Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Pennsylvania

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 30 of 76

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Understanding Donor-Advised Funds: How Grants Flow During Recessions, H. Daniel Heist, Danielle Vance-Mcmullen Jan 2019

Understanding Donor-Advised Funds: How Grants Flow During Recessions, H. Daniel Heist, Danielle Vance-Mcmullen

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Donor-advised funds (DAFs) are becoming increasingly popular. DAFs receive a growing share of all charitable donations and control a sizable proportion of grants made to other nonprofits. The growth of DAFs has generated controversy over their function as intermediary philanthropic vehicles. Using a panel data set of 996 DAF organizations from 2007 to 2016, this article provides an empirical analysis of DAF activity. We conduct longitudinal analyses of key DAF metrics, such as grants and payout rates. We find that a few large organizations heavily skew the aggregated data for a rather heterogeneous group of nonprofits. These panel data are ...


Mass Incarceration: What's At Stake And What To Do, Malitta Engstrom, Alexandra Wimberly, Nancy Franke Feb 2017

Mass Incarceration: What's At Stake And What To Do, Malitta Engstrom, Alexandra Wimberly, Nancy Franke

Departmental Papers (SPP)

No abstract provided.


Correlates Of Hiv Risks Among Women On Probation And Parole, Malitta Engstrom, Katherine M. Winham, Seana Golder, George Higgins, Tanya Renn, Tk Logan Jan 2017

Correlates Of Hiv Risks Among Women On Probation And Parole, Malitta Engstrom, Katherine M. Winham, Seana Golder, George Higgins, Tanya Renn, Tk Logan

Departmental Papers (SPP)

This article examines HIV risks among a sample of 406 women on probation and parole with lifetime histories of victimization who were recruited from an urban community in the southern U.S. Guided by the Comprehensive Health Seeking and Coping Paradigm, we analyze the significance of sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, posttraumatic stress disorder, and social support in relationship to three sexual risks and one drug use risk using multivariable regression. Findings indicate that substance use is a significant correlate of nearly all HIV risks examined, including lifetime sexual partners and sexual partners during the past 12 months. Age, race/ethnicity ...


Non-Fatal Gun Use In Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review Of The Literature, Susan B. Sorenson, Rebecca A. Schut Sep 2016

Non-Fatal Gun Use In Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review Of The Literature, Susan B. Sorenson, Rebecca A. Schut

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Guns figure prominently in the homicide of women by an intimate partner. Less is known, however, about their non-fatal use against an intimate partner. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched eight electronic databases and identified 10 original research articles that reported the prevalence of the non-fatal use of firearms against an intimate partner. Results indicate that: 1) There is relatively little research on the subject of intimate partners’ non-fatal gun use against women. 2) The number of U.S. women alive today who have had an intimate partner use a gun against them is substantial: About 4.5 million have had ...


Psychological Distress Among Victimized Women On Probation And Parole: A Latent Class Analysis, Seana Golder, Malitta Engstrom, Martin T. Hall, George Higgins, Tk Logan Jul 2015

Psychological Distress Among Victimized Women On Probation And Parole: A Latent Class Analysis, Seana Golder, Malitta Engstrom, Martin T. Hall, George Higgins, Tk Logan

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of victimized women (N = 406) on probation and parole differentiated by levels of general psychological distress. The 9 primary symptom dimensions from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were used individually as latent class indicators (Derogatis, 1993). Results identified 3 classes of women characterized by increasing levels of psychological distress; classes were further differentiated by posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, cumulative victimization, substance use and other domains of psychosocial functioning (i.e., sociodemographic characteristics; informal social support and formal service utilization; perceived life stress; and resource loss). The present research was effective in uncovering ...


Childhood Victimization, Attachment, Psychological Distress, And Substance Use Among Women On Probation And Parole, Katherine M. Winham, Malitta Engstrom, Seana Golder, Tanya Renn, George E. Higgins, Tk Logan Mar 2015

Childhood Victimization, Attachment, Psychological Distress, And Substance Use Among Women On Probation And Parole, Katherine M. Winham, Malitta Engstrom, Seana Golder, Tanya Renn, George E. Higgins, Tk Logan

Departmental Papers (SPP)

The present analysis was guided by a gendered pathways-based theoretical model and examined relationships between childhood victimization and current attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among 406 women with histories of victimization who were on probation and parole in an urban Kentucky county. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use. Additionally, we examined the mediational role that attachment plays in relationships between childhood victimization and both psychological distress and substance use. The data fit the models properly. Psychological distress was significantly predicted by childhood victimization, and adult attachment partially mediated this relationship. Childhood ...


