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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Role Of The Environmental Context In Advance Care Planning Among Older Adults, Brittany E. Gaines Dec 2019

The Role Of The Environmental Context In Advance Care Planning Among Older Adults, Brittany E. Gaines

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Research has focused on various individual characteristics associated with advance care planning (ACP), but little is known about how the environment context is associated with ACP. This study examined the role of environmental characteristics in ACP by addressing three key aims: 1) examine the independent effects of environmental factors on ACP, 2) assess the moderating effects of environmental factors on the associations between ACP and individual household income and educational attainment, and 3) conduct a longitudinal examination of ACP and environmental characteristics. I combined individual ACP information from the 2004 and 2011 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study with county ...


Defining Worthy Victims: State-Level Legislative Decisions To Prevent The Criminalization Of Commercially Sexually Exploited Children In The United States, Kathleen A. Price Dec 2019

Defining Worthy Victims: State-Level Legislative Decisions To Prevent The Criminalization Of Commercially Sexually Exploited Children In The United States, Kathleen A. Price

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

The federal Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) includes children (anyone under 18) who are sexually exploited for commercial purposes in its definition of human trafficking victims. However, most states currently arrest and/or prosecute sex trafficked children for prostitution. From 2008 to 2017, six states neither arrested nor prosecuted sexually exploited children for prostitution; eight retained the right to arrest, but not prosecute minors for prostitution; and 36 states both arrested and prosecuted this population for prostitution. All 50 states passed their first human trafficking laws between 2003 and 2013. Washington passed the first in 2003 and Wyoming ...


Effects Of Visual Impairment On The Preparation, Response, And Recovery From The 2017 Hurricane Season In Puerto Rico, Kevin D. Mccormack Dec 2019

Effects Of Visual Impairment On The Preparation, Response, And Recovery From The 2017 Hurricane Season In Puerto Rico, Kevin D. Mccormack

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

The 2017 hurricane season in Puerto Rico brought rain and wind forces the likes of which had not been seen in 90 years on the island. Some say it will take at least ten years to recover from the damage caused to functional necessities such as roadways, assuming full recovery is possible. While the general populace in Puerto Rico struggled to recover, populations such as people with visual impairments experienced the struggle more acutely. Independent living, limited as it generally was before Hurricane Maria, was further compromised. There was a feeling of abandonment throughout the community of people with visual ...


Crafting The Government Mobile Application: A Mixed Methods Analysis Of Public Value Creation As It Relates To Citizen Engagement And Participation In The Development Of Government Smart City Mobile Application, Sean M. Mossey Dec 2019

Crafting The Government Mobile Application: A Mixed Methods Analysis Of Public Value Creation As It Relates To Citizen Engagement And Participation In The Development Of Government Smart City Mobile Application, Sean M. Mossey

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

With smart city and e-government (electronic government) initiatives striving for increased levels of citizen participation, public managers continue to search for a way to increase the utilization of Information Technology (IT) services. However, most efforts focus on linking operations and IT services, rather than facilitating greater means of citizen engagement in government service development (Granier & Kudo, 2016). Furthermore, few studies examine the effect of citizen engagement, particularly in relation to the New Information Communication Technology (NICT), or the smartphone mobile application. These smartphones and their associated mobile applications are quickly becoming one of the primary tools for smart cities worldwide ...


Adult Educators At The Crossroads Of Language Learning And Workforce Development: A Qualitative Study Of Teacher Agency, Liz Ging Dec 2019

Adult Educators At The Crossroads Of Language Learning And Workforce Development: A Qualitative Study Of Teacher Agency, Liz Ging

Graduate Masters Theses

Since the passage of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) in 2014, there has been renewed questioning about the nature and purpose of adult education programs in the United States, including English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL). The heavy workforce development orientation of the new law is a starker manifestation of trends focused on job training which have been sweeping through the field of adult education for the last few decades. In the midst of these shifts, little research has been done to investigate what the educators charged with meeting these policy goals think about these changes, the ...


