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Articles 1 - 30 of 7775

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Simplified Model For The Intermediate Structure Of Strong Fire Whirls, Forman A. Williams Jun 2022

A Simplified Model For The Intermediate Structure Of Strong Fire Whirls, Forman A. Williams

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

A model is described for the overall structure of intense fire whirls, based on a spatially evolving vortex, with circulation enhancement driven by the axial acceleration of low-density gas in the core through the axial pressure gradient. The axial acceleration increases the entrainment rate into the core which, through mass conservation, increases the circulation if the angle between the tangential and radial velocity components remains fixed. The two-zone model employs general balance equations for regions inside and outside a cylinder of fixed radius, each inviscid, the inside region being presumed to have a constant density small compared with the (constant ...


Reduced-Scale Experiments And Numerical Simulations Of Informal Settlement Dwelling Fires, Vigneshwaran Narayanan, Antonio Cicicone, Ayden D. Botha, Richard Shaun Walls Jun 2022

Reduced-Scale Experiments And Numerical Simulations Of Informal Settlement Dwelling Fires, Vigneshwaran Narayanan, Antonio Cicicone, Ayden D. Botha, Richard Shaun Walls

Progress in Scale Modeling, an International Journal

Informal settlement dwellings (ISDs) house approximately one billion people in the developing world and this number is expected to double by the year 2030. Contemporary research on ISD fires has focused on understanding the fire dynamics within individual dwellings (micro-scale) and fire spread in settlements consisting of multiple dwellings (macro-scale). This paper aims to do two primary things: investigate if scaling methods that were derived for compartments with thermally thick boundaries can be applied to ISDs (compartments with thermally thin boundaries), and if they can adequately represent the most important phenomena associated with full-scale ISD fires; and demonstrate Fire Dynamics ...


Sacscoc In Libraries, Julene L. Jones, Kathleen Bell May 2022

Sacscoc In Libraries, Julene L. Jones, Kathleen Bell

Library Presentations

In this webinar, two Assessment Librarians describe SACSCOC Library standards 11.1-11.3 as well as the narratives and evidentiary documents they compiled for their institutions' 2022 and 2023 reaffirmation processes. Slides also available at http://www.aserl.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/SACSCOC-in-Libraries.pdf


"Online Learning: Steps Taken, Lessons Learned", Matthew Strandmark May 2022

"Online Learning: Steps Taken, Lessons Learned", Matthew Strandmark

Library Presentations

This presentation details the creation of digital learning objects for use in the University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center education program during the COVID-19 pandemic, and in following semesters. It discusses the origins of the online learning modules, how they were created, how they are advertised, and how they are assessed.


A Multi-Proxy Assessment Of The Impact Of Environmental Instability On Late Holocene (4500-3800 Bp) Native American Villages Of The Georgia Coast, Carey J. Garland, Victor D. Thompson, Matthew C. Sanger, Karen Y. Smith, Fred T. Andrus, Nathan R. Lawres, Katharine G. Napora, Carol E. Colaninno, J. Matthew Compton, Sharyn Jones, Carla S. Hadden, Alexander Cherkinsky, Thomas Maddox, Yi-Ting Deng, Isabelle H. Lulewicz, Lindsey Parsons Mar 2022

A Multi-Proxy Assessment Of The Impact Of Environmental Instability On Late Holocene (4500-3800 Bp) Native American Villages Of The Georgia Coast, Carey J. Garland, Victor D. Thompson, Matthew C. Sanger, Karen Y. Smith, Fred T. Andrus, Nathan R. Lawres, Katharine G. Napora, Carol E. Colaninno, J. Matthew Compton, Sharyn Jones, Carla S. Hadden, Alexander Cherkinsky, Thomas Maddox, Yi-Ting Deng, Isabelle H. Lulewicz, Lindsey Parsons

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Circular shell rings along the South Atlantic Coast of North America are the remnants of some of the earliest villages that emerged during the Late Archaic (5000-3000 BP). Many of these villages, however, were abandoned during the Terminal Late Archaic (ca 3800-3000 BP). We combine Bayesian chronological modeling with mollusk shell geochemistry and oyster paleobiology to understand the nature and timing of environmental change associated with the emergence and abandonment of circular shell ring villages on Sapelo Island, Georgia. Our Bayesian models indicate that Native Americans occupied the three Sapelo shell rings at varying times with some generational overlap. By ...


