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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Associations Of The Covid-19 Pandemic With Older Individuals' Healthcare Utilization And Self-Reported Health Status: A Longitudinal Analysis From Singapore, Sangnam Ahn, Seonghoon Kim, Kanghyock Koh Dec 2022

Associations Of The Covid-19 Pandemic With Older Individuals' Healthcare Utilization And Self-Reported Health Status: A Longitudinal Analysis From Singapore, Sangnam Ahn, Seonghoon Kim, Kanghyock Koh

Research Collection School Of Economics

Background: The COVID–19 pandemic has challenged the capacity of healthcare systems around the world and can potentially compromise healthcare utilization and health outcomes among non-COVID–19 patients. Objectives: To examine the associations of the COVID-19 pandemic with healthcare utilization, out-of-pocket medical costs, and perceived health among middle-aged and older individuals in Singapore. Method: Utilizing data collected from a monthly panel survey, a difference-in-differences approach was used to characterize monthly changes of healthcare use and spending and estimate the probability of being diagnosed with a chronic condition and self-reported health status before and during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. Subjects ...


Developing A Lifestyle Intervention Program For Overweight Or Obese Preconception, Pregnant And Postpartum Women Using Qualitative Methods, Chee Wai Ku, Shu Hui Leow, Lay See Ong, Christina Erwin, Isabella Ong, Xiang Wen Ng, Jacinth Jia Xin Tan, Fabian Yap, Jerry K. Y. Chan, See Ling Loy Dec 2022

Developing A Lifestyle Intervention Program For Overweight Or Obese Preconception, Pregnant And Postpartum Women Using Qualitative Methods, Chee Wai Ku, Shu Hui Leow, Lay See Ong, Christina Erwin, Isabella Ong, Xiang Wen Ng, Jacinth Jia Xin Tan, Fabian Yap, Jerry K. Y. Chan, See Ling Loy

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The time period before, during and after pregnancy represents a unique opportunity for interventions to cultivate sustained healthy lifestyle behaviors to improve the metabolic health of mothers and their offspring. However, the success of a lifestyle intervention is dependent on uptake and continued compliance. To identify enablers and barriers towards engagement with a lifestyle intervention, thematic analysis of 15 in-depth interviews with overweight or obese women in the preconception, pregnancy or postpartum periods was undertaken, using the integrated-Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework as a guide to systematically chart factors influencing adoption of a novel lifestyle intervention ...


Variation And Efficiency Of High-Frequency Betas, Congshan Zhang, Jia Li, Viktor Todorov, George. Tauchen Dec 2022

Variation And Efficiency Of High-Frequency Betas, Congshan Zhang, Jia Li, Viktor Todorov, George. Tauchen

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper studies the efficient estimation of betas from high-frequency return data on a fixed time interval. Under an assumption of equal diffusive and jump betas, we derive the semiparametric efficiency bound for estimating the common beta and develop an adaptive estimator that attains the efficiency bound. We further propose a Hausman type test for deciding whether the common beta assumption is true from the high-frequency data. In our empirical analysis we provide examples of stocks and time periods for which a common market beta assumption appears true and ones for which this is not the case. We further quantify ...


British Neocolonialism In Malaya And Singapore, And Us Empire In The Pacific, Wen-Qing Ngoei Nov 2022

British Neocolonialism In Malaya And Singapore, And Us Empire In The Pacific, Wen-Qing Ngoei

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This essay places the Vietnam War upon that larger canvas of Southeast and East Asian history by studying the long shadow that Britain’s Empire cast over U.S. entanglements across the region. Though historians have studied Anglo-American relations in Cold War Southeast Asia, scholarship on the subject remains piecemeal. There are valuable studies of U.S.-British interactions in the early 1960s with respect to the Vietnam conflict or the Indonesia-Malaysia rivalry known as the Confrontation. And there are insightful considerations of U.S. reactions to Britain’s pull-out from Singapore from the end of the 1960s. But only ...


