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Articles 1 - 30 of 7465

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

What’S Your Internal Learning Environment? Knowledge Management In Libraries, Jennifer A. Bartlett May 2021

What’S Your Internal Learning Environment? Knowledge Management In Libraries, Jennifer A. Bartlett

Library Presentations

No abstract provided.


Medline Search Retrieval Issues: A Longitudinal Query Analysis Of Five Vendor Platforms, C. Sean Burns, Tyler Nix, Robert M. Shapiro Ii, Jeffrey T. Huber May 2021

Medline Search Retrieval Issues: A Longitudinal Query Analysis Of Five Vendor Platforms, C. Sean Burns, Tyler Nix, Robert M. Shapiro Ii, Jeffrey T. Huber

Information Science Faculty Publications

This study compared the results of data collected from a longitudinal query analysis of the MEDLINE database hosted on multiple platforms that include PubMed, EBSCOHost, Ovid, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The goal was to identify variations among the search results on the platforms after controlling for search query syntax. We devised twenty-nine cases of search queries comprised of five semantically equivalent queries per case to search against the five MEDLINE database platforms. We ran our queries monthly for a year and collected search result count data to observe changes. We found that search results varied considerably depending on MEDLINE ...


Perceived Psychosocial Impacts Of Legalized Same-Sex Marriage: A Scoping Review Of Sexual Minority Adults' Experiences, Laurie A. Drabble, Angie R. Wootton, Cindy B. Veldhuis, Ellen D. B. Riggle, Sharon S. Rostosky, Pamela J. Lannutti, Kimberly F. Balsam, Tonda L. Hughes May 2021

Perceived Psychosocial Impacts Of Legalized Same-Sex Marriage: A Scoping Review Of Sexual Minority Adults' Experiences, Laurie A. Drabble, Angie R. Wootton, Cindy B. Veldhuis, Ellen D. B. Riggle, Sharon S. Rostosky, Pamela J. Lannutti, Kimberly F. Balsam, Tonda L. Hughes

Political Science Faculty Publications

A growing body of literature provides important insights into the meaning and impact of the right to marry a same-sex partner among sexual minority people. We conducted a scoping review to 1) identify and describe the psychosocial impacts of equal marriage rights among sexual minority adults, and 2) explore sexual minority women (SMW) perceptions of equal marriage rights and whether psychosocial impacts differ by sex. Using Arksey and O'Malley's framework we reviewed peer-reviewed English-language publications from 2000 through 2019. We searched six databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, JSTOR, and Sociological Abstracts) to identify English language, peer-reviewed ...


Measuring The Impact Of The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion On Access To Primary Care Using An Interrupted Time Series Approach, Elizabeth A. Brown, Brandi M. White, Walter J. Jones, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Kit N. Simpson May 2021

Measuring The Impact Of The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion On Access To Primary Care Using An Interrupted Time Series Approach, Elizabeth A. Brown, Brandi M. White, Walter J. Jones, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Kit N. Simpson

Health and Clinical Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA), was created to increase access to primary care, improve quality of care, and decrease healthcare costs. A key provision in the law that mandated expansion of state Medicaid programme changed when states were given the option to voluntarily expand Medicaid. Our study sought to measure the impact of ACA Medicaid expansion on preventable hospitalization (PH) rates, a measure of access to primary care.

METHODS: We performed an interrupted time series analysis of quarterly hospitalization rates across eight states from 2012 to ...


Review Of: The Cancer Crisis In Appalachia: Kentucky Students Take Action, Stephenie Kennedy-Rea May 2021

Review Of: The Cancer Crisis In Appalachia: Kentucky Students Take Action, Stephenie Kennedy-Rea

Journal of Appalachian Health

The Journal of Appalachian Health is committed to reviewing published media that relates to contemporary concepts affecting the health of Appalachia. With cancer mortality rates higher in rural and Appalachian communities, a focus on how cancer impacts our families and communities is more important than ever. Dr. Stephenie Kennedy-Rea reviews the book The Cancer Crisis in Appalachia: Kentucky Students Take Action.