Editorial: Individual Differences In Cognition And Affects In The Era Of Pandemic And Machine Learning, Andrea Vranic, Yang Jiang, Xiaopeng Zhao Feb 2022

Editorial: Individual Differences In Cognition And Affects In The Era Of Pandemic And Machine Learning, Andrea Vranic, Yang Jiang, Xiaopeng Zhao

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Prevalence And Correlates Of Invitation To Participate In Clinical Trials Among Us Adults, Aurora Occa, Allison Leip, Allison S. Merritt, Jerod L. Stapleton Feb 2022

Prevalence And Correlates Of Invitation To Participate In Clinical Trials Among Us Adults, Aurora Occa, Allison Leip, Allison S. Merritt, Jerod L. Stapleton

Communication Faculty Publications

Clinical trials are essential to modern medicine, but several barriers, including poor communication, hamper their successful completion. We examined the prevalence and correlates of invitation to participate in clinical trials among a nationally-representative sample of US adults using survey responses from the 2020 HINTS (Cycle 5). Analyses were conducted in 2021.

Overall, 9% of respondents reported being invited to a clinical trial, a prevalence that is nearly half of previously reported rates in convenience samples recruited from health care settings. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, Black respondents reported the higher prevalence of invitation (16.0%) whereas Asian respondents reported the lowest ...


[Black] Teachers Resisting Damaged-Centered Research: Community Listening Exchanges As A Reciprocal Research Tool In A Gentrifying City, Thais Council, Shaeroya Earls, Shakale George, Rebecca Graham Feb 2022

[Black] Teachers Resisting Damaged-Centered Research: Community Listening Exchanges As A Reciprocal Research Tool In A Gentrifying City, Thais Council, Shaeroya Earls, Shakale George, Rebecca Graham

Curriculum and Instruction Faculty Publications

Gentrification impacts many cities across the nation. Affordable housing task forces and legislation meant to address housing inequities are becoming more common, yet the authentic experiences of those affected are often unacknowledged. Absent from the discussion of gentrification are the voices of those deeply impacted, some who are at the center of the work to maintain communities: Black teachers, Black students, and Black families. In many school districts, teachers do not have the opportunity to address the systemic issues that impact their students and communities. Still, it is impossible to ignore the ways societal injustice seeps into the classroom. This ...


Rise Of Social Media Influencers As A New Marketing Channel: Focusing On The Roles Of Psychological Well-Being And Perceived Social Responsibility Among Consumers, Jihye Kim, Minseong Kim Feb 2022

Rise Of Social Media Influencers As A New Marketing Channel: Focusing On The Roles Of Psychological Well-Being And Perceived Social Responsibility Among Consumers, Jihye Kim, Minseong Kim

Integrated Strategic Communication Faculty Publications

This empirical research investigated the structural relationships between social media influencer attributes, perceived friendship, psychological well-being, loyalty, and perceived social responsibility of influencers, focusing on the perspective of social media users. More specifically, this study conceptually identified social media influencer attributes such as language similarity, interest similarity, interaction frequency, and self-disclosure and examined the respective effects of each dimension on perceived friendship and psychological well-being, consequently resulting in loyalty toward social media influencers. The authors collected and analyzed data from 388 social media users in the United States via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk with multivariate analyses to test the hypothesized ...


The Law Of Scale Independence, Jonathan D. Phillips Feb 2022

The Law Of Scale Independence, Jonathan D. Phillips

Geography Faculty Publications

Geography and geosciences deal with phenomena that span spatial scales from the molecular to the planetary, and temporal scales from instantaneous to billions of years. A strong reductionist tradition in geosciences and spatial sciences tempts us to seek to apply similar representations and process-based explanations across these vast-scale ranges, usually from a bottom-up perspective. However, the law of scale independence (LSI) states that for any phenomenon that exists across a sufficiently large range of scales, there exists a scale separation distance at which the scales are independent with respect to system dynamics and explanation. The LSI is evaluated here from ...


