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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Fave Is Problematic: Leaving One-Shots Through A Feminist Approach To Designing An Instruction Program, Nicole Pagowsky Apr 2020

The Fave Is Problematic: Leaving One-Shots Through A Feminist Approach To Designing An Instruction Program, Nicole Pagowsky

New England Library Instruction Group

The University of Arizona Libraries has a coordinated instruction program for its 13 liaisons on a campus of over 40k. Various iterations of instructional approaches have cycled throughout the years, with one-shots sessions often dominating. Rather than continue the one-shot cycle, the program is intended to center feminist, collaborative approaches with faculty; incorporate critical pedagogy into philosophy and practice; and provide liaisons with more agency to have greater instructional partnerships. This presentation will provide background and discuss planning and documentation of the program, and share successes, challenges, and thoughts for the future.


Early Neural And Environmental Predictors Of Later Emotion Dysregulation In Children With And Without Adhd Symptoms, Shannon Gair Apr 2020

Early Neural And Environmental Predictors Of Later Emotion Dysregulation In Children With And Without Adhd Symptoms, Shannon Gair

Masters Theses

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and is characterized by excessive inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. There is evidence that many children with ADHD experience emotion dysregulation, but little is known about the mechanisms by which children with ADHD develop difficulties with emotion dysregulation. The goal of the present study is to identify early neural and environmental predictors of emotion dysregulation and determine whether these factors interact in contributing to later emotion dysregulation. In this study, children (aged 4-7) with ADHD symptoms and typically developing children participated. Measures of emotion socialization ...


Food-Based Businesses And The Creative Class In New England's Post-Industrial Cities, Francesca Cigliano Apr 2020

Food-Based Businesses And The Creative Class In New England's Post-Industrial Cities, Francesca Cigliano

Masters Theses

This master’s thesis examines how the density of food-based businesses in New England’s post-industrial urban neighborhoods relates to neighborhood demographic characteristics. The relationship between food-based businesses and demographic change has been examined in larger metropolitan areas like New York City and Chicago and has found that younger, wealthier, and more highly educated residents tend to live where there are greater densities of food businesses. However, there has been little research on the topic in New England’s post-industrial cities that have historically struggled to attract highly sought knowledge workers. I find that food business density and the share ...


The Production And Perception Of Subject Focus Prosody In L2 Spanish, Covadonga Sanchez Mar 2020

The Production And Perception Of Subject Focus Prosody In L2 Spanish, Covadonga Sanchez

Doctoral Dissertations

New information can be introduced in discourse through different strategies, including syntactic and prosodic ones. This project provides an account of the syntactic and intonational strategies used for focus-marking in Peninsular Spanish, Mainstream American English and L2 Spanish using parallel experimental designs and a unitary method of analysis within the Autosegmental-Metrical framework for the study of intonation. It provides a comprehensive description of specific phonological categories and their phonetic implementation not only in monolingual speech, but also as they develop in the L2 grammar of Spanish learners with different experiences with the target language, following the premises of the L2 ...


Associations Between Emotion Regulation Flexibility, Executive Functioning, And Borderline Personality Disorder Features, Marykate Oakley Mar 2020

Associations Between Emotion Regulation Flexibility, Executive Functioning, And Borderline Personality Disorder Features, Marykate Oakley

Doctoral Dissertations

A substantial body of research has examined emotion regulation (ER) deficits in connection with borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on individuals’ use of specific ER strategies. However, studies historically have focused on the putative adaptability or maladaptability of individual strategies without adequate focus on the fit between specific strategies and context. Thus, ER flexibility as an index of the ability to vary the use of multiple ER strategies based on changing environmental demands and goals may allow for such an approach. Yet, to date, there remains uncertainty about how to best operationalize ER flexibility, and little research has examined this ...


Optimal Linearization: Prosodic Displacement In Khoekhoegowab And Beyond, Leland Kusmer Mar 2020

Optimal Linearization: Prosodic Displacement In Khoekhoegowab And Beyond, Leland Kusmer

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding the relationship between syntactic structures and linear strings is a challenge for modern syntactic theories. The most complete and widely accepted models — namely, the Headedness Parameter and the Linear Correspondence Axiom (Kayne, 1994) — each capture aspects of this relationship, but are either too permissive or two restrictive: A Headedness Parameter relativized to individual categories permits nearly any linear order which keeps phrases contiguous, even those that violate the Final-Over-Final Constraint (Sheehan et al. 2017); by contrast, the Linear Correspondence Axiom is well-known for ruling out head-final configurations generally. Subsequent models of linearization have typically been modifications of one of ...


