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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Developing And Testing A Surveillance Impact Assessment Methodology, David Wright, Michael Friedewald, Raphael Gellert Jan 2015

Developing And Testing A Surveillance Impact Assessment Methodology, David Wright, Michael Friedewald, Raphael Gellert

Michael Friedewald

With the increasing pervasiveness of surveillance, from big companies such as Google and Facebook, as well as from the intelligence agencies, such as the US National Security Agency (NSA) and the UK Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), there is a clear need for a surveillance impact assessment (SIA), a method that addresses not only issues of privacy and data protection, but also ethical, social, economic, and political issues.

The SAPIENT project, funded by the European Commission, and undertaken by a consortium of partners from several European countries, aimed to develop an SIA methodology, based on stake- holder needs and a set ...


Open Consent, Biobanking And Data Protection Law: Can Open Consent Be ‘Informed’ Under The Forthcoming Data Protection Regulation?, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald Jan 2015

Open Consent, Biobanking And Data Protection Law: Can Open Consent Be ‘Informed’ Under The Forthcoming Data Protection Regulation?, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

This article focuses on whether a certain form of consent used by biobanks – open consent – is compatible with the Proposed Data Protection Regulation. In an open consent procedure, the biobank requests consent once from the data subject for all future research uses of genetic material and data. However, as biobanks process personal data, they must comply with data protection law. Data protection law is currently undergoing reform. The Proposed Data Protection Regulation is the culmination of this reform and, if voted into law, will constitute a new legal framework for biobanking. The Regulation puts strict conditions on consent – in particular ...


The Co-Evolution Of Surveillance Technology And Surveillance Practices, Kerstin Gooas, Michael Friedewald, William Webster, Charles Leleux Jan 2015

The Co-Evolution Of Surveillance Technology And Surveillance Practices, Kerstin Gooas, Michael Friedewald, William Webster, Charles Leleux

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


ÜBerschussdaten In Retinabildern: Ein Beitrag Zum Datenschutzfreundlichen Entwurf Biometrischer Systeme, Michael Friedewald, Sebastian Wawrzyniak, Frank Pallas Jul 2014

ÜBerschussdaten In Retinabildern: Ein Beitrag Zum Datenschutzfreundlichen Entwurf Biometrischer Systeme, Michael Friedewald, Sebastian Wawrzyniak, Frank Pallas

Michael Friedewald

Die Retina ist wegen ihrer Unterscheidungskraft ein vielversprechendes biometrisches Merkmal, das vor allem für sicherheitsrelevante Systeme genutzt wird. Allerdings manifestieren sich auch zahlreiche Erkrankungen durch entsprechende Veränderungen der Retina. Die Nutzung solcher gesundheitsbezogener und für Zwecke der Authentifizierung unnötiger Daten ist daher unbedingt zu vermeiden. Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der Frage, welche gesundheitsrelevanten Informationen aus Retinabildern gewonnen werden können und welche Konsequenzen dies für den Entwurf biometrischer Systeme hat.


Privacy By Design For A Mobile Retina Scanner, Philip SchüTz, Michael Friedewald Jan 2014

Privacy By Design For A Mobile Retina Scanner, Philip SchüTz, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

This paper wants to outline initial findings of the MARS project, which aims at preparing the ground for a retina scanner technology that will be used in a civil context allowing the authentication and identification of individuals in a privacy- and user-friendly way. The project shows that privacy by design is difficult to realize in practice but indispensable in order to create a security- technology approach that is sustainable, and a product that is both accountable and effective.


Genetic Data And The Data Protection Regulation: A Good Start, But Prob-Lems Remain, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald, Paul De Hert May 2013

Genetic Data And The Data Protection Regulation: A Good Start, But Prob-Lems Remain, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald, Paul De Hert

Michael Friedewald

Genes are the recipe, which is followed to create each person. Genetic data is data which refers to these genes. As genetic data is a representation of the biological architecture of the individual, it has been seen to have a number of unique features. Data protection law deals with the processing of ‘personal data’ and is a key area of law in the regulation of the use of genetic data. It is currently elaborated at European level by Directive 95/46. Owing to the unique qualities of genetic data, there have been numer-ous criticisms of the Directive’s suitability to ...


