Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 62

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Cohort Profile: The Migration And Health In Malawi (Mhm) Study, Philip Anglewicz, Mark Vanlandingham, Lucinda Manda-Taylor, Hans-Peter Kohler Apr 2017

Cohort Profile: The Migration And Health In Malawi (Mhm) Study, Philip Anglewicz, Mark Vanlandingham, Lucinda Manda-Taylor, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

The Migration and Health in Malawi (MHM) Study focuses on a key challenge in migration research: although it has long been established that migration and health are closely linked, identifying the effect of migration on various health outcomes is complicated by methodological challenges. To address these challenges, the MHM Study was designed to measure or control for important characteristics that affect both migration and health outcomes. This approach is particularly well-suited for distinguishing between the effect of migration on health and the selection of individuals of differing health status into migration classes (migrant versus non-migrant). Data are available for two ...


Homeownership Of Immigrants In France: Selection Effects Related To International Migration Flows, Laurent Gobillon, Matthieu Solignac Nov 2015

Homeownership Of Immigrants In France: Selection Effects Related To International Migration Flows, Laurent Gobillon, Matthieu Solignac

PSC Working Paper Series

We investigate the difference in homeownership rates between natives and first-generation immigrants in France, and how this difference evolves over the 1975-1999 period, by using a large longitudinal dataset. We find that the homeownership gap is large and has increased. Entries into the territory have a large negative effect on the evolution of homeownership rates for immigrants. Although entrants have on average better education than people staying in the territory for the entire period (i.e. stayers), they are younger and thus at an earlier stage in the wealth accumulation process. They are also located in large cities, where the ...


It Is Lower Than You Think It Is: Recent Total Fertility Rates In Brazil And Possibly Other Latin American Countries, Helena Cruz Castanheira, Hans-Peter Kohler Sep 2015

It Is Lower Than You Think It Is: Recent Total Fertility Rates In Brazil And Possibly Other Latin American Countries, Helena Cruz Castanheira, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

Understanding emerging patterns of low fertility in middle-income countries is of essential importance. We demonstrate that the use of the P/F Brass methods in Brazil to adjust for a presumed underreporting of births has the potential to overestimate the country’s 2010 TFR by about 8%. Our preferred fertility-register-based estimate is 1.76, substantially lower the officially reported 1.90. This overstatement of fertility in official statistics has important consequences: compared to our analyses, for example, the UN World Population Prospects (UN WPP) overestimate recent TFR levels, and underestimates additional TFR declines during 2015-30, resulting in a projected 2050 ...


Demographic Transition Revisited: Low Fertility, Socioeconomic Development, And Gender Equity, Thomas M. Anderson, Hans-Peter Kohler May 2015

Demographic Transition Revisited: Low Fertility, Socioeconomic Development, And Gender Equity, Thomas M. Anderson, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

While new empirical findings and theoretical frameworks provide insight into the interrelations between socioeconomic development, gender equity, and low fertility, puzzling exceptions and outliers in these findings call for a more all-encompassing framework to understand the inter-play between these processes. We argue that the pace and onset of development are two important factors to be considered when analyzing gender equity and fertility. Within the developed world, “first-wave developers”—or countries that began socioeconomic development in the 19th/early 20th century – currently have much higher fertility levels than “late developers”. We lay out a novel theoretical approach to explain why this ...


Variance Estimation For A Complex Life Table Quantity: Disease-Free Life Expectancy, Ezra Fishman Apr 2015

Variance Estimation For A Complex Life Table Quantity: Disease-Free Life Expectancy, Ezra Fishman

PSC Working Paper Series

Background: In the last decade, adult mortality in the United States has continued its long-run decline, while diabetes prevalence has increased. It is unknown whether the additional person-years lived in the adult population have mostly been spent in a diseased or a disease-free state. Furthermore, although illness and death are stochastic processes, little is known about the variance in diabetes-free life expectancy (DFLE) when compared across ages. More generally, methods of obtaining the variance of complex life table quantities are under-explored.

Objective: Estimate DFLE and its variance in the United States in 2000 and 2010.

Methods: Data on diabetes prevalence ...