Black Family Engagement Through Communication Technology: A Phenomenological Study From The Perspective Of Urban Public High Schools Parents In The Greater Boston Area, Mariette Bien-Aime Ayala Dec 2019

Black Family Engagement Through Communication Technology: A Phenomenological Study From The Perspective Of Urban Public High Schools Parents In The Greater Boston Area, Mariette Bien-Aime Ayala

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Black family engagement is the key to improving the life outcomes of young Black students (Clark, 2015; Mestry & Grobler, 2007). Recently, as a response to a need for better family engagement in K-12 education, new technologies have emerged. As educators, it is important to study the effectiveness of these new communication technologies, as well as how Black families are experiencing opportunities for engagement through them. Guided by critical race theory and capital theory, I ask: How do Black families experience opportunities for engagement with their children’s high schools through the use of communication technologies? To find this answer, in ...


Human Rights And Justice Rights Approaches To Gender-Based Violence (Gbv): The Case Of Kenya’S Sexual Offenses Act (Ksoa), Maryanne W. Kamunya Dec 2019

Human Rights And Justice Rights Approaches To Gender-Based Violence (Gbv): The Case Of Kenya’S Sexual Offenses Act (Ksoa), Maryanne W. Kamunya

Graduate Masters Theses

Sexual violence produces detrimental and long-lasting physical and psychological trauma that deters a victim’s ability to fully participate in the economic, political and social development of their community and nation-state (Legal Action Worldwide, 2014). To fight this crime, the UNDP has developed an International Sexual Violence Protocol. This Protocol recommends consolidation of sexual violence legislation into one document called the Sexual Offense Act. These laws tend to use a justice through rights approach to effectively criminalize and prosecute sexual violence within a comprehensive human rights-based model. By using a justice over human rights-based approach; Kenya’s Sexual Offense Act ...


Place, Preferences, And Policy: An Analysis Of Funding Education Along The Urban-Rural Divide, Kattalina Berriochoa Dec 2019

Place, Preferences, And Policy: An Analysis Of Funding Education Along The Urban-Rural Divide, Kattalina Berriochoa

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Rural places are changing in unique ways compared to urban and suburban areas. Rural residents disproportionately experience geographic isolation, tax base loss, decreasing populations, and economies challenged by industrial shifts and declines. This leaves rural areas with increasing need for public investment but does not necessarily translate into increased public demand for these investments. In this work, I analyze the following puzzle: what explains geographical variation in individual preferences, which often appears contrary to collective interests? Specifically, I analyze variation in investment preferences for public education and seek to build a better understanding of the underlying dynamics that explain why ...


The Double-Edged Sword Of Diagnosis: Medical Neoliberalism In Rape Crisis Center Counseling, Shannon M. Peters Aug 2019

The Double-Edged Sword Of Diagnosis: Medical Neoliberalism In Rape Crisis Center Counseling, Shannon M. Peters

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

The prevalence of sexual violence in the United States is a critical issue and the aftermath of sexual assault can have profound effects on psychological well-being. Rape Crisis Centers play a vital role in supporting sexual violence survivors. The framework through which Rape Crisis Center clinicians understand the experiences of survivors has a substantial impact on the course of counseling, how survivors interpret their own experiences, and survivors’ psychological health. A neoliberal medicalized framework conceptualizes distress post-sexual assault as a disease or disorder and places the responsibility on an individual to ‘fix’ themselves, situating the problem within the person, rather ...


Eat This In Remembrance: The Zooarchaeology Of Secular And Religious Sites In 17th-Century New Mexico, Ana C. Opishinski Aug 2019

Eat This In Remembrance: The Zooarchaeology Of Secular And Religious Sites In 17th-Century New Mexico, Ana C. Opishinski

Graduate Masters Theses

This thesis examines the faunal remains from LA 20,000, a 17th-century Spanish estancia near Santa Fe, New Mexico that was inhabited by a family of Spanish colonists and indigenous laborers. The data collected from these specimens are examined to better understand the diet of the site’s inhabitants, especially in conjunction with existing data on the plant portion of the diet at this site. Creating a more complete picture of the diet, the analysis covers Number of Identified Specimens (NISP), Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI), potential meat weight represented by the various species, bone modifications, and ageing and kill-off ...