Tracking The Impact Of Diseases Of Despair In Appalachia—2015 To 2018, Megan Heffernan, Michael Meit, Margaret Cherney, Victoria A. Hallman May 2021

Tracking The Impact Of Diseases Of Despair In Appalachia—2015 To 2018, Megan Heffernan, Michael Meit, Margaret Cherney, Victoria A. Hallman

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: This study provides an update on mortality due to diseases of despair within the Appalachian Region, comparing 2015 to 2018.

Methods: Diseases of despair include: alcohol, prescription drug and illegal drug overdose, suicide, and alcoholic liver disease/cirrhosis of the liver. Analyses are based on National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) mortality data for individuals aged 15-64.

Results: Between 2015 and 2017, the diseases of despair mortality rate increased in both Appalachia and the non-Appalachian U.S., and the disparity grew between Appalachia and the rest of the county. In 2018, the disease of despair mortality rate declined by 8 ...


Effects Of Sleep Duration On Falls In A West Virginia Population-Based Study, Brfss, 2018, R. Constance Wiener, Christopher Waters May 2021

Effects Of Sleep Duration On Falls In A West Virginia Population-Based Study, Brfss, 2018, R. Constance Wiener, Christopher Waters

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: West Virginia is a state in which most counties are rural, as well as a state with multiple health disparities among its population. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of sleep duration and falls for non-institutionalized West Virginia adults, aged 40 years and above, using the National Sleep Foundation’s definition of “may be appropriate” and “not recommended” sleep durations for specific ages.

Methods: Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2018 data concerning West Virginia residents were extracted for sleep duration and number of falls within the previous year. Data were analyzed with Chi square ...


Diseases Of Despair: A Commentary, Andrew Howard May 2021

Diseases Of Despair: A Commentary, Andrew Howard

Journal of Appalachian Health

Across the nation, and within Appalachia, communities that struggle economically experience greater health challenges, with disparities observed across leading causes of death. Within our region, these disparities are particularly notable across diseases of despair.


School Reopenings, Mobility, And Covid-19 Spread: Evidence From Texas, Charles J. Courtemanche, Anh Le, Aaron Yelowitz, Ron Zimmer May 2021

School Reopenings, Mobility, And Covid-19 Spread: Evidence From Texas, Charles J. Courtemanche, Anh Le, Aaron Yelowitz, Ron Zimmer

Institute for the Study of Free Enterprise Working Papers

This paper examines the effect of fall 2020 school reopenings in Texas on county-level COVID19 cases and fatalities. Previous evidence suggests that schools can be reopened safely if community spread is low and public health guidelines are followed. However, in Texas, reopenings often occurred alongside high community spread and at near capacity, likely making it difficult to meet social distancing recommendations. Using event-study models and hand-collected instruction modality and start dates for all school districts, we find robust evidence that reopening Texas schools gradually but substantially accelerated the community spread of COVID-19. Results from our preferred specification imply that school ...


The Tacit Knowledge Dilemma In Open Science, C. Sean Burns Apr 2021

The Tacit Knowledge Dilemma In Open Science, C. Sean Burns

Information Science Presentations

A talk about the role that knowledge management (and sub areas) might play in open science. The open science movement has the goal of making transparent as much of the scientific process as is possible. This entails making publicly available (open source, access, etc.) the parts of the scientific workflow, such as the data, the software code, the manuscripts, that are used or generated in the process of doing research. However, Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge raises a dilemma that knowledge management researchers might be able to address. Specifically, if we accept the theory of tacit knowledge, the ...