A Systematic Review Of The Epidemiology Of Nonfatal Strangulation, A Human Rights And Health Concern, Susan B. Sorenson, Manisha Joshi, Elizabeth Sivitz Nov 2014

A Systematic Review Of The Epidemiology Of Nonfatal Strangulation, A Human Rights And Health Concern, Susan B. Sorenson, Manisha Joshi, Elizabeth Sivitz

Departmental Papers (SPP)

We reviewed the literature on the epidemiology of nonfatal strangulation (also, albeit incorrectly, called choking) by an intimate partner.

We searched 6 electronic databases to identify cross-sectional, primary research studies from 1960 to 2014 that reported national prevalence estimates of nonfatal strangulation by an intimate partner among community-residing adults. Of 7260 identified references, 23 articles based on 11 self-reported surveys in 9 countries met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of women who reported ever having been strangled by an intimate partner ranged from 3.0% to 9.7%; past-year prevalence ranged from 0.4% to 2.4%, with 1.0 ...


Psychosocial And Re-Incarceration Risks Among Older Adults In Mental Health Courts, Kelli E. Canada, Malitta Engstrom, Eunyoung Jang Aug 2014

Psychosocial And Re-Incarceration Risks Among Older Adults In Mental Health Courts, Kelli E. Canada, Malitta Engstrom, Eunyoung Jang

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Objective

Older adults are increasingly involved in the criminal justice system, yet there is limited research regarding their needs and experiences. This study examined differences in psychosocial experiences and reincarceration between older and younger adults with psychiatric disorders involved in the criminal justice system.

Methods

Participants (N = 80) were recruited from two mental health courts in the midwestern United States. Bivariate analyses examined age-related differences in psychosocial experiences and reincarceration between younger and older participants.

Results

Older adults, on average, experienced more treatment adherence and fewer probation violations than younger adults during the 6-month follow-up; however, they experienced comparable risk ...


Self-Presentation On The Web: Agencies Serving Abused And Assaulted Women, Susan B. Sorenson, Rui Shi, Jingwen Zhang, Jia Xue Apr 2014

Self-Presentation On The Web: Agencies Serving Abused And Assaulted Women, Susan B. Sorenson, Rui Shi, Jingwen Zhang, Jia Xue

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Objectives. We examined the content and usability of the Web sites of agencies serving women victims of violence.

Methods. We entered the names of a systematic 10% sample of 3774 agencies listed in 2 national directories into a search engine. We took (in April 2012) and analyzed screenshots of the 261 resulting home pages and the readability of 193 home and first-level pages.

Results. Victims (94%) and donors (68%) were the primary intended audiences. About one half used social media and one third provided cues to action. Almost all (96.4%) of the Web pages were rated “fairly difficult” to ...


“Do You Know What It Feels Like To Drown?”: Strangulation As Coercive Control In Intimate Relationships, Kristie A. Thomas, Manisha Joshi, Susan B. Sorenson Mar 2014

“Do You Know What It Feels Like To Drown?”: Strangulation As Coercive Control In Intimate Relationships, Kristie A. Thomas, Manisha Joshi, Susan B. Sorenson

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Strangulation is a unique and particularly gendered form of nonfatal intimate partner violence, affecting 10 times as many women as men. Medical research documents multiple negative health outcomes of such victimization, and in the past decade nearly 30 U.S. states have enacted laws making nonfatal strangulation a felony. We extended prior work by using grounded theory in a qualitative study to explore women’s experiences of, thoughts about, and reactions to being strangled. Each of the 17 mostly well-educated and African American domestic violence shelter residents had been strangled at least once by an intimate partner; most had survived ...


Knowing A Sexual Assault Victim Or Perpetrator: A Stratified Random Sample Of Undergraduates At One University, Susan B. Sorenson, Manisha Joshi, Elizabeth Sivitz Feb 2014

Knowing A Sexual Assault Victim Or Perpetrator: A Stratified Random Sample Of Undergraduates At One University, Susan B. Sorenson, Manisha Joshi, Elizabeth Sivitz

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Rape awareness and prevention programs are common on college campuses and a potentially useful way to reach large numbers of young adults. One largely unexamined potential mediator or moderator of program effectiveness is the personal knowledge of student audiences. In this study, we assess the prevalence of knowing a victim and, notably, a perpetrator of sexual assault. A stratified random sample of 2,400 undergraduates was recruited for an online survey about sexual assault. A total of 53.5% participated and yielded a sample representative of the student body. Sixteen questions were modified from the Sexual Experiences Survey to assess ...