Regional Variation In Grass, Sedge, And Cereal Cultivation During The Viking Age In Skagafjörður, North Iceland, Melissa M. Ritchey Aug 2019

Regional Variation In Grass, Sedge, And Cereal Cultivation During The Viking Age In Skagafjörður, North Iceland, Melissa M. Ritchey

Graduate Masters Theses

In Viking Age and Medieval Iceland, livestock forage was a critical resource in the Norse agropastoral economy. Cereal cultivation, typically an important part of the Norse economy, may have been more limited in marginal sub-Arctic Iceland. An analysis of macrobotanical seed assemblages from archaeological excavations at 42 Viking Age and Medieval farmsteads in the Skagafjörður region of North Iceland suggests both broad trends and substantial variation over time and space in agropastoral production practices. This study finds that the main components of livestock forage (grass, sedge, and perhaps cereal) are highly variable between regions and over time. Interestingly, barley (Hordeum ...


Cultures And Comfort: A Study Of Personal Adornment At Avery's Rest, Julianne Danna Aug 2019

Cultures And Comfort: A Study Of Personal Adornment At Avery's Rest, Julianne Danna

Graduate Masters Theses

Avery’s Rest was a diverse, thriving plantation in Sussex County, Delaware in the late 1600s and early 1700s. John Avery, a flavorful character from England by way of Massachusetts and Maryland, settled the plantation in the late 1600s and made his final home there with his wife and children. After his death, the same site was then occupied by his daughter, Jemima, and her husband.

Excavated by the Archaeological Society of Delaware, the numerous artifacts from the archaeological site provide a glimpse into the lives of settlers on the colonial frontier as they fought to survive environmental challenges, negotiated ...


Multiperspectivity Through Alternative History In The Classroom, Anggita Parameswari Latif Aug 2019

Multiperspectivity Through Alternative History In The Classroom, Anggita Parameswari Latif

Graduate Masters Theses

This paper aims to evaluate existing teaching approaches in middle school history classrooms that incorporate alternative history materials. Alternative history focuses on the question of what might have happened differently, or ‘what if?’ The study focuses on addressing the following question: How does the understanding of one event’s significance on the chain of historical occasions contribute to students’ engagement in discussing past and current conflicts, based on teachers’ points of view? Interviews with 10 education practitioners focused on exploring the ways students can learn to see history creatively while developing tolerance. Existing approaches are explored through the viewpoints of ...


Working Memory And Mindfulness In An Rct Of Abbt And Ar, Anna M. Hall May 2019

Working Memory And Mindfulness In An Rct Of Abbt And Ar, Anna M. Hall

Graduate Masters Theses

Working memory capacity (WMC) can be degraded by anxiety, stress, and worry, but can also be protected by mindfulness interventions (Jha et al., 2010). The current study was the first to investigate the relations between WMC, anxiety, and mindfulness within two interventions for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) that promote mindfulness: Acceptance Based Behavioral Therapy (ABBT) and Applied Relaxation (AR). In this exploratory study, we analyzed a subset of participants from a RCT of ABBT and AR who had completed the Operation Span Task (OSPAN; n = 21). First, we found that pre- to post-treatment measures of WMC (e.g., OSPAN scores ...


Environments Explored: An In-Depth Analysis Of Soil Movement In Northern Iceland, Lauren Welch O'Connor May 2019

Environments Explored: An In-Depth Analysis Of Soil Movement In Northern Iceland, Lauren Welch O'Connor

Graduate Masters Theses

The initial colonization of Iceland in the late 9th century had a profound impact on the fragile environment of the North Atlantic island. Settlement and the introduction of livestock resulted in widespread erosion and the replacement of woodlands with meadows and heaths. Changes in the environment are assumed to have played a role in determining settlement patterning and subsistence strategies. While marginal highland areas were most seriously affected, resulting in farmstead abandonment, the nature of changes in lowland areas and their impact on the productivity of individual farms is poorly understood. Local patterns of landscape change in Iceland could be ...