The Public’S Perceptions Of Government Officials’ Communication In The Wake Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Shaniece B. Bickham, Diane B. Francis Apr 2021

The Public’S Perceptions Of Government Officials’ Communication In The Wake Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Shaniece B. Bickham, Diane B. Francis

Communication Faculty Publications

Early news coverage in the US about the COVID-19 pandemic focused on information released from local, state and federal government officials. With an emphasis on US government at these levels, this study examined whether the public’s credibility perceptions and trust in government, along with message exposure, influenced their adherence to information from the government about (a) stay-at-home orders, (b) social distancing and (c) COVID-19 testing. Source credibility theory and situational crisis communication theory provided the theoretical framework for this study. Through the survey data analysis, we investigated communication preferences in the wake of the pandemic and whether credibility perceptions ...


Detecting Recent Crop Phenology Dynamics In Corn And Soybean Cropping Systems Of Kentucky, Yanjun Yang, Bo Tao, Liang Liang, Yawen Huang, Christopher J. Matocha, Chad D. Lee, Michael Sama, Bassil El Masri, Wei Ren Apr 2021

Detecting Recent Crop Phenology Dynamics In Corn And Soybean Cropping Systems Of Kentucky, Yanjun Yang, Bo Tao, Liang Liang, Yawen Huang, Christopher J. Matocha, Chad D. Lee, Michael Sama, Bassil El Masri, Wei Ren

Geography Faculty Publications

Accurate phenological information is essential for monitoring crop development, predicting crop yield, and enhancing resilience to cope with climate change. This study employed a curve-change-based dynamic threshold approach on NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index) time series to detect the planting and harvesting dates for corn and soybean in Kentucky, a typical climatic transition zone, from 2000 to 2018. We compared satellite-based estimates with ground observations and performed trend analyses of crop phenological stages over the study period to analyze their relationships with climate change and crop yields. Our results showed that corn and soybean planting dates were delayed by 0 ...


Measuring User Satisfaction: Uk Libraries’ Libqual+ 2020 Results, Julene L. Jones Apr 2021

Measuring User Satisfaction: Uk Libraries’ Libqual+ 2020 Results, Julene L. Jones

Library Presentations

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Environmental Enrichment On The Brain And On Learning And Cognition By Animals, Thomas R. Zentall Mar 2021

Effect Of Environmental Enrichment On The Brain And On Learning And Cognition By Animals, Thomas R. Zentall

Psychology Faculty Publications

The humane treatment of animals suggests that they should be housed in an environment that is rich in stimulation and allows for varied activities. However, even if one’s main concern is an accurate assessment of their learning and cognitive abilities, housing them in an enriched environment can have an important effect on the assessment of those abilities. Research has found that the development of the brain of animals is significantly affected by the environment in which they live. Not surprisingly, their ability to learn both simple and complex tasks is affected by even modest time spent in an enriched ...


Under Whose Roof? Understanding The Living Arrangements Of Children In Doubled-Up Households, Hope Harvey, Rachel Dunifon, Natasha Pilkauskas Mar 2021

Under Whose Roof? Understanding The Living Arrangements Of Children In Doubled-Up Households, Hope Harvey, Rachel Dunifon, Natasha Pilkauskas

Public Policy and Administration Faculty Publications

A growing literature in family demography examines children's residence in doubled-up (shared) households with extended family members and nonkin. This research has largely overlooked the role of doubling up as a housing strategy, with “hosts” (householders) providing housing support for “guests” living in their home. Yet, understanding children's experiences in doubled-up households requires attention to host/guest status. Using the American Community Survey and Survey of Income and Program Participation, we identify the prevalence of children doubling up as hosts and guests in different household compositions (multigenerational, extended family, nonkin), show how this varies by demographic characteristics, and ...


Undoing Mastery: With Ambivalence?, Jess Linz, Anna J. Secor Mar 2021

Undoing Mastery: With Ambivalence?, Jess Linz, Anna J. Secor

Geography Graduate Research

In this commentary, we respond to Derek Ruez and Daniel Cockayne’s article ‘Feeling Otherwise: Ambivalent Affects and the Politics of Critique in Geography’. We do so by picking up ambivalence—or more precisely, ambivalence about ambivalence—as a tool with which Ruez and Cockayne leave us. We find this tool somewhat difficult to grasp, but we understand this as part of its design. Ambivalence undoes the subject’s mastery. In doing so, we find that an airing of ambivalence gives other kinds of entangled, indeterminate, and unknowing relations room to breathe.


