Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Pennsylvania

1995

Discipline
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 82

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Sex And Race Differences In Faculty Salaries, Tenure, Rank, And Productivity: Why, On Average, Do Women, African Americans, And Hispanics Have Lower Salaries, Tenure, And Rank?, Michael T. Nettles, Laura W. Perna Nov 1995

Sex And Race Differences In Faculty Salaries, Tenure, Rank, And Productivity: Why, On Average, Do Women, African Americans, And Hispanics Have Lower Salaries, Tenure, And Rank?, Michael T. Nettles, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

This study examined the status and conditions of salaries, tenure, rank attainment, and productivity of men and women college faculty and faculty of each of five racial groups. It is based on a subset of data on 8,114 faculty members drawn from the 1992-93 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. The results, based on descriptive and multivariate analyses, indicate that, even after controlling for experience, education, productivity, and institutional characteristics, women received 11.3 percent lower salaries than men, had lower probabilities than men of being tenured, and were less likely than men to be full professors. While Hispanic and ...


Effects Of Horse-Race Coverage On Campaign Coffers: Strategic Contributing In Presidential Primaries, Diana C. Mutz Nov 1995

Effects Of Horse-Race Coverage On Campaign Coffers: Strategic Contributing In Presidential Primaries, Diana C. Mutz

Departmental Papers (ASC)

The quantity of "horse-race" coverage of political campaigns has been amply documented, but its consequences for the dynamics of campaigns are less well understood. This study examines the effects of media portrayals of public support for candidates on the behavior of potential campaign contributors. This relationship is tested in the context of the four leading Democratic presidential primary candidates in 1988. A time-series analysis of contributor behavior suggests that horse-race spin—that is, the extent of media coverage suggesting a candidate is gaining or losing political support ^helps determine the frequency of campaign contributions. Consistent with previous research, some contributors ...


'Circle No Bicycle': Fieldwork In Nyanza Province, Kenya, 1994-1995, Susan C. Watkins Oct 1995

'Circle No Bicycle': Fieldwork In Nyanza Province, Kenya, 1994-1995, Susan C. Watkins

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Language Thought In Foreign Language Learning, Andrew D. Cole Oct 1995

The Role Of Language Thought In Foreign Language Learning, Andrew D. Cole

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


"Could You Calm Down More?" Requests And Korean Esl Learners, Julie Kim Oct 1995

"Could You Calm Down More?" Requests And Korean Esl Learners, Julie Kim

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Helping Philippe: Constructions Of A Computer-Assisted Language Learning Environment, Pedro Garcez Oct 1995

Helping Philippe: Constructions Of A Computer-Assisted Language Learning Environment, Pedro Garcez

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Ug Accessibility In Second Language Acquisition: Re-Examining The Binding Parameter, Howard Chen Oct 1995

Ug Accessibility In Second Language Acquisition: Re-Examining The Binding Parameter, Howard Chen

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Can Negotiation Provide A Context For Learning Syntax In A Second Language?, Julian Linnell Oct 1995

Can Negotiation Provide A Context For Learning Syntax In A Second Language?, Julian Linnell

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


1994-95 Advisory Council On Social Security Technical Panel On Trends And Issues In Retirement Saving Final Report, Olivia Mitchell, Joseph Quinn, G. Lawrence Atkins, Richard Burkhauser, Gary Burtless, Robert Clark, Peter D. Paul, John Haley, Daniel Halperin, Eric Hanushek, Diane Macunovich, Dallas Salisbury, John Shoven, Stephen Zeldes Sep 1995

1994-95 Advisory Council On Social Security Technical Panel On Trends And Issues In Retirement Saving Final Report, Olivia Mitchell, Joseph Quinn, G. Lawrence Atkins, Richard Burkhauser, Gary Burtless, Robert Clark, Peter D. Paul, John Haley, Daniel Halperin, Eric Hanushek, Diane Macunovich, Dallas Salisbury, John Shoven, Stephen Zeldes

PARC Working Paper Series

The charge of the Technical Panel on Trends and Issues in Retirement Savings (TIRS) was to "assist the 1994-95 [Social Security] Advisory Council with respect to its charge to analyze the relative roles of the public and private sectors in the provision of retirement income, particularly how underlying policies of public and private programs, including relevant tax laws, affect retirement decisions and the economic status of the elderly."


Occasional Interventions To Target Rates, Karen K. Lewis Sep 1995

Occasional Interventions To Target Rates, Karen K. Lewis

Finance Papers

This paper develops a model of central-bank intervention based upon a policy characteristic of foreign-exchange interventions by the United States, Germany, and Japan in the late 1980's and evaluates it empirically. Central bankers intervene with greater intensity as rates deviate from target levels, but they also try to stabilize rates around current levels. The model is estimated using exchange rates and data based upon observed central-bank interventions. Interestingly, the estimates of the model are consistent with the predictions of the theoretical model for both the deutsche-mark/dollar rate and, less strongly, for the yen/dollar rate.