The Role Of The International Non-Governmental Organizations (Ingo) In Humanitarian Intervention – A Case Study Of The Ifrc Cash Transfer Program In Malawi, Olabode George Igandan May 2019

The Role Of The International Non-Governmental Organizations (Ingo) In Humanitarian Intervention – A Case Study Of The Ifrc Cash Transfer Program In Malawi, Olabode George Igandan

Graduate Masters Theses

While Cash Transfer Programs (CTP) has been used to address a variety of social problems, as of yet, there is limited literature on the efficacy of cash transfers in ensuring food security. This study aims to fill this vacuum by investigating the circumstances under which cash transfers are effective in ensuring food security. Malawi, the selected country for this study, provides a useful platform of research because the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) implemented this policy there. More specifically, this study aims at investigating the extent to which the IFRC CTP was effective in ensuring ...


From Victim To Volunteer: A Life Course Perspective And The Transition To Adulthood For Individuals Who Have Sold Sex, Julianne M. Siegfriedt May 2019

From Victim To Volunteer: A Life Course Perspective And The Transition To Adulthood For Individuals Who Have Sold Sex, Julianne M. Siegfriedt

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Under the United States definition of sex trafficking, one is considered a sex trafficking victim if she or he sells sex under 18 years old. Once someone turns 18, in order to claim trafficking status force, fraud, or coercion must be proven or that person falls under the illegal status of sex worker (VTVPA 2000). If one can go from being a victim of a crime to a perpetrator of a crime by having a birthday, what does the transition to adulthood and turning 18 look like for those who sell or exchange sex or are at risk of selling ...


Comales And Colonialism: An Analysis Of Cuisine And Ceramics On A 17th-Century New Mexican Estancia, Adam C. Brinkman May 2019

Comales And Colonialism: An Analysis Of Cuisine And Ceramics On A 17th-Century New Mexican Estancia, Adam C. Brinkman

Graduate Masters Theses

The archaeological site of LA 20,000 is an early colonial Spanish estancia, or ranch, in New Mexico that was occupied between A.D. 1630 to 1680. Spanish estancias became the homes and work spaces for people with a wide range of cultural backgrounds. In this thesis, the author analyses the ceramics and ground stone assemblage of LA 20,000 to understand the daily practice of cuisine on this rural frontier. Cuisine has important symbolic components related to an individual’s identity. Through the practice of cuisine, inhabitants consumed foods that fit conceptions of acceptability, enacted preparation and cooking methods ...


Developing Age-Friendly Communities: Evidence From Multiple Case Studies, Patricia A. Oh May 2019

Developing Age-Friendly Communities: Evidence From Multiple Case Studies, Patricia A. Oh

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Population aging brings opportunities and challenges for local community and economic development. One policy solution that has been adopted by 325+ jurisdictions in the United States is joining the AARP Network of Age-Friendly States and Communities or the WHO Global Network of Age-Friendly States and Communities. Although the age-friendly movement is gaining momentum in the US, few studies have looked at what influences municipal decision-making about joining a network or making age-friendly changes. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore what influences municipal decision-making about joining a formal age-friendly network and how communities mobilize the resources at ...


Set In Stone: Recontextualizing The Lithic Assemblage Of A Seventeenth-Century Storage Cellar In Charlestown, Massachusetts, Anna M. Greco May 2019

Set In Stone: Recontextualizing The Lithic Assemblage Of A Seventeenth-Century Storage Cellar In Charlestown, Massachusetts, Anna M. Greco

Graduate Masters Theses

Feature 43 is a domestic structure that belonged to the wealthy seventeenth-century merchant community of Charlestown, Massachusetts, and was excavated in the early 1980s as part of the Maudlin Archaeological District. The extant collection has remained in storage for the last thirty years, demanding a recontextualization of the site, both in provenience and in historical context. Primary sources portray an image of a predominantly European settler household; however, a counter-narrative emerges from lithics found within the assemblage. While the ultimate goal is to analyze the patterns of lithic sourcing and production in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the findings hinge on ...