Are Some Horizons Broader Than Others? Study Abroad, Inequality, And The Influence On Careers And Education., Suzan Kommers Mar 2020

Are Some Horizons Broader Than Others? Study Abroad, Inequality, And The Influence On Careers And Education., Suzan Kommers

Doctoral Dissertations

Study abroad is one of the main ways in which higher education institutions provide students with the opportunity to gain international experiences. While study abroad is mostly discussed in terms of the beneficial effects on students’ learning and development, the results in this dissertation indicate that study abroad works for some but disadvantages other students. Based on nationally representative U.S. data, I examined 1) disparities in students’ opportunities to study abroad as well as the effect of study abroad on the socioeconomic outcomes 2) early career income and 3) graduate school enrollment. The combined studies in this dissertation provided ...


Testing The Convergent Retrieval Learning Theory Of Testing Effects, William J. Hopper Mar 2020

Testing The Convergent Retrieval Learning Theory Of Testing Effects, William J. Hopper

Doctoral Dissertations

What is learned from retrieving a memory that is not learned by studying the same information? In response to this question, I have proposed a new theory of retrieval-based learning in which I argue that retrieval strengthens the ability to completely activate all portions of a memory trace from an initial state of partial activation. In effect, retrieval serves to unitize the features of a memory, making the entire memory remain retrievable in the future when cue-related activation may be weaker. This theory, called the Primary and Convergent Retrieval (PCR) model, explains why practice tests produce both better long-term retention ...


The Coyolxauhqui Process Of A Scholar Unbecoming An Enemy Of Youth: A Performative, Embodied, Self-Decolonizing Story Of Transformation And Hope, Carmen G. Hernández Ojeda Mar 2020

The Coyolxauhqui Process Of A Scholar Unbecoming An Enemy Of Youth: A Performative, Embodied, Self-Decolonizing Story Of Transformation And Hope, Carmen G. Hernández Ojeda

Doctoral Dissertations

Scholarly work may be used to foster colonizing processes upon people of color whether scholars are aware of it or not. That is the case of the study of youth bullying in the United States, an old issue that, however, became a central social concern in the United States in the late 1990s. Building upon scholars’ framing of youth bullying, a combination of moral panics on youth unfolded, fostering a law-and-order regime in schools that expanded the application of zero-tolerance policies. These policies fed the school-to-prison pipeline that funnels youth into the criminal justice system, a form of internal colonization ...


Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta Jan 2020

Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta

Microbiology Educational Materials

This curriculum describes a one-unit course designed to fulfill the University of Massachusetts requirement for Integrative Experience as part of the Gen Ed curriculum for undergraduates.


Revisiting India’S Growth Transitions, Deepankar Basu Jan 2020

Revisiting India’S Growth Transitions, Deepankar Basu

Economics Department Working Paper Series

This paper reconsiders two questions relating to India’s economic growth: structural breaks in growth and the impact of equipment investment on aggregate economic growth. First, statistical tests of structural change show that economic growth in post-independence India has witnessed four structural breaks: in 1964-65, in 1978-79, in 1990-91, and in 2004-05. However, substantial growth accelerations, i.e. increase of more than 1.0% per annum in the growth rate of per capita real GDP, occurred only at two points: 1978-79 and 2004-05. Second, to analyze the impact of equipment investment on growth, I use an ARDL bounds testing methodology ...


A Marxian Model Of Market For Money Capital: Profit Rate, Interest Rate, And Leverage Ratio, Hyun Woong Park Jan 2020

A Marxian Model Of Market For Money Capital: Profit Rate, Interest Rate, And Leverage Ratio, Hyun Woong Park

Economics Department Working Paper Series

In this paper, I develop a Marxian model of market for money capital populated by capitalists equipped with equal money capital endowment but with heterogeneous linear production technology. Due to a maximization of return on equity, capitalists with relatively weak technology, yielding profit rate lower than interest rate, become a money capitalist (lender) and capitalists with relatively strong technology, yielding profit rate greater than interest rate, become an industrial capitalist (borrower). The equilibrium interest rate is derived by the associated demand and supply relation. In this context, Marx’s notion of the role of credit system in an expanded reproduction ...