A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial For A Multi-Level, Clinic-Based Smoking Cessation Program With Women In Appalachian Communities: Study Protocol For The "Break Free" Program, Joanne G. Patterson, Tia N. Borger, Jessica L. Burris, Mark Conaway, Robert Klesges, Amie Ashcraft, Lindsay Hauser, Connie Clark, Lauren Wright, Sarah Cooper, Merry C. Smith, Mark B. Dignan, Stephenie Kennedy-Rea, Electra D. Paskett, Roger Anderson, Amy K. Ferketich Feb 2022

A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial For A Multi-Level, Clinic-Based Smoking Cessation Program With Women In Appalachian Communities: Study Protocol For The "Break Free" Program, Joanne G. Patterson, Tia N. Borger, Jessica L. Burris, Mark Conaway, Robert Klesges, Amie Ashcraft, Lindsay Hauser, Connie Clark, Lauren Wright, Sarah Cooper, Merry C. Smith, Mark B. Dignan, Stephenie Kennedy-Rea, Electra D. Paskett, Roger Anderson, Amy K. Ferketich

Psychology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The cervical cancer burden is high among women living in Appalachia. Cigarette smoking, a cervical cancer risk factor, is also highly prevalent in this population. This project aims to increase smoking cessation among women living in Appalachia by embedding a smoking cessation program within a larger, integrated cervical cancer prevention program.

METHODS: The broader program, the Take CARE study, is a multi-site research collaborative designed to address three risk factors for cervical cancer incidence and mortality: tobacco use, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and cervical cancer screening. Break Free is a primary care clinic-based implementation program that aims to promote ...


Clinical Geography: A Commentary Response, Jessica M. Finlay, Graham D. Rowles Feb 2022

Clinical Geography: A Commentary Response, Jessica M. Finlay, Graham D. Rowles

Graduate Center for Gerontology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Kentucky Annual Economic Report 2022, Michael W. Clark, James P. Ziliak, Simon Sheather Feb 2022

Kentucky Annual Economic Report 2022, Michael W. Clark, James P. Ziliak, Simon Sheather

Kentucky Annual Economic Report

This report is one of the important ways that the Center for Business and Economic Research fulfills its mission to examine various aspects of Kentucky’s economy as directed by the Kentucky Revised Statutes (KRS 164.738). The analysis and data presented here cover a variety of topics that range from a discussion of Kentucky’s current economic climate to a broad presentation of factors affecting the economy.

The report covers numerous dimensions of Kentucky’s economy including the effects of COVID-19. As the pandemic approaches its third year, COVID-19 continues to dominate the economic narrative. Many aspects of the ...


A Global Survey Of Infection Control And Mitigation Measures For Combating The Transmission Of Covid-19 Pandemic In Buildings Under Facilities Management Services, Hadi Sarvari, Zhen Chen, Daniel W. M. Chan, Ellyn A. Lester, Nordin Yahaya, Hala Nassereddine, Aynaz Lotfata Jan 2022

A Global Survey Of Infection Control And Mitigation Measures For Combating The Transmission Of Covid-19 Pandemic In Buildings Under Facilities Management Services, Hadi Sarvari, Zhen Chen, Daniel W. M. Chan, Ellyn A. Lester, Nordin Yahaya, Hala Nassereddine, Aynaz Lotfata

Civil Engineering Faculty Publications

Facilities management along with health care are two important aspects in controlling the spread of infectious diseases with regard to controlling the outbreak of global COVID-19 pandemic. Hence, with the increasing outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, the importance of examining the relationship between the built environment and the outbreak of infectious diseases has become more significant. The aim of the research described in this article is to develop effective infection control and mitigation measures to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 pandemic in the built environment. This study seeks to answer the question of how the facilities management industry can help reduce ...


If It’S Not In The Newspapers, Don’T Believe It!, Kopana Terry, Reinette F. Jones Jan 2022

If It’S Not In The Newspapers, Don’T Believe It!, Kopana Terry, Reinette F. Jones

Library Presentations

Kentucky newspapers are a major asset for historical research and genealogical work. They hold the treasures not found in any other resource and are a great educational tool for all ages. We will share with the audience how the Kentucky Digital Newspaper Program (KDNP) came to exist in its present form, who uses it, and why it is free to all who have internet service. Added to that, will be the overview of why so much local African American history can be found in the newspapers, and how the newspapers have been a vital resource in the development of the ...