Off The Farm: An Evaluation Of Non-Farm Earnings And Employment On Poverty Alleviation In Rural Nicaragua, Magaly Vanessa Saenz Somarriba May 2019

Off The Farm: An Evaluation Of Non-Farm Earnings And Employment On Poverty Alleviation In Rural Nicaragua, Magaly Vanessa Saenz Somarriba

Graduate Masters Theses

In Nicaragua, poverty disproportionately affects the rural population. Over the last two decades, rural inhabitants have increased their participation in the Rural Non-Farm (RNF) sector. This study uses four waves of data from the Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) between 2001 and 2014 to test whether the transition to the RNF sector decreases poverty rates and increases consumption. To account for the endogeneity of RNF participation and measures of well-being like consumption, I use an instrumental variables approach. I use a policy enacted in 2006 that induced plausibly exogenous variation in electrification rates over the same period to instrument for ...


To Adopt Or Not To Adopt: Factors Impacting States’ Pursuit And Implementation Of Aca’S Home And Community-Based Programs, Lisa Kalimon Beauregard May 2019

To Adopt Or Not To Adopt: Factors Impacting States’ Pursuit And Implementation Of Aca’S Home And Community-Based Programs, Lisa Kalimon Beauregard

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) sought to improve the United States’ long-term services and supports (LTSS) system by expanding home and community-based services (HCBS). The ACA contained several optional Medicaid HCBS opportunities for states, including the Balancing Incentive Program, the 1915(k) Community First Choice personal care benefit, and the revised 1915(i) state plan benefit. This research examined these HCBS provisions to explain what factors determine whether states participate in the ACA’s new HCBS programs and, after adoption, what factors facilitate or impede implementation of these programs. To answer these questions, this study used a ...


Tools Of Teaching: Metal At Magunkaquog, Nadia E. Waski Dec 2018

Tools Of Teaching: Metal At Magunkaquog, Nadia E. Waski

Graduate Masters Theses

This thesis provides the results of a comprehensive analysis of the metal artifact assemblage from Magunkaquog, a mid-17th- to early-18th-century “Praying Indian” community located in present-day Ashland, Massachusetts. Magunkaquog was the seventh of fourteen “Praying Indian” settlements Puritan missionary John Eliot helped in gathering between the years of 1651-1674 as part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony’s attempts to convert local Native American populations to Christianity. Originally the site was discovered during a cultural resource management survey conducted by the Public Archaeological Lab (PAL), and further investigated by the Fiske Center for Archaeological Research (then known as the Center for ...


Healing From Heterosexism Through Expressive Writing, Kathleen M. Collins Dec 2018

Healing From Heterosexism Through Expressive Writing, Kathleen M. Collins

Graduate Masters Theses

Simply by existing within our society, LGBTQ people encounter widespread exposure to heterosexist attitudes, behaviors, and policies on a daily basis that ignore, invalidate, or outright discriminate against them. This marginalization contributes to myriad psychological consequences such as depression, suicidality, anxiety, and substance abuse. Despite the fact that LGBTQ people experience mental health issues and some subsequently seek treatment, few interventions exist that specifically address LGBTQ minority stressors; those that do exist tend to treat mental health consequences of societal heterosexism, rather than offering ways to heal from heterosexist experiences directly. In the current study, I explored the ability of ...


Surveying Identities In Context: Race, Gender & Sexual Orientation ‘At Work’, Justine A. Bulgar-Medina Dec 2018

Surveying Identities In Context: Race, Gender & Sexual Orientation ‘At Work’, Justine A. Bulgar-Medina

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Researchers, practitioners and common practice have imputed a great deal of power onto categories of social identity (e.g. race, sexual orientation, gender, religion). It common practice to collect demographic and identifying information on the categories to which we belong in settings ranging from the Census to the online shopping profile. Moreover, we have come to expect that this information will be used to make meaningful decisions on government program funding, targeted marketing, college recruitment and so much more. We also know that minority identities have a long history of negatively impacting individuals in employment, housing and other realms of ...