The Demography Of Mental Health Among Mature Adults In A Low-Income High Hiv-Prevalence Context, Iliana V. Kohler, Collin F. Payne, Chiwoza Bandawe, Hans-Peter Kohler Apr 2015

The Demography Of Mental Health Among Mature Adults In A Low-Income High Hiv-Prevalence Context, Iliana V. Kohler, Collin F. Payne, Chiwoza Bandawe, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

While a nascent body of research investigates the shift in sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA's) disease burden towards non-communicable diseases (NCDs), very few studies have investigated mental health, specifically depression and anxiety (DA), in SSA. Using the 2012--13 Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH), this paper provides a first picture of the demography of DA among mature adults (= persons aged 45+) in a low-income high HIV-prevalence context. DA are more frequent among women than men, and individuals are often affected by both. DA are associated with adverse outcomes, such as less nutrition intake and reduced work efforts. DA ...


The Consequences Of Abortion And Contraception Policies On Young Women's Reproductive Choices, Schooling And Labor Supply, Diego Amador Nov 2014

The Consequences Of Abortion And Contraception Policies On Young Women's Reproductive Choices, Schooling And Labor Supply, Diego Amador

PSC Working Paper Series

In this paper, I evaluate the effects of regulations that limit the availability of abortion services, as well as the impact of policies that subsidize contraception, on abortion and contraceptive choices of young women and on their life-cycle fertility, schooling and labor supply. I specify and structurally estimate a dynamic life-cycle model of abortion, contraceptive use, schooling and labor supply decisions using data from the NLSY97 combined with aggregate abortion provider data from the Guttmacher Institute. Variation across time and space in state-specific regulations and in the availability of abortion providers at the county level provides a valuable source of ...


Growing Educational Differentials In The Retreat From Marriage Among Korean Men, Hyunjoon Park, Jae Kyung Lee Sep 2014

Growing Educational Differentials In The Retreat From Marriage Among Korean Men, Hyunjoon Park, Jae Kyung Lee

PSC Working Paper Series

Applying discrete-time hazard models to person-year data constructed from 1% microdata sample of 2010 Korean Census, we explore how men’s education affects their transition to first marriage, and how the relationship between education and marriage has changed across three 10-year birth cohorts of Korean men born from 1946 to 1975. Currently, there is only limited knowledge on how education is related to marriage formation and how the effect is contingent upon macro contexts of education, economy, and family among East Asian men. We find that the high educated delay marriage until later ages but catch up to the extent ...


Lifetime Probability Of Developing Diabetes In The United States, Samuel Preston, Ezra Fishman, Andrew Stokes Aug 2014

Lifetime Probability Of Developing Diabetes In The United States, Samuel Preston, Ezra Fishman, Andrew Stokes

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Aids Treatment On Savings And Human Capital Investment In Malawi, Victoria Baranov, Hans-Peter Kohler Apr 2014

The Impact Of Aids Treatment On Savings And Human Capital Investment In Malawi, Victoria Baranov, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

Antiretroviral therapy (ART), a treatment for AIDS, is rapidly increasing life expectancy throughout Africa. A longer life expectancy increases the value of human capital investment, though the effect on savings is theoretically ambiguous. This paper uses spatial and temporal variation in ART availability to evaluate the impact of ART provision on savings and investment. We find that ART availability significantly increases savings, expenditures on children, and children's schooling, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. These results are not driven by the direct health effects of treatment or reductions in caretaking responsibilities, but rather by improving perceptions of self-reported mortality risk.


Marry Your Like: Assortative Mating And Income Inequality, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Georgi Kocharkov, Cezar Santos Jan 2014

Marry Your Like: Assortative Mating And Income Inequality, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Georgi Kocharkov, Cezar Santos

PSC Working Paper Series

Has there been an increase in positive assortative mating? Does assortative mating contribute to household income inequality? Data from the United States Census Bureau suggests there has been a rise in assortative mating. Additionally, assortative mating affects household income inequality. In particular, if matching in 2005 between husbands and wives had been random, instead of the pattern observed in the data, then the Gini coefficient would have fallen from the observed 0.43 to 0.34, so that income inequality would be smaller. Thus, assortative mating is important for income inequality. The high level of married female labor-force participation in ...


Schooling Has Smaller Or Insignificant Effects On Adult Health In The Us Than Suggested By Cross-Sectional Associations: New Estimates Using Relatively Large Samples Of Identical Twins, Vikesh Amin, Jere R. Behrman, Hans-Peter Kohler Dec 2013

Schooling Has Smaller Or Insignificant Effects On Adult Health In The Us Than Suggested By Cross-Sectional Associations: New Estimates Using Relatively Large Samples Of Identical Twins, Vikesh Amin, Jere R. Behrman, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

Adult health outcomes and health behaviors generally are strongly associated with schooling attainment. But such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health outcomes and behaviors of the magnitudes of the associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors that are related to genetics and family background. Recently several studies have used within-identical (monozygotic, MZ) twins methods to control for those unobserved factors that are shared completely by identical twins. Estimates based on relatively small samples for the US, as well as some larger samples for other countries, suggest that causal impacts of schooling on health ...