What Code-Switching Strategies Are Effective In Dialogue Systems?, Emily Ahn, Cecilia Jimenez, Yulia Tsvetkov, Alan Black Jan 2020

What Code-Switching Strategies Are Effective In Dialogue Systems?, Emily Ahn, Cecilia Jimenez, Yulia Tsvetkov, Alan Black

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Since most people in the world today are multilingual, code-switching is ubiquitous in spoken and written interactions. Paving the way for future adaptive, multilingual conversational agents, we incorporate linguistically-motivated strategies of code-switching into a rule-based goal-oriented dialogue system. We collect and release CommonAmigos, a corpus of 587 human-computer text conversations between our dialogue system and human users in mixed Spanish and English. From this new corpus, we analyze the amount of elicited code-switching, preferred patterns of user code-switching, and the impact of user demographics on code-switching. Based on these exploratory findings, we give recommendations for future effective code-switching dialogue systems ...


Preface: Scil 2020 Editors' Note, Allyson Ettinger, Gaja Jarosz, Max Nelson Jan 2020

Preface: Scil 2020 Editors' Note, Allyson Ettinger, Gaja Jarosz, Max Nelson

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

No abstract provided.


The Stability Of Segmental Properties Across Genre And Corpus Types In Low-Resource Languages, Uriel Cohen Priva, Shiying Yang, Emily Strand Jan 2020

The Stability Of Segmental Properties Across Genre And Corpus Types In Low-Resource Languages, Uriel Cohen Priva, Shiying Yang, Emily Strand

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Are written corpora useful for phonological research? Word frequency lists for low-resource languages have become ubiquitous in recent years (Scannell, 2007). For many languages there is direct correspondence between their written forms and their alphabets, but it is not clear whether written corpora can adequately represent language use. We use 15 low-resource languages and compare several information-theoretic properties across three corpus types. We show that despite differences in origin and genre, estimates in one corpus are highly correlated with estimates in other corpora.


Modeling Behavior In Truth Value Judgment Task Experiments, Brandon Waldon, Judith Degen Jan 2020

Modeling Behavior In Truth Value Judgment Task Experiments, Brandon Waldon, Judith Degen

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Truth Value Judgment Task experiments (TVJTs) are a common means of investigating pragmatic competence, particularly with regards to scalar inference. We present a novel quantitative linking function from pragmatic competence to participant behavior on TVJTs, based upon a Bayesian probabilistic model of linguistic production. Our model captures a range of observed phenomena on TVJTs, including intermediate responses on a non-binary scale, population and individual-level variation, participant endorsement of false utterances, and variation in response due to so-called scalar diversity.


Probing Rnn Encoder-Decoder Generalization Of Subregular Functions Using Reduplication, Max Nelson, Hossep Dolatian, Jonathan Rawski, Brandon Prickett Jan 2020

Probing Rnn Encoder-Decoder Generalization Of Subregular Functions Using Reduplication, Max Nelson, Hossep Dolatian, Jonathan Rawski, Brandon Prickett

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

This paper examines the generalization abilities of encoder-decoder networks on a class of subregular functions characteristic of natural language reduplication. We find that, for the simulations we run, attention is a necessary and sufficient mechanism for learning generalizable reduplication. We examine attention alignment to connect RNN computation to a class of 2-way transducers.


Where New Words Are Born: Distributional Semantic Analysis Of Neologisms And Their Semantic Neighborhoods, Maria Ryskina, Ella Rabinovich, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick, David R. Mortensen, Yulia Tsvetkov Jan 2020

Where New Words Are Born: Distributional Semantic Analysis Of Neologisms And Their Semantic Neighborhoods, Maria Ryskina, Ella Rabinovich, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick, David R. Mortensen, Yulia Tsvetkov

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

We perform statistical analysis of the phenomenon of neology, the process by which new words emerge in a language, using large diachronic corpora of English. We investigate the importance of two factors, semantic sparsity and frequency growth rates of semantic neighbors, formalized in the distributional semantics paradigm. We show that both factors are predictive of word emergence although we find more support for the latter hypothesis. Besides presenting a new linguistic application of distributional semantics, this study tackles the linguistic question of the role of language-internal factors (in our case, sparsity) in language change motivated by language-external factors (reflected in ...