Free Expression And Digital Dreams: The Open And Closed Terrain Of Speech, Monroe Price Sep 1995

Free Expression And Digital Dreams: The Open And Closed Terrain Of Speech, Monroe Price

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Each new communications technology (theater, print, telegraph, telephone, radio) presents the possibility of altering the infrastructure of discourse. As it is absorbed, implemented, and developed, each technology plays out and reshapes ideas of community. Societies, as Karl Deutsch wrote, reveal themselves and can be differentiated through the distinctive webs of social intercourse that are the consequence of particular domestications, adaptations, or responses to innovations in modes of communicating. Because the current and massive redesign in the communications infrastructure - digital dreams of an electronic highway - will yield basic changes in social structure, governments are destined to try to affect the pace ...


Age-Linked Institutions And Age Reporting Among Older African Americans, Mark E. Hill, Samuel H. Preston, Irma T. Elo, Ira Rosenwaike Sep 1995

Age-Linked Institutions And Age Reporting Among Older African Americans, Mark E. Hill, Samuel H. Preston, Irma T. Elo, Ira Rosenwaike

PARC Working Paper Series

With economic and technological development, numerical age became an important dimension of social differentiation in the United States. The vast majority of Americans now have the ability to report their own age and the ages of relatives with accuracy. Nevertheless, studies have found that age misreporting remains substantial for older African Americans. This paper describes levels of age misreporting and investigates the determinants of age reporting accuracy on the death certificates of a national sample of native-born African Americans aged 65+. Consistent with previous studies, levels of age misreporting are found to be high. When checked against childhood census records ...


Upgrading High School Math: A Look At Three Transition Courses, Paula A. White, Andrew C. Porter, Adam Gamoran, John Smithson Sep 1995

Upgrading High School Math: A Look At Three Transition Courses, Paula A. White, Andrew C. Porter, Adam Gamoran, John Smithson

CPRE Policy Briefs

This issue of CPRE Policy Briefs focuses on the nature of instruction in transition math courses, the consequences of student placement in the new transition courses, and the linkages among course type, course content, and student achievement. The findings presented here are based on both qualitative and quantitative data gathered from seven high school across four districts in two states.

We studied transition math courses in seven high schools in San Diego and San Francisco in California and in Buffalo and Rochester in New York. We chose schools that had high percentages of minority and low-income students, because the problem ...


Reinventing Teacher Compensation Systems, Carolyn Kelley, Allan Odden Sep 1995

Reinventing Teacher Compensation Systems, Carolyn Kelley, Allan Odden

CPRE Policy Briefs

In this issue of CPRE Finance Briefs, the authors argue that it is now time for education to join successful efforts and revise teacher pay systems. The brief provides a short history of changes in teacher compensation over the last century and a discussion of key organizational and educational changes today that could be reinforced by a new teacher compensation structure. It also suggests some new teacher pay elements and a set of principles states and districts could follow if they embark on the journey to redesign how teachers are paid. Examples of leading-edge compensation programs are included in sidebars ...


Consumer Variety-Seeking Among Goods And Services: An Integrative Review, Barbara E. Kahn Jul 1995

Consumer Variety-Seeking Among Goods And Services: An Integrative Review, Barbara E. Kahn

Marketing Papers

Reflecting the importance of variety-seeking in consumer choice, there has been an explosion of research in the marketing literature on this topic in the past decade. The goal of this paper is to provide an integrative review of the key findings. In particular, a conceptual, integrating framework for understanding the reasons why consumers seek variety is presented. Within this context, the implications of this research for retail and service management are discussed as well as a review of the measurement tools and predictive models of variety-seeking that have been proposed in the last decade.


The Accuracy Of Age Reporting Among Elderly African Americans: Evidence Of A Birth Registration Effect, Ira Rosenwaike, Mark E. Hill Jul 1995

The Accuracy Of Age Reporting Among Elderly African Americans: Evidence Of A Birth Registration Effect, Ira Rosenwaike, Mark E. Hill

PARC Working Paper Series

This paper expands on previous research that has documented relatively high levels of inconsistency in age information for elderly African Americans. Drawing on a sample of death certificates for Maryland-born African Americans purportedly aged 65-79 at death in 1985, the validity of age data in both death certificates and social security records is examined by linkage to a birth record. The commonly assumed relationship between availability of birth registration and quality of age reporting also is investigated.

Among matches to a birth record, age on social security records is significantly more accurate than on death records. Age agreement between matched ...


Tracking Student Achievement In Science And Math: The Promise Of State Assessment Programs, University Of Pennsylvania Jun 1995

Tracking Student Achievement In Science And Math: The Promise Of State Assessment Programs, University Of Pennsylvania

CPRE Policy Briefs

This issue of CPRE Policy Briefs examines the capacity of state assessment systems to track the effects of the SSIs on student performance in mathematics and science. It also identifies some of the major issues state policymakers are facing as they attempt to re-align their state assessment systems of meet the changing goals for public education.