The Public-Private Mix In National And International Development, Richard J. Estes, Huiquan Mary Zhou Jan 2014

The Public-Private Mix In National And International Development, Richard J. Estes, Huiquan Mary Zhou

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Social welfare is a complex, multi-dimensional, field of practice that seeks to promote the well-being of people everywhere. But national responses to social welfare differ dramatically from one society to the next and, often, valid comparisons between different nations and systems of social welfare are difficult to undertake. This paper addresses that issue by introducing an innovative approach to welfare policy analysis using a Private-Public Development Mix (PPDM) model. The PPDM draws on all four of social welfare’s core institutions—the State, the family & household, the Market, and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)—as well as four sets of social ...


Nonprofits And The Promotion Of Civic Engagement: A Conceptual Framework For Understanding The “Civic Footprint” Of Nonprofits Within Local Communities, Femida Handy, Micheal Lynden Shier, Lindsey M. Mcdougle Jan 2014

Nonprofits And The Promotion Of Civic Engagement: A Conceptual Framework For Understanding The “Civic Footprint” Of Nonprofits Within Local Communities, Femida Handy, Micheal Lynden Shier, Lindsey M. Mcdougle

Departmental Papers (SPP)

The literature suggests that nonprofit organizations provide civic benefits by promoting engagement within local communities. However, there exists minimal empirical evidence describing the ways in which nonprofits actually undertake this role. In order to address this omission, we conducted interviews with personnel of nonprofit organizations in one rural community in the United States. Our preliminary findings indicate that nonprofit organizations promote civic engagement through programs and activities that: 1) engage volunteers and donors; 2) bring community members together; 3) collaborate with organizations within and beyond the community; and 4) promote community education and awareness. Together, these findings help to develop ...


Shared Decision Making For Clients With Mental Illness: A Randomized Factorial Survey, Jonathan M Lukens, Phyllis L. Solomon, Susan B. Sorenson Nov 2013

Shared Decision Making For Clients With Mental Illness: A Randomized Factorial Survey, Jonathan M Lukens, Phyllis L. Solomon, Susan B. Sorenson

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Objective: The goal of this study was to test the degree to which client clinical characteristics and environmental context and social workers’ practice values and experience influenced support for client’s autonomy and willingness to engage in shared decision making (SDM), and whether willingness to engage in SDM was mediated by support for autonomy.

Method: A randomized factorial survey of social workers working with adults with severe mental illness was employed. Eighty-seven social workers responded yielding 435 vignettes.

Results: Hypotheses were partially supported. Diagnosis, symptomology, threats of harm, treatment adherence, substance use, and social workers’ values and experience predicted support ...


“I Didn't Know I Could Turn Colors”: Health Problems And Health Care Experiences Of Women Strangled By An Intimate Partner, Manisha Joshi, Kristie A. Thomas, Susan B. Sorenson Oct 2012

“I Didn't Know I Could Turn Colors”: Health Problems And Health Care Experiences Of Women Strangled By An Intimate Partner, Manisha Joshi, Kristie A. Thomas, Susan B. Sorenson

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Strangulation is a unique and particularly pernicious form of intimate partner violence. To increase the relatively little that is known about strangulation survivors, focus groups and interviews were conducted as part of a practice–research engagement with a domestic violence shelter. All of the participants had been strangled and, among them, almost all were strangled multiple times. The loss of consciousness was common. Participants associated “choking” with use of body parts and “strangling” with use of objects. Although some minimized the assault, most considered strangulation to be serious and reported a variety of medical conditions following the assault. Few sought ...


Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics, Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, And Psychological Distress Among Women In Methadone Treatment, Malitta Engstrom, Nabila El-Bassel, Louisa Gilbert Oct 2012

Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics, Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, And Psychological Distress Among Women In Methadone Treatment, Malitta Engstrom, Nabila El-Bassel, Louisa Gilbert

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Traumatic experiences and their biopsychosocial sequelae present complex challenges in substance use treatment. For women with substance use problems, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence exposure (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and overall psychological distress are often co-occurring concerns. To address gaps in knowledge and to strengthen practice regarding these critical issues in substance use treatment, we drew upon cross-sectional and longitudinal data from baseline and 12-month interviews with a random sample of 416 women in methadone treatment to examine relationships between CSA characteristics, particularly the presence of force and involvement of family, IPV, and mental health concerns. Although ...