The Origins Of Religious Disbelief: A Dual Inheritance Approach, Will M. Gervais, Maxine B. Najle, Nava Caluori Mar 2021

The Origins Of Religious Disbelief: A Dual Inheritance Approach, Will M. Gervais, Maxine B. Najle, Nava Caluori

Psychology Graduate Research

Widespread religious disbelief represents a key testing ground for theories of religion. We evaluated the predictions of three prominent theoretical approaches—secularization, cognitive byproduct, and dual inheritance—in a nationally representative (United States, N = 1,417) data set with preregistered analyses and found considerable support for the dual inheritance perspective. Of key predictors of religious disbelief, witnessing fewer credible cultural cues of religious commitment was the most potent, β = .28, followed distantly by reflective cognitive style, β = .13, and less advanced mentalizing, β = .05. Low cultural exposure predicted about 90% higher odds of atheism than did peak cognitive reflection, and ...


Integrating Policies, Systems, And Environments (Pse) Work Into Fcs Extension Programming: Lessons Learned From A Multi-State Training, Lisa T. Washburn, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Karen L. Franck, Lauren E. Kennedy, Christopher T. Sneed Mar 2021

Integrating Policies, Systems, And Environments (Pse) Work Into Fcs Extension Programming: Lessons Learned From A Multi-State Training, Lisa T. Washburn, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Karen L. Franck, Lauren E. Kennedy, Christopher T. Sneed

Dietetics and Human Nutrition Faculty Publications

Public health efforts have emphasized changes to policies, systems and environments (PSEs) to improve health behaviors for individuals and communities. Extension has increasingly emphasized these approaches, particularly for work of Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) agents. In part, this emphasis on PSEs in Extension has been driven by SNAP-Ed and other federally funded initiatives, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) High Obesity Programs (HOP). However, broader adoption and implementation of PSEs at the local level has lagged in some states for various reasons. These include limited understanding about PSE interventions and how this work fits with ...


Putting The Self In Self-Correction: Findings From The Loss-Of-Confidence Project, Julia M. Rohrer, Warren Tierney, Eric L. Uhlmann, Lisa M. Debruine, Tom Heyman, Benedict Jones, Stefan C Schmukle, Raphael Silberzahn, Rebecca M. Willén, Rickard Carlsson, Richard E. Lucas, Julia Strand, Simine Vazire, Jessica K. Witt, Thomas R. Zentall, Christopher F. Chabris, Tal Yarkoni Mar 2021

Putting The Self In Self-Correction: Findings From The Loss-Of-Confidence Project, Julia M. Rohrer, Warren Tierney, Eric L. Uhlmann, Lisa M. Debruine, Tom Heyman, Benedict Jones, Stefan C Schmukle, Raphael Silberzahn, Rebecca M. Willén, Rickard Carlsson, Richard E. Lucas, Julia Strand, Simine Vazire, Jessica K. Witt, Thomas R. Zentall, Christopher F. Chabris, Tal Yarkoni

Psychology Faculty Publications

Science is often perceived to be a self-correcting enterprise. In principle, the assessment of scientific claims is supposed to proceed in a cumulative fashion, with the reigning theories of the day progressively approximating truth more accurately over time. In practice, however, cumulative self-correction tends to proceed less efficiently than one might naively suppose. Far from evaluating new evidence dispassionately and infallibly, individual scientists often cling stubbornly to prior findings. Here we explore the dynamics of scientific self-correction at an individual rather than collective level. In 13 written statements, researchers from diverse branches of psychology share why and how they have ...