A View From Within: Notes And Insight From An Institutional Ethnography Of The National Commission For Natural Protected Areas In Tulum, Mexico, Maxwell J. Martin Dec 2018

A View From Within: Notes And Insight From An Institutional Ethnography Of The National Commission For Natural Protected Areas In Tulum, Mexico, Maxwell J. Martin

Graduate Masters Theses

National parks and protected areas are an integral component of the Mexican government’s long-term natural resource conservation strategy. They comprise over 90 million hectares throughout the country. However, the establishment and upkeep of these protected areas often incites conflict both between and among local actors. From poachers taking protected resources to indigenous peoples exercising their rights, protected areas have become a source of political, economic, and moral contention across the globe. In addition, their effectiveness in either ecological or sustainable development terms has been ambiguous at best.

Tulum, Mexico exemplifies this dilemma. The site of pre-Columbian Mayan architecture, Tulum ...


“The True Spirit Of Service": Ceramics And Toys As Tools Of Ideology At The Dorchester Industrial School For Girls, Sarah N. Johnson Aug 2018

“The True Spirit Of Service": Ceramics And Toys As Tools Of Ideology At The Dorchester Industrial School For Girls, Sarah N. Johnson

Graduate Masters Theses

This thesis examines the ceramics, both full-scale and toy, and dolls recovered from the Industrial School for Girls (1859-1941) in Dorchester, MA, in order to assess the ways in which the Managers who ran the School used material culture to enculturate the girls, as well as how the girls used material culture to shape their own identities. This site provides a unique opportunity to study the archaeology of a single-gender, and predominately single-class and single-age. The Industrial School for Girls, as an institution whose aim was to better the lives of poor girls and give them economic opportunities, as well ...


A Closed Mouth Gonna Get You Nothin’: How Conflict Is Handled After Diversity And Inclusion Training, Enrico E. Manalo Aug 2018

A Closed Mouth Gonna Get You Nothin’: How Conflict Is Handled After Diversity And Inclusion Training, Enrico E. Manalo

Graduate Masters Theses

Diversity and Inclusion training is often used in organizations to engage with the increasing demographic diversity in the United States. However, many organizations continue to base their trainings and initiatives on a paradigm which was primarily motivated to prevent litigation, rather than to ensure economic opportunity for all. Over time, such Diversity efforts failed in many documented instances to ensure such opportunities and in fact, created a host of unwanted side-effects, such as employee turnover, job dissatisfaction, and misconceptions regarding the soundness of Diversity and Inclusion efforts.

However, a number of organizations have undertaken Diversity and Inclusion efforts in earnest ...


"The Right To Play" The Establishment Of Playgrounds In The American City, Kyle James Fritch Aug 2018

"The Right To Play" The Establishment Of Playgrounds In The American City, Kyle James Fritch

Graduate Masters Theses

The Right to Play is focused on the development of playgrounds in America at the end of the 19th century. This overall development is shown through a focus on Boston, the city that instituted the first playground in the country and mirrors the similar rise of playgrounds in other cities. Throughout the 1800s children in cities played in the streets or any abandoned lot they could find. However, parents wanted what they believed to be a safer and healthier environment for their children to play. Along with this, reformers believed that these mostly immigrant and poor children were in need ...


The United States Of Sol: Privatization As A Tool Of American Hegemony In The Solar System, Edward C. Henry Aug 2018

The United States Of Sol: Privatization As A Tool Of American Hegemony In The Solar System, Edward C. Henry

Graduate Masters Theses

American outer space exploration has been progressively privatized since the end of the Cold War. The choice of privatization was a strategic geopolitical decision in the interest of maintaining American hegemonic leadership on Earth and in the solar system. American Congressional legislation and presidential speeches in the nearly three decades since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the “victory” of the American neoliberal form of capitalism, show support for the expansion of free-market principles into lower-Earth orbit and beyond. However, this is not a new trend. From the beginning of the American entry into the space race, the goal ...