Towards A Practice-Based Model For Community Practice: Linking Theory And Practice, Ram A. Cnaan, Amnon Boehm Mar 2012

Towards A Practice-Based Model For Community Practice: Linking Theory And Practice, Ram A. Cnaan, Amnon Boehm

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Careful examination of the literature of community practice shows that existing community practice models do not ad- equately respond to the unique and changing needs of vari- ous communities. This article provides an alternative model that challenges the existing models. Based on extensive content analysis of the literature and practice knowledge, this alterna- tive model offers sufficient flexibility to adapt to any particular community. The model is also participatory, process-oriented, and reflective. Herein we first review existing models, provide criteria for assessing their applicability, then introduce the new model, and subsequently discuss its applicability and merit.


Violence Against Women In Philadelphia - A Report To The City, Susan B. Sorenson Jan 2012

Violence Against Women In Philadelphia - A Report To The City, Susan B. Sorenson

Departmental Papers (SPP)

No abstract provided.


Financial Inclusion: Lessons From Rural South India, Ram A. Cnaan, M. S. Moodithaya, Femida Handy Jan 2012

Financial Inclusion: Lessons From Rural South India, Ram A. Cnaan, M. S. Moodithaya, Femida Handy

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Financial inclusion/exclusion has recently been emphasised as an important policy option aimed at alleviating poverty, minimising social exclusion and enhancing economic growth. In this article, we review the growing interest in financial exclusion and inclusion, define them and demonstrate their existence in developing and developed countries. Our empirical focus is on whether financial inclusion has been successfully implemented in four sites in rural South India where banks claimed that financial inclusion is complete. Although many rural people in South India are financially included, the concept of financial inclusion is more complex than usually portrayed. Our findings show that social ...


Student Volunteering In China And Canada: Comparative Perspectives, Lesley Hustinx, Femida Handy, Ram A. C'Naan Jan 2012

Student Volunteering In China And Canada: Comparative Perspectives, Lesley Hustinx, Femida Handy, Ram A. C'Naan

Departmental Papers (SPP)

While many of the theoretical frameworks for volunteering have been developed and empirically tested in the west, our understanding of volunteering in non-Western countries, such as China, is relatively limited. Nevertheless, in recent decades enormous efforts have been made by the Chinese government to encourage and support volunteering among its citizens, especially youth. Chinese youth are volunteering in greater numbers in response to these initiatives. Given the strongly state-led nature of volunteering in China, as opposed to the voluntary, more citizen-initiated nature of volunteering in Western societies, this paper seeks to understand the impact of these contextual differences on student ...


Family Processes In Kinship Care, Malitta Engstrom Jan 2012

Family Processes In Kinship Care, Malitta Engstrom

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Over thousands of years and across diverse cultures and contexts, extended families have provided care for children. When children cannot be cared for by their parents, care provided by other relatives and close nonrelatives, known as "kinship care," is increasingly recognized as the favored alternative for children in need of foster care. "Formal" arrangements involve the child welfare system; "informal" arrangements, without child welfare involvement, may still involve formal procedures, including legal custody and decision-­making power. Informal kinship care is also referred to as "private kinship care," and formal kinship care is also referred to as "kinship foster care ...


Gender Disparities In Injury Mortality: Consistent, Persistent, And Larger Than You’D Think, Susan B. Sorenson Dec 2011

Gender Disparities In Injury Mortality: Consistent, Persistent, And Larger Than You’D Think, Susan B. Sorenson

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Objective. Given the recent increase in injury mortality, particularly among women, it is important to update knowledge about gender disparities in injury mortality.

Methods. Data were drawn from the Web-based Injury Query System, which contains U.S. injury mortality data from 1981 through 2007. Male-to-female rate ratios in injury mortality were calculated for key variables, and age and ethnic group comparisons were made.

Results. Boys and men are more likely than girls and women to die of injury. From 1981 to 2007, the male-to-female age-adjusted rate ratio decreased by 20% to 2.15 for unintentional injury and increased by 11 ...


Middle-Income Families In The Economic Downturn: Challenges And Management Strategies Over Time, Roberta R. Iversen, Laura Napolitano, Frank F. Furstenberg Oct 2011

Middle-Income Families In The Economic Downturn: Challenges And Management Strategies Over Time, Roberta R. Iversen, Laura Napolitano, Frank F. Furstenberg

Departmental Papers (SPP)

The “Great Recession” has hurt many families across the United States, yet most research has examined its impact on those already considered poor or working poor. However, this recession has affected middle-income families, whose experiences with economic challenge have seldom been looked at in any detail. Such families have recently been called “the new poor,” “the missing middle,” and “families in the middle.” One in seven American children under age 18 (10.5 million) has an unemployed parent as a result of this recession, and because economic mobility for children in the U.S. is affected by their parents’ earning ...