What Documents Cannot Do: Revisiting Michael Polanyi And The Tacit Knowledge Dilemma, C. Sean Burns Mar 2021

What Documents Cannot Do: Revisiting Michael Polanyi And The Tacit Knowledge Dilemma, C. Sean Burns

Information Science Faculty Publications

Our culture is dominated by digital documents in ways that are easy to overlook. These documents have changed our worldviews about science and have raised our expectations of them as tools for knowledge justification. This article explores the complexities surrounding the digital document by revisiting Michael Polanyi’s theory of tacit knowledge—the idea that “we can know more than we can tell.” The theory presents to us a dilemma: if we can know more than we can tell, then this means that the communication of science via the document as a primary form of telling will always be incomplete ...


Big Data: Ethics, Resources, And Potential Collaboration, Matthew Zook Feb 2021

Big Data: Ethics, Resources, And Potential Collaboration, Matthew Zook

Geography Presentations

This presentation goes over 10 simple rules for responsible big data research.


Examining Criteria For Defining Persistent Post-Concussion Symptoms In Children And Adolescents, Grant L. Iverson, Justin E. Karr, Bruce Maxwell, Ross Zafonte, Paul D. Berkner, Nathan E. Cook Feb 2021

Examining Criteria For Defining Persistent Post-Concussion Symptoms In Children And Adolescents, Grant L. Iverson, Justin E. Karr, Bruce Maxwell, Ross Zafonte, Paul D. Berkner, Nathan E. Cook

Psychology Faculty Publications

Researchers operationalize persistent post-concussion symptoms in children and adolescents using varied definitions. Many pre-existing conditions, personal characteristics, and current health issues can affect symptom endorsement rates in the absence of, or in combination with, a recent concussion, and the use of varied definitions can lead to differences in conclusions about persistent symptoms and recovery across studies. This study examined how endorsement rates varied by 14 different operational definitions of persistent post-concussion symptoms for uninjured boys and girls with and without pre-existing or current health problems. This cross-sectional study included a large sample (age range: 11–18) of girls (n = 21 ...


Open-Field Scale-Model Experiments Of Fire Whirls Over L-Shaped Line Fires, Yuto Iga, Kazunori Kuwana, Kozo Sekimoto, Yuji Nakamura Feb 2021

Open-Field Scale-Model Experiments Of Fire Whirls Over L-Shaped Line Fires, Yuto Iga, Kazunori Kuwana, Kozo Sekimoto, Yuji Nakamura

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

This paper presents the results of open-field scale-model experiments of fire-whirl formation over line fires. L-shaped line fires were burned in crosswinds, and the processes of fire-whirl formation were observed. The flame height was measured using an image-processing technique, while two-dimensional velocity components were measured at two different locations using ultrasonic anemometers. Two tests were selected for comparison: test A, in which intense fire whirls repeatedly formed, and test B, in which no whirls were observed. In test A, the wind flow was bent by the fire plume, creating swirling flows near the burning area, thereby forming fire whirls. On ...


Effect Of Reduced Plume Entrainment On The Burning Rate Of Porous Fuel Beds, Sara Mcallister Feb 2021

Effect Of Reduced Plume Entrainment On The Burning Rate Of Porous Fuel Beds, Sara Mcallister

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

Large outdoor fires often exhibit unexpected fire behavior, particularly compared with much smaller fires. Understanding the difference between large- and small-scale fires is of importance for both fire behavior predictions and safety. Large fires are often characterized by very tall plumes that can extend to the stratosphere. Particularly as the actively burning area increases, plumes in large-scale fires likely entrain relatively little and may act in a similar fashion to a chimney. To explore the possible changes in burning rate due to the chimney effect, experiments were conducted with wood cribs burned with a chimney of variable height. The burning ...


Scale Model Test To Estimate Thermal Damage By Fire In Aircraft Cargo, Jian Gao, Tsuneyoshi Matsuoka, Yuji Nakamura Feb 2021

Scale Model Test To Estimate Thermal Damage By Fire In Aircraft Cargo, Jian Gao, Tsuneyoshi Matsuoka, Yuji Nakamura

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires fire detectors to alarm within one minute of the start of a fire in cargo compartments of airplanes. To determine whether such alarm timing works, investigations of the thermal damage to ceilings and other structures during the early stage of a fire were accomplished to demonstrate compliance with these FAA regulations. The objective was to test the feasibility of predicting convective heat transfer in early stage of a cargo compartment fire by conducting reduced scale (lab scale) experiments. First, the scaling laws was derived and validated. Then, full-scale and half-scale experiments were performed with ...


