or amendment. Dodd-Frank has yielded several key surprises—in particular, the problematic extent to which the Federal Reserve has become the primary regulator of the financial industry. The author offers several recommendations including: clarification of the rules by which strategically important financial institutions (SIFIs) are identified; overhauling the incentives offered to banks; instituting bankruptcy reforms that would discourage government bailouts; and easing regulatory burdens on smaller banks that are disproportionately burdened by the SIFI designation process.


Lifetime Risk Of Dementia In The United States, Ezra Fishman Dec 2015

Lifetime Risk Of Dementia In The United States, Ezra Fishman

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Dementia is increasingly recognized as a major source of disease burden in the United States, on par with heart disease and cancer. Little research has evaluated the lifecycle implications of dementia. To address this research gap, this article uses the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) to provide the first nationally representative, longitudinal estimates of the probability that a dementia-free person will develop dementia later in life. I estimate that for the 1920 birth cohort, the average dementia-free 70 year old male had a 23.7% (SE: 2.9%) lifetime probability of developing dementia, and the average dementia-free 70 year ...


The Critical Periphery In The Growth Of Social Protests, Pablo Barberá, Ning Wang, Richard Bonneau, John Jost, Jonathan Nagler, Joshua Tucker, Sandra González-Bailón Nov 2015

The Critical Periphery In The Growth Of Social Protests, Pablo Barberá, Ning Wang, Richard Bonneau, John Jost, Jonathan Nagler, Joshua Tucker, Sandra González-Bailón

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Social media have provided instrumental means of communication in many recent political protests. The efficiency of online networks in disseminating timely information has been praised by many commentators; at the same time, users are often derided as “slacktivists” because of the shallow commitment involved in clicking a forwarding button. Here we consider the role of these peripheral online participants, the immense majority of users who surround the small epicenter of protests, representing layers of diminishing online activity around the committed minority. We analyze three datasets tracking protest communication in different languages and political contexts through the social media platform Twitter ...


Pilot Your Life Decisively For Well-Being And Flourishing, David P. St. George Nov 2015

Pilot Your Life Decisively For Well-Being And Flourishing, David P. St. George

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

I have been a pilot, aviation instructor and FAA Pilot Examiner for over 40 years. Aviation requires a “pilot in command” mindset consistent with the tenets of positive psychology. This paper explains and advocates for this daily empowered, adaptive decision making process used by pilots in aviation as a necessary life skill to eliminate mind wandering and disengagement and optimize human performance consistent with the goals of positive psychology. Exploring the concepts of “pilot-in-command” (decisive control and self-efficacy) and “situational awareness” (alert mental functioning) I will offer techniques and suggestions for developing and deploying these critical skills in everyday life ...