Book Review: How To House The Homeless. Edited By Ingrid Gould Ellen And Brendan O'Flaherty. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2010, Dennis P. Culhane Jun 2011

Book Review: How To House The Homeless. Edited By Ingrid Gould Ellen And Brendan O'Flaherty. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2010, Dennis P. Culhane

Departmental Papers (SPP)

No abstract provided.


Safe Access To Safe Water In Low Income Countries: Water Fetching In Current Times, Susan B. Sorenson, Christiaan Morssink, Paola Abril Campos May 2011

Safe Access To Safe Water In Low Income Countries: Water Fetching In Current Times, Susan B. Sorenson, Christiaan Morssink, Paola Abril Campos

Departmental Papers (SPP)

A substantial portion of the world’s population does not have ready access to safe water. Moreover, obtaining water may involve great expense of time and energy for those who have no water sources in or near home. From an historical perspective, with the invention of piped water, fetching water has only recently become largely irrelevant in many locales. In addition, in most instances, wells and clean surface water were so close by that fetching was not considered a problem. However, population growth, weather fluctuations and social upheavals have made the daily chore of carrying water highly problematic and a ...


Preface: Homelessness And Housing Exclusion In Europe: Challenges And Opportunities For Research And Policy, Dennis P. Culhane, Thomas Byrne Jan 2011

Preface: Homelessness And Housing Exclusion In Europe: Challenges And Opportunities For Research And Policy, Dennis P. Culhane, Thomas Byrne

Departmental Papers (SPP)

No abstract provided.


Motivations And Benefits Of Student Volunteering: Comparing Regular, Occasional, And Non-Volunteers In Five Countries, Ram A. Cnaan, Karen A. Smith, Kirsten Holmes, Debbie Haski-Leventhal, Femida Handy, Jeffrey L. Brudney Sep 2010

Motivations And Benefits Of Student Volunteering: Comparing Regular, Occasional, And Non-Volunteers In Five Countries, Ram A. Cnaan, Karen A. Smith, Kirsten Holmes, Debbie Haski-Leventhal, Femida Handy, Jeffrey L. Brudney

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Programs targeting student volunteering and service learning are aimed at encouraging civic behaviour among young people. This article reports on a large-scale international survey comparing volunteering among university students in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The data revealed high rates of student volunteering and the popularity of occasional volunteering. It also revealed that other young people were the main beneficiaries of students’ voluntary activities. Student volunteers were influenced by a mix of motivations and benefits, with differences on acontinuum of volunteer involvement between those volunteering regularly, those volunteering occasionally, and those not volunteering.


The World Social Situation: Development Challenges At The Outset Of A New Century, Richard J. Estes Jul 2010

The World Social Situation: Development Challenges At The Outset Of A New Century, Richard J. Estes

Departmental Papers (SPP)

World social development has arrived at a critical turning point. Economically advanced nations have made significant progress toward meeting the basic needs of their populations; however, the majority of developing countries have not. Problems of rapid population growth, failing economies, famine, environmental devastation, majority-minority group conflicts, increasing militarization, among others, are pushing many developing nations toward the brink of social chaos. This paper focuses on worldwide development trends for the 40-year period 1970-2009. Particular attention is given to the disparities in development that exist between the world’s “rich” and “poor” countries as well as the global forces that sustain ...


The 2009 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report To Congress, Alvaro Cortes, Jill Khadduri, Larry Buron, Dennis P. Culhane Jun 2010

The 2009 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report To Congress, Alvaro Cortes, Jill Khadduri, Larry Buron, Dennis P. Culhane

Departmental Papers (SPP)

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is pleased to present the 2009 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR), the fifth in a series of reports on homelessness in the United States. The reports respond to a series of Congressional directives calling for the collection and analysis of data on homelessness. The AHAR reports provide the latest counts of homelessness nationwide—including counts of individuals, persons in families, and special population groups such as veterans and chronically homeless people. The report also covers the types of locations where people use emergency shelter and transitional housing; where people were ...


The Age Structure Of Contemporary Homelessness: Risk Period Or Cohort Effect?, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux, Jay Bainbridge Jun 2010

The Age Structure Of Contemporary Homelessness: Risk Period Or Cohort Effect?, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux, Jay Bainbridge

Departmental Papers (SPP)

This paper assesses the age composition of the sheltered homeless population and how the age of this population – both single adults and adults in families – have changed over the past two decades. Data for this study came from administrative records on shelter use in New York City and from the nationwide shelter and general population enumerations in each of the last two decennial census enumerations. Results are presented in a series of figures to illustrate 1) the changes in the age distributions of the homeless population over time; and 2) the age distribution of homeless populations compared to other populations ...