Choice Bundling Increases Valuation Of Delayed Losses More Than Gains In Cigarette Smokers, Jeffrey S. Stein, Jeremiah M. Brown, Allison N. Tegge, Roberta Freitas-Lemos, Mikhail N. Koffarnus, Warren K. Bickel, Gregory J. Madden Jan 2022

Choice Bundling Increases Valuation Of Delayed Losses More Than Gains In Cigarette Smokers, Jeffrey S. Stein, Jeremiah M. Brown, Allison N. Tegge, Roberta Freitas-Lemos, Mikhail N. Koffarnus, Warren K. Bickel, Gregory J. Madden

Family and Community Medicine Faculty Publications

Choice bundling, in which a single choice produces a series of repeating consequences over time, increases valuation of delayed monetary and non-monetary gains. Interventions derived from this manipulation may be an effective method for mitigating the elevated delay discounting rates observed in cigarette smokers. No prior work, however, has investigated whether the effects of choice bundling generalize to reward losses. In the present study, an online panel of cigarette smokers (N = 302), recruited using survey firms Ipsos and InnovateMR, completed assessments for either monetary gains or losses (randomly assigned). In Step 1, participants completed a delay-discounting task to establish Effective ...


Language Interfaces In Adult Heritage Language Acquisition: A Study On Encoding Of Nominal Reference In Mandarin Chinese As A Heritage Language, Jing Jin, Sihui Echo Ke, John Chi-Kin Lee Jan 2022

Language Interfaces In Adult Heritage Language Acquisition: A Study On Encoding Of Nominal Reference In Mandarin Chinese As A Heritage Language, Jing Jin, Sihui Echo Ke, John Chi-Kin Lee

Modern and Classical Languages, Literatures and Cultures Faculty Publications

According to the Interface Hypothesis in the field of bilingualism, the interface connecting a linguistic module with a language-external domain (e.g., syntax-discourse) will present prolonged difficulties for adult bilingual learners, as compared with the interface connecting language-internal modules (e.g., syntax-semantics). This study tested whether the Interface Hypothesis is applicable to the acquisition of Mandarin Chinese as a heritage language. An internet-based acceptability judgment task (AJT) was administered to 58 advanced and intermediate adult Chinese heritage speakers to collect data in accuracy and reaction time to investigate the adult heritage speakers’ mastery of referential nominal expressions regulated at the ...


Appalachians’ Intentions To Use Online And In-Person Counseling, Jade Hollan Jan 2022

Appalachians’ Intentions To Use Online And In-Person Counseling, Jade Hollan

Theses and Dissertations--Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology

Appalachians face higher rates of mental health concerns, yet they are less likely to have access to quality treatment. Online counseling, counseling using videoconferencing technology, may provide a viable solution to narrow this gap. However, little is known about Appalachians’ intention to use in-person or online counseling. This study examined Appalachians’ (N = 490) intentions to use online and in-person counseling using the theoretical framework of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991). Results from structural equation modeling supported the indirect model for online and in-person counseling, where the associations between distal help-seeking factors (i.e., self-stigma, perceived stigma of close ...


Implementation Of Farmers Markets In Bell County, Kentucky, Rachael Schmetzer Jan 2022

Implementation Of Farmers Markets In Bell County, Kentucky, Rachael Schmetzer

Theses and Dissertations--Public Health (M.P.H. & Dr.P.H.)

This proposal addresses the link between food insecurity and obesity through the implementation of farmers markets in Bell County, Kentucky as a way to increase access and consumption of fruits and vegetables in this rural, low-income community.


The Use Of A Pediatric Palliative And Hospice Education Module To Enhance The Knowledge And Practice Of Emergency Room Providers, Morgan Garrett Jan 2022

The Use Of A Pediatric Palliative And Hospice Education Module To Enhance The Knowledge And Practice Of Emergency Room Providers, Morgan Garrett

DNP Projects

Background: Palliative and hospice care resources are underutilized in pediatric patients with chronic and life-limiting illnesses. One contributing factor is the lack of formalized education for medical providers regarding the differences and scope of palliative and hospice care models. Without adequate education about these services, providers are not able to effectively utilize otherwise available resources to provide holistic care.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the current perception of knowledge among providers pertaining to pediatric palliative and hospice care. The study investigated improvements in educational outcomes in ten categories after participation in a web-based training. A secondary ...