Improved Marginal Likelihood Estimation Via Power Posteriors And Importance Sampling, Yong Li, Nianling Wang, Jun Yu Sep 2022

Improved Marginal Likelihood Estimation Via Power Posteriors And Importance Sampling, Yong Li, Nianling Wang, Jun Yu

Research Collection School Of Economics

Power posteriors have become popular in estimating the marginal likelihood of a Bayesian model. A power posterior is referred to as the posterior distribution that is proportional to the likelihood raised to a power b∈[0,1]. Important power-posterior-based algorithms include thermodynamic integration (TI) of Friel and Pettitt (2008) and steppingstone sampling (SS) of Xie et al. (2011). In this paper, it is shown that the Bernstein–von Mises (BvM) theorem holds for power posteriors under regularity conditions. Due to the BvM theorem, power posteriors, when adjusted by the square root of the auxiliary constant, have the same limit distribution ...


What, Why And How Financial Development Matters: Evidence Of Asean-5, Asia-5 And Oecd-7 Economies, Swee Liang Tan Jul 2022

What, Why And How Financial Development Matters: Evidence Of Asean-5, Asia-5 And Oecd-7 Economies, Swee Liang Tan

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper analyzed the association between bank and capital markets financial development with income per capita in three regions; ASEAN-5 economies (Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia), Asia-5 (Japan, China, Hong Kong SAR, South Korea and India) and OECD-7 (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, UK and US) from 2000 to 2017 using panel data regressions. A ley lesson ASEAN-5 can learn from Asia-5 and OECD-7 experience is that bank size does matter despite digital disruptions to their banking system; yet large financial structure that favors banks is negatively associated with Asia-5, and importantly, efficient banking system (not bank size alone) is ...


Time Dependent Orienteering Problem With Time Windows And Service Time Dependent Profits, M. Khodadadian, A. Divsalar, C. Verbeeck, Aldy Gunawan, P. Vansteenwegen Jul 2022

Time Dependent Orienteering Problem With Time Windows And Service Time Dependent Profits, M. Khodadadian, A. Divsalar, C. Verbeeck, Aldy Gunawan, P. Vansteenwegen

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

This paper addresses the time dependent orienteering problem with time windows and service time dependent profits (TDOPTW-STP). In the TDOPTW-STP, each vertex is assigned a minimum and a maximum service time and the profit collected at each vertex increases linearly with the service time. The goal is to maximize the total collected profit by determining a subset of vertices to be visited and assigning appropriate service time to each vertex, considering a given time budget and time windows. Moreover, travel times are dependent of the departure times. To solve this problem, a mixed integer linear model is formulated and a ...


What, Why And How Financial Development Matters: Evidence Of Asean-5, Asia-5 And Oecd-7 Economies, Swee Liang Tan Jul 2022

What, Why And How Financial Development Matters: Evidence Of Asean-5, Asia-5 And Oecd-7 Economies, Swee Liang Tan

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper analyzed the association between bank and capital markets financial development with income per capita in three regions; ASEAN-5 economies (Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia), Asia-5 (Japan, China, Hong Kong SAR, South Korea, and India), and OECD-7 (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, UK, and US) from 2000 to 2017 using panel data regressions. A key lesson ASEAN-5 can learn from Asia-5 and OECD-7 experience is that bank size does matter despite digital disruptions to their banking system; yet large financial structure that favors banks is negatively associated with Asia-5, and importantly, efficient banking system (not bank size alone) is ...


Asean-Korea Strategic Partnership In New Asian Regionalism, Rachel Liting Chang Jun 2022

Asean-Korea Strategic Partnership In New Asian Regionalism, Rachel Liting Chang

Centre for Commercial Law in Asia

Over the past two decades, Asia has witnessed increasing regional trade integration with the rapid increase of free trade agreements (FTAs), constituting almost half of global trade pacts. Such a phenomenon has been said to give rise to “new Asian regionalism”, which is defined as a fundamental change in the multilateral trading system. It is a novel and normative integration process which focuses on ASEAN, and in particular the ASEAN Plus Six framework underlying Asia’s increasing economic power.