Mg Parsing As A Model Of Gradient Acceptability In Syntactic Islands, Aniello De Santo Jan 2020

Mg Parsing As A Model Of Gradient Acceptability In Syntactic Islands, Aniello De Santo

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

It is well-known that the acceptability judgments at the core of current syntactic theories are continuous. However, an open debate is whether the source of such gradience is situated in the grammar itself, or can be derived from extra-grammatical factors. In this paper, we propose the use of a top-down parser for Minimalist grammars (Stabler, 2013; Kobele et al., 2013; Graf et al., 2017), as a formal model of how gradient acceptability can arise from categorical grammars. As a test case, we target the acceptability judgments for island effects collected by Sprouse et al. (2012a).


Interpreting Verbal Irony: Linguistic Strategies And The Connection To The Type Of Semantic Incongruity, Debanjan Ghosh, Elena Musi, Kartikeya Upasani, Smaranda Muresan Jan 2020

Interpreting Verbal Irony: Linguistic Strategies And The Connection To The Type Of Semantic Incongruity, Debanjan Ghosh, Elena Musi, Kartikeya Upasani, Smaranda Muresan

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Human communication often involves the use of verbal irony or sarcasm, where the speakers usually mean the opposite of what they say. To better understand how verbal irony is expressed by the speaker and interpreted by the hearer we conduct a crowdsourcing task: given an utterance expressing verbal irony, users are asked to verbalize their interpretation of the speaker's ironic message. We propose a typology of linguistic strategies for verbal irony interpretation and link it to various theoretical linguistic frameworks. We design computational models to capture these strategies and present empirical studies aimed to answer three questions: (1) what ...


Inflectional Networks: Graph-Theoretic Tools For Inflectional Typology, Andrea D. Sims Jan 2020

Inflectional Networks: Graph-Theoretic Tools For Inflectional Typology, Andrea D. Sims

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

The interpredictability of the inflected forms of lexemes is increasingly important to questions of morphological complexity and typology, but tools to quantify and visualize this aspect of inflectional organization are lacking, inhibiting effective cross-linguistic comparison. In this paper I use metrics from graph theory to describe and compare the organizational structure of inflectional systems. Graph theory offers a well-established toolbox for describing the properties of networks, making it ideal for this purpose. Comparison of nine languages reveals previously unobserved generalizations about the typological space of morphological systems. This is the first paper to apply graph-theoretic tools to the goal of ...


Acquisition Of Inflectional Morphology In Artificial Neural Networks With Prior Knowledge, Katharina Kann Jan 2020

Acquisition Of Inflectional Morphology In Artificial Neural Networks With Prior Knowledge, Katharina Kann

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

How does knowledge of one language’s morphology influence learning of inflection rules in a second one? In order to investigate this question in artificial neural network models, we perform experiments with a sequence-to-sequence architecture, which we train on different combinations of eight source and three target languages. A detailed analysis of the model outputs suggests the following conclusions: (i) if source and target language are closely related, acquisition of the target language’s inflectional morphology constitutes an easier task for the model; (ii) knowledge of a prefixing (resp. suffixing) language makes acquisition of a suffixing (resp. prefixing) language’s ...


Modeling Conventionalization And Predictability Within Mwes At The Brain Level, Shohini Bhattasali, Murielle Popa-Fabre, Christophe Pallier, John Hale Jan 2020

Modeling Conventionalization And Predictability Within Mwes At The Brain Level, Shohini Bhattasali, Murielle Popa-Fabre, Christophe Pallier, John Hale

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

While expressions have traditionally been binarized as compositional and noncompositional in linguistic theory, Multiword Expressions (MWEs) demonstrate finer-grained distinctions. Using Association Measures like Pointwise Mutual Information and Dice's Coefficient, MWEs can be characterized as having different degrees of conventionalization and predictability. Our goal is to investigate how these gradiences could reflect cognitive processes. In this study, fMRI recordings of naturalistic narrative comprehension is used to probe to what extent these computational measures and the cognitive processes they could operationalize are observable during on-line sentence processing. Our results show that Dice's Coefficent, representing lexical predictability, is a better predictor ...


A Principled Derivation Of Harmonic Grammar, Giorgio Magri Jan 2020

A Principled Derivation Of Harmonic Grammar, Giorgio Magri

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Phonologists focus on a few processes at the time. This practice is motivated by the intuition that phonological processes factorize into clusters with no interactions across clusters (e.g., obstruent voicing does not interact with vowel harmony). To formalize this intuition, we factorize a full-blown representation into under-specified representations, each encoding only the information needed by the corresponding phonological cluster. And we require a grammar for the original full-blown representations to factorize into gram- mars that handle the under-specified representations separately, independently of each other. Within a harmony-based implementation of constraint-based phonology, HG is shown to follow axiomatically from this ...