Extinguishment Of Diffusion Flames Formed Over A Porous Plate Burner Using Rubber Balloons Filled With Inert Gases, Hiroyuki Torikai, Shinya Kudo Feb 2021

Extinguishment Of Diffusion Flames Formed Over A Porous Plate Burner Using Rubber Balloons Filled With Inert Gases, Hiroyuki Torikai, Shinya Kudo

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

We have proposed an inert gas, rubber-balloon extinguishing method which might increase the effectiveness of extinguishing flames and decreasing the amounts of agents needed for fire suppression. Hence, extinguishing experiments have been performed to further clarify possible extinguishing characteristics, mechanisms and scaling effects of this method. Carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon and helium gases were used as the extinguishing agents. Methane-air and propane-air diffusion flames were formed on two different diameter, round porous plate burner and used as the targets for extinguishment. The extinguishing probabilities were measured, and the extinguishing processes were observed with a high-speed camera. As a result, an ...


Beyond Hours Of Video Gameplay: Connections Between Verbal Aggressiveness, Genre Preference, And Technology Used, William T. Howe, Ioana A. Cionea Feb 2021

Beyond Hours Of Video Gameplay: Connections Between Verbal Aggressiveness, Genre Preference, And Technology Used, William T. Howe, Ioana A. Cionea

Communication Faculty Publications

This research examined how multiple factors (i.e., hours of gameplay, types of gameplay, preferred genre of video games, technology used to play games, and biological sex) were associated with both trait and situational verbal aggressiveness. Cross-sectional data were collected from 435 undergraduate students via an online questionnaire. Results indicated similar patterns to previous literature in that video gameplay hours were positively related to verbal aggressiveness. However, we extended research by also showing that a preference for certain genres and technology used to play video games were also related with both situational and trait verbal aggressiveness. Based on these results ...


The Comparative Psychology Of Intelligence: Macphail Revisited, Michael Colombo, Damian Scarf, Thomas R. Zentall Feb 2021

The Comparative Psychology Of Intelligence: Macphail Revisited, Michael Colombo, Damian Scarf, Thomas R. Zentall

Psychology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Dimensionless Numbers On Decomposition Of Methane Hydrate, Shoma Shimizu, Genichiro Kushida Feb 2021

Effects Of Dimensionless Numbers On Decomposition Of Methane Hydrate, Shoma Shimizu, Genichiro Kushida

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

It is necessary to elucidate the decomposition and combustion of methane hydrate for fire safety during transportation and storage to utilize it for commercial practice. The amount of methane evolved during the decomposition of methane hydrates is affected by the conditions such as the initial temperature, initial density and ambient temperature. In the present study, the internal temperature of methane hydrate and the amount of methane evolved during its decomposition were investigated by a dimensionless numerical analysis using a transient one-dimensional conduction model from a symmetrical methane hydrate ball heated by ambient air. The numerically calculated central temperature and the ...


A Study On Fire Hazards Of Oil Tanks In Urban Areas With Scale Model Experiments, Ho Yin Ng, Yu Wan, Wan Ki Chow Feb 2021

A Study On Fire Hazards Of Oil Tanks In Urban Areas With Scale Model Experiments, Ho Yin Ng, Yu Wan, Wan Ki Chow

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

Large fuel tanks are located in an urban area of Tsing Yi in Hong Kong, giving potentially high risks to people living nearby if a fire was to occur. Scale modeling experiments were carried out to investigate the potential of fire hazards. Propanol pool fires with five different scales of oil tanks were studied first. Appropriate tank sizes were then put in a 1/2500 architectural scale model on the Tsing Yi Island to study a fuel tank fire. Results show that the heat and smoke from a fire would affect occupants staying in areas near to the fuel tanks ...