A Cross-Country Investigation Of Social Image Motivation And Acceptance Of Lab-Grown Meat In Singapore And The United States, Mark Chong, Angela K. Y. Leung, Verity Lua Jun 2022

A Cross-Country Investigation Of Social Image Motivation And Acceptance Of Lab-Grown Meat In Singapore And The United States, Mark Chong, Angela K. Y. Leung, Verity Lua

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This research has three goals. First, it sets out to compare consumer acceptance of lab-grown meat in the U.S. and in Singapore. Second, it seeks to explain the difference in Americans' and Singaporeans' acceptance of lab-grown meat by examining their eating motivations. Specifically, we focused on social image motivations – the motivations to present oneself positively in social contexts. Third, this study also aims to assess if exposure to information about lab-grown meat communicated by celebrity versus expert social media influencers (SMIs) can impact people's acceptance of lab-grown meat products. Our analysis showed that Singaporean participants had greater acceptance ...


Testing The Dimensionality Of Policy Shocks, Jia Li, Viktor Todorov, Qiushi. Zhang Jun 2022

Testing The Dimensionality Of Policy Shocks, Jia Li, Viktor Todorov, Qiushi. Zhang

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper provides a nonparametric test for deciding the dimensionality of a policy shock as manifest in the abnormal change in asset returns' stochastic covariance matrix, following the release of a macroeconomic announcement. We use high-frequency data in local windows before and after the event to estimate the covariance jump matrix, and then test its rank. We find a one-factor structure in the covariance jump matrix of the yield curve resulting from the Federal Reserve's monetary policy shocks prior to the 2007-2009 financial crisis. The dimensionality of policy shocks increased afterwards due to the use of unconventional monetary policy ...


Survival Politics: Regime Security And Alliance Institutionalization, Inwook Kim, Jackson Woods Jun 2022

Survival Politics: Regime Security And Alliance Institutionalization, Inwook Kim, Jackson Woods

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

What determines states’ willingness to institutionalize alliances? Contrary to conventional emphasis on system-level conditions, we argue that states pay close attention to the domestic political consequences of institutionalizing alliances. This is particularly true for unequal allies. Client regimes are disproportionately sensitive to alliance design, as it affects patron allies’ ability to influence their military, distribute finance and arms, and legitimate preferred political groups. Two factors—power consolidation and political compatibility—determine whether the client views alliance institutionalization as complementary or conflictual with regime survival. The divergent alliance designs North and South Korea chose after the Korean War support our argument ...


Start-Up Firms And Workplace Environment: Evidence From Advertised Corporate Culture, Jungho Lee Jun 2022

Start-Up Firms And Workplace Environment: Evidence From Advertised Corporate Culture, Jungho Lee

Research Collection School Of Economics

I document advertised corporate culture among start-up companies from an online job board. Two corporate-culture types emerge: one that concerns the well-being of employees (employee-oriented culture) and another that emphasizes other values, such as customers. The employee-oriented culture attracts 20% more applications than the other culture type. Jobs posted by firms advocating the employee-oriented culture offer 7% lower salaries than measurably similar jobs. I show some firms adopt a particular culture popular among employees to hire workers at a lower cost. Financially constrained firms have an incentive to advocate the popular culture, even though doing so is not optimal without ...


A Consistent Specification Test For Dynamic Quantile Models, Peter Horvath, Jia Li, Zhipeng Liao, Andrew Patton Jun 2022

A Consistent Specification Test For Dynamic Quantile Models, Peter Horvath, Jia Li, Zhipeng Liao, Andrew Patton

Research Collection School Of Economics

Correct specification of a conditional quantile model implies that a particular conditional moment is equal to zero. We nonparametrically estimate the conditional moment function via series regression and test whether it is identically zero using uniform functional inference. Our approach is theoretically justified via a strong Gaussian approximation for statistics of growing dimensions in a general time series setting. We propose a novel bootstrap method in this nonstandard context and show that it significantly outperforms the benchmark asymptotic approximation in finite samples, especially for tail quantiles such as Value-at-Risk (VaR). We use the proposed new test to study the VaR ...