American Studies: A Case Study Of Interdisciplinarity, Jerry A. Jacobs Oct 2013

American Studies: A Case Study Of Interdisciplinarity, Jerry A. Jacobs

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


The Contribution Of Sociology To The Emergence Of Applied And Pre-Professional College Majors, Jerry A. Jacobs Oct 2013

The Contribution Of Sociology To The Emergence Of Applied And Pre-Professional College Majors, Jerry A. Jacobs

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Receptivity Curves: Educational Research And The Flow Of Ideas: Expanded Version, Jerry A. Jacobs Oct 2013

Receptivity Curves: Educational Research And The Flow Of Ideas: Expanded Version, Jerry A. Jacobs

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Narratives Of Death In The Time Of Aids In Rural Malawi, Adam Ashforth, Susan C. Watkins Sep 2013

Narratives Of Death In The Time Of Aids In Rural Malawi, Adam Ashforth, Susan C. Watkins

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Cohort Profile: The Malawi Longitudinal Study Of Families And Health (Mlsfh), Hans-Peter Kohler, Susan C. Watkins, Jere R. Behrman, Philip Anglewicz, Iliana V. Kohler, Peter Fleming, Rebecca L. Thornton, James Mkandawire, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Hastings Honde, Augustine Hawara, Ben Chilima, Chiwoza Bandawe, Victor Mwapasa, Mlsfh Study Team Jul 2013

Cohort Profile: The Malawi Longitudinal Study Of Families And Health (Mlsfh), Hans-Peter Kohler, Susan C. Watkins, Jere R. Behrman, Philip Anglewicz, Iliana V. Kohler, Peter Fleming, Rebecca L. Thornton, James Mkandawire, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Hastings Honde, Augustine Hawara, Ben Chilima, Chiwoza Bandawe, Victor Mwapasa, Mlsfh Study Team

PSC Working Paper Series

The Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) is one of very few long-standing publicly-available longitudinal cohort studies in a sub-Saharan African (SSA) context. It provides a rare record of more than a decade of demographic, socioeconomic and health conditions in one of the world's poorest countries. With data collection rounds in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 for up to 4,000 individuals, the MLSFH permits researchers to investigate the multiple influences that contribute to HIV risks in sexual partnerships, the variety of ways that people manage risk within and outside of marriage, the possible ...


Eliciting Maternal Subjective Expectations About The Technology Of Cognitive Skill Formation, Flávio Cunha, Irma T. Elo, Jennifer F. Culhane Jun 2013

Eliciting Maternal Subjective Expectations About The Technology Of Cognitive Skill Formation, Flávio Cunha, Irma T. Elo, Jennifer F. Culhane

PSC Working Paper Series

In this paper, we formulate a model of early childhood development in which mothers have subjective expectations about the technology of skill formation. The model is useful for understanding how maternal knowledge about child development affects the maternal choices of investments in the human capital of children. Unfortunately, the model is not identified from data that are usually available to econometricians. To solve this problem, we conduct a study where mothers were interviewed to elicit maternal expectations about the technology of skill formation. We interviewed a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged African‐American women. We find that the median subjective expectation ...


The Rise And Fall Of Unions In The U.S., Emin Dinlersoz, Jeremy Greenwood Jun 2013

The Rise And Fall Of Unions In The U.S., Emin Dinlersoz, Jeremy Greenwood

PSC Working Paper Series

Union membership displayed a n-shaped pattern over the 20th century, while the distribution of income sketched a u. A model of unions is developed to analyze these phenomena. There is a distribution of firms in the economy. Firms hire capital, plus skilled and unskilled labor. Unionization is a costly process. A union decides how many firms to organize and its members wage rate. Simulation of the developed model establishes that skilled-biased technological change, which affects the productivity of skilled labor relative to unskilled labor, can potentially explain the above facts. Statistical analysis suggests that skill-biased technological change is an important ...