Pray And Play: The Impact Of Fellowship Of Christian Athletes Among Di African American Collegiate Football Players In Kentucky, Rasheed Flowers Jan 2022

Pray And Play: The Impact Of Fellowship Of Christian Athletes Among Di African American Collegiate Football Players In Kentucky, Rasheed Flowers

Theses and Dissertations--Educational Policy Studies and Evaluation

Participation in athletics provides student-athletes with opportunities to further themselves outside of athletics through academic assistance, educational opportunities and experiences, physical wellness, and personal/professional development. One often overlooked portion of this holistic development is spiritual development. As demonstrated in the name student-athlete, it implies a dual identity. Few student-athletes navigate multiple identities and a myriad of additional challenges in their collegiate journey than African American football student-athletes (AAFSAs). Spiritual development is vital for student-athletes; the literature validates that student-athletes growing in their faith may be better equipped to navigate the tension of multiple identity roles and cope with various ...


Three Essays On Governance, Inequality, And Social Equity, Sarah Ausmus Smith Jan 2022

Three Essays On Governance, Inequality, And Social Equity, Sarah Ausmus Smith

Theses and Dissertations--Public Policy and Administration

Comprised of three essays, my dissertation is linked by a common focus: the relationship between state or local governance arrangements and inequality or facets of social equity. I draw upon a range of literatures to motivate my research questions and inform my methodologies—welfare and social policy, public economics, intergovernmental relations, public finance and management.

In the first essay, I ask: does localizing welfare governance impact geospatial access to the social safety net? This is an important question because proximity is highly salient to program utilization. I geocode the location of human services nonprofits from tax filings in eight states ...


The Influence Of Distance Learning On Undergraduate Social Work Competency: An Exploratory Study At A Private University, Christine K. Fulmer Jan 2022

The Influence Of Distance Learning On Undergraduate Social Work Competency: An Exploratory Study At A Private University, Christine K. Fulmer

Theses and Dissertations--Social Work

This is an exploratory study of undergraduate social work education at a private faith-based university. The university offers both online and residential program options. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of distance education and program option on the educational outcomes of graduates in a newly developed social work program. The program started in 2015 with its first graduating class in 2017. The sample (N = 262) consists of students graduating in 2017, 2018, and 2019. Students could take classes across program options and each student in the sample completed both traditional and online social work courses. The ...


Increasing Accuracy In Police Report Writing, Zachary Greene Jan 2022

Increasing Accuracy In Police Report Writing, Zachary Greene

Theses and Dissertations--Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

The current alternative thesis project consisted of creating an online learning course intended to increase the accuracy with which preservice and in-service police officers write police incident reports. The online course consists of 6 separate modules and utilizes principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to assist the learner in understanding and applying the content of the modules. Specifically, components of interactive computer training (ICT), consisting of video modeling, voice over narration, interactive activities, and self-pace module design were implemented in the design of the learning course. Opportunities throughout the course allow the learner to self-reflect, self-assess, and receive feedback.


Examining Motivations And Barriers For Online Grocery Shopping Among Urban And Rural Populations Of Kentucky, North Carolina, And Maryland, J.B. Pitts Jan 2022

Examining Motivations And Barriers For Online Grocery Shopping Among Urban And Rural Populations Of Kentucky, North Carolina, And Maryland, J.B. Pitts

Theses and Dissertations--Dietetics and Human Nutrition

The online grocery industry grew exponentially alongside the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. With the implications of this growth still unclear, this study aimed to identify key influences and barriers towards the adoption of online grocery shopping, and to understand how online grocery shopping may affect food security and dietary intake. Across seven counties in Kentucky, North Carolina, and Maryland, 183 participants were surveyed about their usage of online grocery shopping before and after COVID-19, their opinions about online grocery shopping, their dietary intake, and food security. Survey answers were stratified between SNAP and non-SNAP recipients and urban and ...