Helping Teachers Teach Well: Transforming Professional Development, Thomas B. Corcoran Jun 1995

Helping Teachers Teach Well: Transforming Professional Development, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Policy Briefs

This brief from 1995 reviews what was known about professional development. The brief discusses its organization, costs, and effects on practice. It also suggests some principles to guide professional development in the future and offers a framework for designing and assessing policies and programs.


Alzheimer’S Disease As A Cause Of Death In The U.S.: Estimates And Projections, Douglas C. Ewbank Apr 1995

Alzheimer’S Disease As A Cause Of Death In The U.S.: Estimates And Projections, Douglas C. Ewbank

PARC Working Paper Series

The phrase "the demography of Alzheimer's disease" may be the best litmus test to distinguish demographers from epidemiologists. A typical reaction to this phrase from a demographer is "why Alzheimer's disease?" A typical reaction from an epidemiologist is "why demography?" It is always tricky to describe the exact boundaries that separate two similar disciplines and this is especially true of the difference between demographic and epidemiologic approaches to mortality and health. What made Preston's work on smoking and mortality demography rather than epidemiology? What differentiates a demographer's or a sociologist's work on factors affecting residence ...


What Can Second Language Learners Learn From Each Other? Only Their Researcher Knows For Sure, Teresa Pica, Felicia Lincoln-Porter, Diana Paninos, Julian Linnell Apr 1995

What Can Second Language Learners Learn From Each Other? Only Their Researcher Knows For Sure, Teresa Pica, Felicia Lincoln-Porter, Diana Paninos, Julian Linnell

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


The Universality Of Face In Brown And Levinson's Politeness Theory: A Japanese Perspective, Peter Longcope Apr 1995

The Universality Of Face In Brown And Levinson's Politeness Theory: A Japanese Perspective, Peter Longcope

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Learning Grammar In The United States: A Case Of Japanese Students, Toshiyo Nabei Apr 1995

Learning Grammar In The United States: A Case Of Japanese Students, Toshiyo Nabei

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Are Foreign Exchange Intervention And Monetary Policy Related And Does It Really Matter?, Karen K. Lewis Apr 1995

Are Foreign Exchange Intervention And Monetary Policy Related And Does It Really Matter?, Karen K. Lewis

Finance Papers

The relationship between foreign exchange intervention and monetary policy underlies the question of whether sterilized interventions can affect the exchange rate. In this article, I examine this relationship using data on U.S. foreign exchange interventions from 1985 to 1990, recently made publicly available. I examine whether interventions could be viewed as "signaling" changes in future monetary policy variables. I also consider whether changes in monetary policy may induce interventions in an effort by central bankers to " lean against the wind" of exchange rate movements. Interestingly, I find evidence both that interventions help predict monetary policy variables and that monetary ...


Collaborative Effort Between Nonnative English Speakers: A Differnce In Strategies, Karen Carrier Apr 1995

Collaborative Effort Between Nonnative English Speakers: A Differnce In Strategies, Karen Carrier

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Shifting Gender Roles In The Acculturation Process, Daryl Gordon Apr 1995

Shifting Gender Roles In The Acculturation Process, Daryl Gordon

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Bodies, Texts, And The Social Order: A Reply To Bielefeldt, Carolyn Marvin Feb 1995

Bodies, Texts, And The Social Order: A Reply To Bielefeldt, Carolyn Marvin

Departmental Papers (ASC)

No abstract provided.


Information Technology As A Factor Of Production : The Role Of Differences Among Firms, Erik Brynjolfsson, Lorin Hitt Jan 1995

Information Technology As A Factor Of Production : The Role Of Differences Among Firms, Erik Brynjolfsson, Lorin Hitt

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Despite evidence that information technology (IT) has recently become a productive investment for a large cross-section of firms, a number of questions remain. Some of these issues can be addressed by extending the basic production function approach that was applied in earlier work. Specifically, in this short paper we 1) control for individual firm differences in productivity by employing a "firm effects" specification, 2) consider the more flexible translog specification instead of only the Cobb-Douglas specification, and 3) allow all parameters to vary between various subsectors of the economy.

We find that while "firm effects" may account for as much ...


Message Management Systems At Work: Prototypes For Business Communication, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Scott A. Moore Jan 1995

Message Management Systems At Work: Prototypes For Business Communication, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Scott A. Moore

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

In this article, we describe two applications based on a system for office communication that is more flexible and expressive than other systems. This system allows the computerization of tasks that previously required manual intervention because of each task's complexity. The applications, one automating office tasks and the other simulating a bicycle industry, highlight the system's ability to accommodate changes to the communication language. They also highlight the utility of both the formal language used by the system and the inferential model of communications used to interpret the messages.


Front Matter Jan 1995

Front Matter

History of Anthropology Newsletter

No abstract provided.


A Stage Our Ancestors Went Through: A. R. Brown And The Problem Of Totemism In Western Australia, C. 1910, George W. Stocking Jr., Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown Jan 1995

A Stage Our Ancestors Went Through: A. R. Brown And The Problem Of Totemism In Western Australia, C. 1910, George W. Stocking Jr., Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown

History of Anthropology Newsletter

No abstract provided.