Dimensions Of Social Networks: A Taxonomy And Operationalization, Michael Genkin, Nicholas Harrigan, Rajalakshmi Kanagavel, Janice Yap Jun 2022

Dimensions Of Social Networks: A Taxonomy And Operationalization, Michael Genkin, Nicholas Harrigan, Rajalakshmi Kanagavel, Janice Yap

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

What are the basic types of social network ties captured by name generators? While there have been several classifications proposed, and a large proliferation of name generators capturing various tie content has emerged, there is no clear way to map a given name generator to a particular tie type. Building on previous research, this paper proposes a framework for doing so in a principled way based on two studies. Study 1 is a dimension reduction of 24 common name generators. We find two dimensions (Valence and Social Distance), three positive tie types (Admiration, Closeness, Socialize), and three negative tie types ...


Growing A Mapletree, Hiew Yoon Khong May 2022

Growing A Mapletree, Hiew Yoon Khong

Perspectives@SMU

By focusing on recycling capital and re-seeding its portfolio, Singapore’s Mapletree Investments have moved beyond the island and into the global market


Singapore: Treading Carefully Between Jostling Great Powers, Singapore Management University May 2022

Singapore: Treading Carefully Between Jostling Great Powers, Singapore Management University

Perspectives@SMU

The island state’s unique understanding of Western and East Asian cultures makes it an ideal interpreter between the U.S. and China, says SMU Chairman Ho Kwon Ping


Competition And Third-Party Platform-Integration In Ride-Sourcing Markets, Yaqian Zhou, Hai Yang, Jintao Ke, Hai Wang, Xinwei Li May 2022

Competition And Third-Party Platform-Integration In Ride-Sourcing Markets, Yaqian Zhou, Hai Yang, Jintao Ke, Hai Wang, Xinwei Li

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Recently, some third-party integrators attempt to integrate the ride services offered by multiple independent ride-sourcing platforms. Accordingly, passengers can request ride through the integrators and receive ride service from any one of the ride-sourcing platforms. This novel business model, termed as third-party platform-integration in this work, has potentials to alleviate market fragmentation cost resulting from demand splitting among multiple platforms. Although most existing studies focus on operation strategies for one single monopolist platform, much less is known about the competition and platform-integration and their implications on operation strategy and system efficiency. In this work, we propose mathematical models to describe ...


Labor Market Institutions And The Incidence Of Payroll Taxation, Jinyoung Kim, Kim, Kanghyock Koh May 2022

Labor Market Institutions And The Incidence Of Payroll Taxation, Jinyoung Kim, Kim, Kanghyock Koh

Research Collection School Of Economics

Despite the unambiguous predictions of the canonical model of a competitive labor market, empirical studies of the labor market effects of payroll taxation provide conflicting evidence. We estimate the labor market impacts of payroll taxation in Singapore, the country with the most competitive and flexible labor market among the countries investigated in the literature. By exploiting the sharp reduction in payroll tax rate when workers turn 60, we find that the reduced payroll tax rate in Singapore has a large effect on wages without changes in employment. Our meta-analysis shows consistent evidence that varying degrees of labor market competitiveness across ...


Labor Market Participation, Income Distribution, And Welfare Gains From Trade, Pao-Li Chang, Yi-Fan Chen, Wen-Tai Hsu May 2022

Labor Market Participation, Income Distribution, And Welfare Gains From Trade, Pao-Li Chang, Yi-Fan Chen, Wen-Tai Hsu

Research Collection School Of Economics

We develop a general equilibrium trade model where households with skill heterogeneity choose between home production and working on the labor market. Unlike most of the trade literature, the labor supply is elastic and is heterogeneous across households. As a result, trade affects labor participation, income, and welfare differently across households. We show that, when market goods and home goods are substitutes, households with lower skill levels expe-rience higher proportional increase to their income, while households with higher skill levels experience higher proportional increase in welfare. We further show that elastic labor supply preserves the extensive margin of welfare gains ...


Nonprofits As Socially Responsible Actors: Neoliberalism, Institutional Structures, And Empowerment In The United Nations Global Compact, Alwyn Lim May 2022

Nonprofits As Socially Responsible Actors: Neoliberalism, Institutional Structures, And Empowerment In The United Nations Global Compact, Alwyn Lim

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations have become prominent participants in a global organizational responsibility movement. This trend of nonprofit responsibility is puzzling because nonprofits are presumably already dedicated to the pursuit of collective well-being objectives. This article examines the nonprofit responsibility movement from a cultural perspective, whereby broader cultural changes at the level of international organizations have constructed nonprofit entities as empowered and socially responsible actors. Using the case of the United Nations Global Compact, a global framework for corporate social responsibility, the author shows how (1) the construction of cultural meanings of autonomy and decentralization in the neoliberal context, (2 ...