Using Concurrent Operant Analyses To Predict Reinforcers To Increase Work Completion In Schools, Amanda Jo Schaefer Jan 2022

Using Concurrent Operant Analyses To Predict Reinforcers To Increase Work Completion In Schools, Amanda Jo Schaefer

Theses and Dissertations--Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

In this study, a concurrent operant analysis (COA) was conducted for two elementary aged students in a public school to determine if the results yielded a possible reinforcer for work completion. A simultaneous treatments design was used during the COA to evaluate choice making behavior. The results of the COA indicated the student’s choice making behavior was maintained by access to tangibles, access to attention, or escape. The results were then used to create a token economy in which the student could earn their preferred reinforcer for work completion. An alternating treatments design was used to compare work completion ...


Coaching Pre-Service Aba Students To Correctly Respond To Challenging Behaviors During A Functional Analysis, Gabrielle Lonnemann Jan 2022

Coaching Pre-Service Aba Students To Correctly Respond To Challenging Behaviors During A Functional Analysis, Gabrielle Lonnemann

Theses and Dissertations--Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

As Board Certified Behavior Analysts, we are responsible for training and implementing a variety of skills including a functional analysis. Bug in Ear teaching is an effective way to teach a variety of skills to a variety of professionals in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), as well as related fields. This study examined the effectiveness of using a Bug in Ear treatment package to teach preservice ABA masters students how to implement a functional analysis with isolated contingencies. This study suggests that the BIE treatment package may be an effective approach to teaching pre-service ABA students how to conduct a functional ...


An Overview Of Functional Communication Training For Registered Behavior Technicians, Christopher Dollinger Jan 2022

An Overview Of Functional Communication Training For Registered Behavior Technicians, Christopher Dollinger

Theses and Dissertations--Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

Functional Communication Training (FCT) is an intervention involving the differential reinforcement of an alternative response (DRA), in which an appropriate communicative response (e.g., asking for a break) is reinforced while the behavior targeted for decrease (e.g., hitting to get out of work) has reinforcement withheld in its presence. Individuals who work as registered behavior technicians (RBT), under the supervision of a board-certified behavior analyst (BCBA), may implement FCT daily. With that being said, many individuals who choose to work as an RBT may not have as deep of an understanding of the concepts and principles of applied behavior ...


Predictors And Outcomes Of The Occurrence And Valence Of Campaign-Related Talk: The Interplay Between New Media Use, Conversations, And Vicarious Learning In The Context Of Reproductive Health, Carina Mazariegos Zelaya Jan 2022

Predictors And Outcomes Of The Occurrence And Valence Of Campaign-Related Talk: The Interplay Between New Media Use, Conversations, And Vicarious Learning In The Context Of Reproductive Health, Carina Mazariegos Zelaya

Theses and Dissertations--Communication

Study 1 explored the dominant or deciding barriers and facilitators, beyond environmental and systemic factors, influencing women’s LARC uptake (RQ1, RQ2). Moreover, it examined pregnancy ambivalence and motivation to prevent unintended pregnancy as distal variables to LARC information seeking and uptake (H1, H3). Additionally, it examined embodied experience as an important source of information about contraception (H4). Furthermore, it explored how informal and formal sources support reproductive health decision-making, specifically focusing on social networks as sources of information, knowledge (RQ3, H2), and norms regarding LARC uptake (RQ4, RQ4a, RQ5). Study 2 examined the influence of social learning and LARC ...


The (Millennial) Times, They Are A’Changin’: Understanding Gen Z’S Expectations In The Classroom, Hayley C. Hoffman Jan 2022

The (Millennial) Times, They Are A’Changin’: Understanding Gen Z’S Expectations In The Classroom, Hayley C. Hoffman

Theses and Dissertations--Communication

Drawing from over a decade of research, it can be said with relative certainty what millennial learners expected of their instructors when they were in the college classroom. But what about the expectations and needs of our current group of students, Generation Z? Because few studies exist on Gen Z in higher education spaces, this dissertation establishes a baseline of what these students might need and expect from market and generational research on this group of students and establishes expectancy violations theory as a sound theoretical base for instructional research. This dissertation’s longitudinal, two-phase study, then, seeks to determine ...