Phonotactic Learning With Neural Language Models, Connor Mayer, Max Nelson Jan 2020

Phonotactic Learning With Neural Language Models, Connor Mayer, Max Nelson

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Computational models of phonotactics share much in common with language models, which assign probabilities to sequences of words. While state of the art language models are implemented using neural networks, phonotactic models have not followed suit. We present several neural models of phonotactics, and show that they perform favorably when compared to existing models. In addition, they provide useful insights into the role of representations on phonotactic learning and generalization. This work provides a promising starting point for future modeling of human phonotactic knowledge.


An Ibsp Description Of Sanskrit /N/-Retroflexion, Ayla Karakaş Jan 2020

An Ibsp Description Of Sanskrit /N/-Retroflexion, Ayla Karakaş

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Graf and Mayer (2018) analyze the process of Sanskrit /n/-retroflexion (nati) from a subregular perspective. They show that nati, which might be the most complex phenomenon in segmental phonology, belongs to the class of input-output tier-based strictly local languages (IO-TSL). However, the generative capacity and linguistic relevance of IO-TSL is still largely unclear compared to other recent classes like the interval-based strictly piecewise languages (IBSP: Graf, 2017, 2018). This paper shows that IBSP has a much harder time capturing nati than IO-TSL does, due to two major shortcomings: namely, the requirement of an upper bound on relevant segments, and ...


The Rhetorical Structure Of Modus Tollens: An Exploration In Logic-Mining, Andrew Potter Jan 2020

The Rhetorical Structure Of Modus Tollens: An Exploration In Logic-Mining, Andrew Potter

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

A general method for mining discourse for occurrences of the rules of inference would be useful in a variety of natural language processing applications. The method described here has its roots in Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST). An RST analysis of a rule of inference can be used as an exemplar to produce a relational complex in the form of a nested relational proposition. This relational complex can be transformed into a logical expression using the logic of relational propositions. The expression can then be generalized as a logical signature for use in logic-mining discourse for instances of the rule. Generalized ...


Assessing The Ability Of Transformer-Based Neural Models To Represent Structurally Unbounded Dependencies, Jillian K. Da Costa, Rui P. Chaves Jan 2020

Assessing The Ability Of Transformer-Based Neural Models To Represent Structurally Unbounded Dependencies, Jillian K. Da Costa, Rui P. Chaves

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Filler-gap dependencies are among the most challenging syntactic constructions for com- putational models at large. Recently, Wilcox et al. (2018) and Wilcox et al. (2019b) provide some evidence suggesting that large-scale general-purpose LSTM RNNs have learned such long-distance filler-gap dependencies. In the present work we provide evidence that such models learn filler-gap dependencies only very imperfectly, despite being trained on massive amounts of data. Finally, we compare the LSTM RNN models with more modern state-of-the-art Transformer models, and find that these have poor-to-mixed degrees of success, despite their sheer size and low perplexity.


Neural Network Learning Of The Russian Genitive Of Negation: Optionality And Structure Sensitivity, Natalia Talmina, Tal Linzen Jan 2020

Neural Network Learning Of The Russian Genitive Of Negation: Optionality And Structure Sensitivity, Natalia Talmina, Tal Linzen

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

A number of recent studies have investigated the ability of language models (specifically, neural network language models without syntactic supervision) to capture syntactic dependencies. In this paper, we contribute to this line of work and investigate the neural network learning of the Russian genitive of negation. The genitive case can optionally mark direct objects of negated verbs, but it is obligatory in the existential copula construction under negation. We find that the recurrent neural network language model we tested can learn this grammaticality pattern, although it is not clear whether it learns the locality constraint on the genitive objects. Our ...


Modeling Morphological Processing In Human Magnetoencephalography, Yohei Oseki, Alec Marantz Jan 2020

Modeling Morphological Processing In Human Magnetoencephalography, Yohei Oseki, Alec Marantz

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

In this paper, we conduct a magnetoencephalography (MEG) lexical decision experiment and computationally model morphological processing in the human brain, especially the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the visual ventral stream. Five neurocomputational models of morphological processing are constructed and evaluated against human neural activities: Character Markov Model and Syllable Markov Model as "amorphous" models without morpheme units, and Morpheme Markov Model, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar (PCFG) as "morphous" models with morpheme units structured linearly or hierarchically. Our MEG experiment and computational modeling demonstrate that "morphous" models outperformed "amorphous" models, PCFG was most neurologically accurate ...