A Black-Scholes User's Guide To The Bachelier Model, Jaehyuk Choi, Minsuk Kwak, Chyng Wen Tee, Yumeng Wang May 2022

A Black-Scholes User's Guide To The Bachelier Model, Jaehyuk Choi, Minsuk Kwak, Chyng Wen Tee, Yumeng Wang

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

To cope with the negative oil futures price caused by the COVID-19 recession, global commodity futures exchanges switched the option model from Black-Scholes to Bachelier in April 2020. This study reviews the literature on Bachelier's pioneering option pricing model and summarizes the practical results on volatility conversion, risk management, stochastic volatility, and barrier options pricing to facilitate the model transition. In particular, using the displaced Black-Scholes model as a model family with the Black-Scholes and Bachelier models as special cases, we not only connect the two models but also present a continuous spectrum of model choices.


Gender, Bottom-Line Mentality, And Workplace Mistreatment: The Roles Of Gender Norm Violation And Team Gender Composition, Kenneth Tai, Kiyoung Lee, Eugene Kim, Tiffany D. Johnson, Wei Wang, Michelle K. Duffy, Seongsu Kim May 2022

Gender, Bottom-Line Mentality, And Workplace Mistreatment: The Roles Of Gender Norm Violation And Team Gender Composition, Kenneth Tai, Kiyoung Lee, Eugene Kim, Tiffany D. Johnson, Wei Wang, Michelle K. Duffy, Seongsu Kim

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Although gender has been identified as an important antecedent in workplace mistreatment research, empirical research has shown mixed results. Drawing on role congruity theory, we propose an interactive effect of gender and bottom-line mentality on being the target of mistreatment. Across two field studies, our results showed that whereas women experienced more mistreatment when they had higher levels of bottom-line mentality, men experienced more mistreatment when they had lower levels of bottom-line mentality. In another field study, using round-robin survey data, we found that team gender composition influenced the degree to which the adoption of a bottom-line mentality by female ...


The Vigilante Identity And Organizations, Fan Xuan Chen, Maja Graso, Karl Aquino, Lily Lin, Joey T. Cheng, Katherine Decelles, Abhijeet K. Vadera May 2022

The Vigilante Identity And Organizations, Fan Xuan Chen, Maja Graso, Karl Aquino, Lily Lin, Joey T. Cheng, Katherine Decelles, Abhijeet K. Vadera

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We test the theoretical and practical utility of the vigilante identity, a self-perception of being the kind of person who monitors their environment for signs of norm violations, and who punishes the perceived norm violator, without formal authority. We develop and validate a measure of the vigilante identity scale (VIS) and demonstrate the scale’s incremental predictive validity above and beyond seemingly related constructs (Studies 1 – 2e). We show that the VIS predicts hypervigilance towards organizational wrongdoing (Studies 2 and 4), punishment intentions and behavior in and of organizations (Studies 3 and 4) as well as in the wider community ...


Managing The Phaseout Of Coal Power: A Comparison Of Power Decarbonization Pathways In Jilin Province, Weirong Zhang, Zhixu Meng, Jiongjun Yang, Yan Song, Yiou Zhou, Changhong Zhao, Jiahai Yuan May 2022

Managing The Phaseout Of Coal Power: A Comparison Of Power Decarbonization Pathways In Jilin Province, Weirong Zhang, Zhixu Meng, Jiongjun Yang, Yan Song, Yiou Zhou, Changhong Zhao, Jiahai Yuan

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

With the periodic goals of reaching carbon emission peak before 2030 and achieving carbon neutrality before 2060 (“dual carbon” goals), China shows its unprecedented determination to coal power phaseout. This research takes Jilin Province to showcase possible pathways of coal power units’ phaseout on provincial level. We set up four different coal power phaseout scenarios, under which their transition cost and effectiveness would be calculated, respectively. In terms of natural resource endowment and electricity demand, Jilin Province would achieve a complete coal power phaseout by 2045 or even by 2040. However, after assessing the effectiveness of power transition under the ...