The Impact Of Married Individuals Learning Hiv Status In Malawi: Divorce, Number Of Sexual Partners, Condom Use With Spouses, Theresa M. Fedor, Hans-Peter Kohler, Jere R. Behrman Mar 2013

The Impact Of Married Individuals Learning Hiv Status In Malawi: Divorce, Number Of Sexual Partners, Condom Use With Spouses, Theresa M. Fedor, Hans-Peter Kohler, Jere R. Behrman

PSC Working Paper Series

This paper assesses how knowledge of HIV status gained through HIV testing and counseling (HTC) by married individuals affects divorce, the number of sexual partners and the use of condoms within marriage. Instrumental variable probit and linear models are estimated, using a randomized experiment administered as part of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health. The results indicate that knowledge of HIV status (1) does not affect chances of divorce for either HIV-negative or HIV-positive respondents; (2) reduces the number of sexual partners among HIV-positive respondents, and (3) increases condom use with spouses for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive respondents ...


Discrete Games In Endogenous Networks: Theory And Policy, Anton Badev Feb 2013

Discrete Games In Endogenous Networks: Theory And Policy, Anton Badev

PSC Working Paper Series

This paper develops a framework for analyzing individuals' choices in the presence of endogenous social networks and implements it with data on teen smoking decisions and friendship networks. By allowing actions and friendships to be jointly chosen, the framework extends the literature on social interactions, which either models choices, taking the social network as given, or which models friendship selection without incorporating additional choices. In the context of a large population network game, this paper also introduces the notion of k-player Nash stability. This solution concept subsumes the Nash equilibrium and, as k decreases, gradually relaxes the assumptions of rationality ...


The Social And The Sexual: Networks In Contemporary Demographic Research, Hans-Peter Kohler, Stéphane Helleringer, Jere R. Behrman, Susan C. Watkins Jan 2013

The Social And The Sexual: Networks In Contemporary Demographic Research, Hans-Peter Kohler, Stéphane Helleringer, Jere R. Behrman, Susan C. Watkins

PSC Working Paper Series

The analysis of networks has become an important theme in contemporary demographic research in both developed and developing countries, including investigations of the determinants of fertility behaviors, the interaction between social network and social structures and population policies, the role of intergenerational networks in aging societies, and the relevance for sexual networks for the spread of HIV AIDS. This paper reviews the current research on networks across several domains in demographic research, and it discusses some of the specific challenges of network-based approaches with respect to data collection, analytic approaches and methodologies, interpretation of results, and micro-to-macro aggregation by drawing ...


An Equilibrium Model Of The African Hiv/Aids Epidemic, Jeremy Greenwood, Philipp Kircher, Cezar Santos, Michèle Tertilt Jan 2013

An Equilibrium Model Of The African Hiv/Aids Epidemic, Jeremy Greenwood, Philipp Kircher, Cezar Santos, Michèle Tertilt

PSC Working Paper Series

Eleven percent of the Malawian population is HIV infected. Eighteen percent of sexual encounters are casual. A condom is used one quarter of the time. A choice-theoretic general equilibrium search model is constructed to analyze the Malawian epidemic. In the developed framework, people select between different sexual practices while knowing the inherent risk. The analysis suggests that the efficacy of public policy depends upon the induced behavioral changes and general equilibrium effects that are typically absent in epidemiological studies and small-scale field experiments. For some interventions (some forms of promoting condoms or marriage), the quantitative exercise suggests that these effects ...


Education Fever And The East Asian Fertility Puzzle: A Case Study Of Low Fertility In South Korea, Thomas M. Anderson, Hans-Peter Kohler Oct 2012

Education Fever And The East Asian Fertility Puzzle: A Case Study Of Low Fertility In South Korea, Thomas M. Anderson, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

Fertility throughout East Asia has fallen rapidly over the last five decades and is now below the replacement rate of 2.1 in every country in the region. While similar but less extreme declines occurred throughout Europe during this same period, the declines to lowest-low fertility during the 1990s have been reversed in the last ten years as the pace of tempo changes (i.e., the postponement of childbearing) has slowed. Recent literature has shown that many European countries have in fact also experienced increases in cohort fertility. No such widespread fertility reversal has occurred in East Asia, where family ...


The Indirect Impact Of Antiretroviral Therapy, Victoria Baranov, Daniel Bennett, Hans-Peter Kohler Sep 2012

The Indirect Impact Of Antiretroviral Therapy, Victoria Baranov, Daniel Bennett, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

In response to AIDS mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, international donors have collaborated with many national governments to provide free antiretroviral therapy (ART) to people with HIV. We explore the impact of this decline in objective mortality risk on subjective perceptions of mortality risk, as well as mental health, and agricultural labor supply and output. Through a difference-indifference identification strategy, we find that ART availability substantially reduces subjective mortality risk and improves mental health in rural Malawi, including among HIV-negative respondents. People allocate significantly more time to subsistence maize cultivation and increase maize output. These results show a novel link between ...