Hierarchical Value Decomposition For Effective On-Demand Ride Pooling, Hao Jiang, Pradeep Varakantham May 2022

Hierarchical Value Decomposition For Effective On-Demand Ride Pooling, Hao Jiang, Pradeep Varakantham

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

On-demand ride-pooling (e.g., UberPool, GrabShare) services focus on serving multiple different customer requests using each vehicle, i.e., an empty or partially filled vehicle can be assigned requests from different passengers with different origins and destinations. On the other hand, in Taxi on Demand (ToD) services (e.g., UberX), one vehicle is assigned to only one request at a time. On-demand ride pooling is not only beneficial to customers (lower cost), drivers (higher revenue per trip) and aggregation companies (higher revenue), but is also of crucial importance to the environment as it reduces the number of vehicles required on ...


Downscaling Of Physical Risks For Climate Scenario Design, Enrico Biffis, Shuai Wang Apr 2022

Downscaling Of Physical Risks For Climate Scenario Design, Enrico Biffis, Shuai Wang

Sim Kee Boon Institute for Financial Economics

Southeast Asia is arguably one of the areas most vulnerable to natural disasters due to its dense population, coastal urbanization, and rainfall variability driven by the local monsoon systems. In this report, we focus on the impact of global warming in the region along four climate dimensions: temperature, precipitation, wind speed and coastal surge. The latter represents the surge of water from the ocean in excess of astronomical tides. Our objective is to downscale the outputs of global climate models to temporal and spatial resolutions of interest to market participants wishing to quantify climate risk vulnerability via climate stress testing ...


Twitter Demonstrates Why Poison Pills Are Bad For Shareholders, Mark Humphery-Jenner Apr 2022

Twitter Demonstrates Why Poison Pills Are Bad For Shareholders, Mark Humphery-Jenner

Perspectives@SMU

Twitter’s poison pill appears to be an attempt to entrench the board rather than delivering shareholder value, writes UNSW Business School's Mark Humphery-Jenner


Revisiting The One-Minute Paper: Personal Reflections, Student Engagement And Assessing The Assessment, Rebecca Pappert Maniates Apr 2022

Revisiting The One-Minute Paper: Personal Reflections, Student Engagement And Assessing The Assessment, Rebecca Pappert Maniates

Research Collection Library

The one-minute paper (OMP) is a popular one-shot session assessment which often consists of asking two questions: 1 . What is the most important thing you learned today? 2 . What questions do you still have? Although simple, each question has a purpose. The first is broad, focusing on the importance of concepts learned (Chizmar & Ostrosky, 1998), and promotes active learning and reflection (Stead, 2005). The second assesses the progress of the learning process and where support is still needed (Chizmar & Ostrosky, 1998).Although studies show the OMP is effective when assessing student knowledge before and after one-shot sessions (Wolstenholme, 2015) and ...


The Intergenerational Mortality Tradeoff Of Covid-19 Lockdown Policies, Lin Ma, Gil Shapira, Damien De Walque, Quy-Toan Do, Jed Friedman, Andrei A. Levchenko Apr 2022

The Intergenerational Mortality Tradeoff Of Covid-19 Lockdown Policies, Lin Ma, Gil Shapira, Damien De Walque, Quy-Toan Do, Jed Friedman, Andrei A. Levchenko

Research Collection School Of Economics

In lower-income countries, the economic contractions that accompany lockdowns to contain COVID-19 transmission can increase child mortality, counteracting the mortality reductions achieved by the lockdown. To formalize and quantify this effect, we build a macro-susceptible-infected-recovered model that features heterogeneous agents and a country-group-specific relationship between economic downturns and child mortality and calibrate it to data for 85 countries across all income levels. We find that in some low-income countries, a lockdown can produce net increases in mortality. The optimal lockdown that maximizes the present value of aggregate social welfare is shorter and milder in poorer countries than in rich ones.