Marriage As A Mechanism: Women’S Education And Wealth In Malawi, Sarah Spell, Philip Anglewicz, Hans-Peter Kohler Sep 2012

Marriage As A Mechanism: Women’S Education And Wealth In Malawi, Sarah Spell, Philip Anglewicz, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

Research has found that in the United States women have greater economic returns to a college degree than men, because of more stable marriages and other family income. Using cross-sectional data of women aged 19-40 years in Malawi from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (n = 898), we test whether higher education is associated with these same benefits in a context with lower educational attainment levels, fewer job opportunities, and different marriage patterns. We find that better educated women are more likely to have better educated spouses and higher household wealth. Though divorce is negatively associated with wealth ...


La Causalité En Sociologie Et Démographie. Retour Sur Le Principe De L’Action Humaine, Herbert L. Smith Aug 2012

La Causalité En Sociologie Et Démographie. Retour Sur Le Principe De L’Action Humaine, Herbert L. Smith

PSC Working Paper Series

Dans la littérature anglo-saxonne, le critère de « manipulation » dans l'étude des liens de causalité est actuellement en débat. De quoi s’agit-il ? La différence dans les résultats qui correspondent à un élément observé dans deux états ne peut pas être considérée à proprement parler comme l’« effet d’une cause », sauf quand les différents états sont sujets à la manipulation au sens où, dans le cadre d’une expérience contrôlée, l’expérimentateur peut assigner aléatoirement les sujets à ces états (à différents traitements, en pratique). Conceptuellement, l’expérience est fortement présente dans la définition statistique de « l’effet d ...


Interdisciplinarity In Recently Founded Academic Journals, Jerry A. Jacobs, Rebecca Henderson Aug 2012

Interdisciplinarity In Recently Founded Academic Journals, Jerry A. Jacobs, Rebecca Henderson

PSC Working Paper Series

Despite the substantial growth of research interest on interdisciplinary collaboration and intellectual exchange, relatively little attention has focused on interdisciplinarity in the context of the academic journal system. In this paper, we ask a series of questions about peer-reviewed, academic journals which aim to span disciplinary boundaries. Data on a total of 789 journals established in 2008 were culled from Ulrich’s Periodicals and classified into discipline-based and interdisciplinary journals based on their mission statements.

Principal findings:

  • Roughly 25 percent of peer-reviewed journals established in 2008 claimed interdisciplinarity as part of their mission;
  • Interdisciplinarity varies substantially by primary subject classification ...


Evaluating Health And Disease In Sub-Saharan Africa: Minimally Invasive Collection Of Plasma In The Malawi Longitudinal Study Of Families And Health (Mlsfh), Iliana V. Kohler, Philip Anglewicz, Hans-Peter Kohler, John F. Mccabe, Ben Chilima, Beth J. Soldo Jul 2012

Evaluating Health And Disease In Sub-Saharan Africa: Minimally Invasive Collection Of Plasma In The Malawi Longitudinal Study Of Families And Health (Mlsfh), Iliana V. Kohler, Philip Anglewicz, Hans-Peter Kohler, John F. Mccabe, Ben Chilima, Beth J. Soldo

PSC Working Paper Series

Background: The collection of biomarker-based indicators of adult health and fitness is an important addition to socioeconomic surveys since these indicators provide valuable insights into the biological functions, and the complex causal pathways between socioeconomic environments and health of adult individuals. Other than select Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), there are almost no population-based sources of biomarker-based indicators of adult health in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where most population-based biologic data are focused on HIV, other STDs, malaria, or nutritional status. While infectious diseases---such as HIV and malaria---attract the majority of research and NGOs attention in sub-Saharan Africa, there is an ...


Copenhagen Consensus 2012: Challenge Paper On "Population Growth", Hans-Peter Kohler Jun 2012

Copenhagen Consensus 2012: Challenge Paper On "Population Growth", Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

While the majority of the population is now estimated to live in regions with below replacement fertility, high fertility, poor reproductive health outcomes and relatively rapid population growth remain an important concern in several low income countries. International and national spending devoted to family planning, however, has declined significantly in recent years. Recent research has brought about a revision in the understanding of the interactions between population growth and economic development, as well as the effects of family planning programs in terms of reduced fertility, improved reproductive health outcomes and other life-cycle and intergenerational consequences. This paper discusses recent evidence ...