Technology And Privacy (Editorial), Michael Friedewald, Ronald J. Pohoryles Apr 2013

Technology And Privacy (Editorial), Michael Friedewald, Ronald J. Pohoryles

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


Reconciling Privacy And Security, Marc Van Lieshout, Michael Friedewald, David Wright, Serge Gutwirth Apr 2013

Reconciling Privacy And Security, Marc Van Lieshout, Michael Friedewald, David Wright, Serge Gutwirth

Michael Friedewald

This paper considers the relationship between privacy and security and, in particular, the traditional ‘‘trade-off’’ paradigm. The issue is this: how, in a democracy, can one reconcile the trend towards increasing security (for example, as manifested by increasing surveillance) with the fundamental right of privacy? Our political masters justify their intrusions upon our privacy with proclamations of the need to protect the citizenry against further terrorist attacks like those that have already marred the early twenty-first century. The surveillance industry has been quick to exploit this new market opportunity, supported as it is by inexorable technological ‘‘progress’’ in devising new ...


Seven Types Of Privacy, Rachel L. Finn, David Wright, Michael Friedewald Jan 2013

Seven Types Of Privacy, Rachel L. Finn, David Wright, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


Citizens’ Perceptions Of Data Protection And Privacy In Europe, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald, Paul Mccarthy Jun 2012

Citizens’ Perceptions Of Data Protection And Privacy In Europe, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald, Paul Mccarthy

Michael Friedewald

Data protection and privacy gain social importance as technology and data flows play an ever greater role in shaping social structure. Despite this, understanding of public opinion on these issues is conspicuously lacking. This article is a meta-analysis of public opinion surveys on data protection and privacy focussed on EU citizens. The article firstly considers the understanding and awareness of the legal framework for protection as a solid manifestation of the complex concepts of data protection and privacy. This is followed by a consideration of perceptions of privacy and data protection in relation to other social goals, focussing on the ...


Share Your Dream: Towards A New Model For Open Collaborative Research In Europe, Bernd Beckert, Michael Friedewald, Petra Schaper-Rinkel, Matthias Weber, Marc Van Lieshout, Annelieke Van Der Giessen, Miriam Leis May 2012

Share Your Dream: Towards A New Model For Open Collaborative Research In Europe, Bernd Beckert, Michael Friedewald, Petra Schaper-Rinkel, Matthias Weber, Marc Van Lieshout, Annelieke Van Der Giessen, Miriam Leis

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


BüRgersicht Auf Sicherheit Und Privatheit, Michael Friedewald, Johann Cas Jan 2012

BüRgersicht Auf Sicherheit Und Privatheit, Michael Friedewald, Johann Cas

Michael Friedewald

Moderne Sicherheitstechniken sollen die Bürger besser vor Terrorismus und organisierter Kriminali- tät schützen. Mittlerweile wird aber angezweifelt, ob ein realer oder gefühlter Sicherheitsgewinn nur durch Einschnitte in die Privatsphäre des Einzelnen zu erreichen ist. Die EU-Forschungsprojekte PRISMS und SurPRISE untersuchen, wie die Ein- stellung europäischer Bürger zu Sicherheit und Privatheit zusammenhängt und wie sich dies für die Gestaltung von akzeptabler grundrechtskonformer Sicherheitstechnik nutzen lässt.


Public Perception Of The Data Environment And Information Transactions - A Selected-Survey Analysis Of The European Public's Views On The Data Environment And Data Transactions, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald Jan 2012

Public Perception Of The Data Environment And Information Transactions - A Selected-Survey Analysis Of The European Public's Views On The Data Environment And Data Transactions, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

When engaging in data transactions, it has consistently been observed that individuals' behaviour does not correspond with individuals' theoretically stated preferences about privacy and the importance of personal data. This paper considers this 'paradox'. First, through an analysis of selected surveys, we elaborate a picture of how the public perceives the data environment and their interaction with it. We find that, whilst the public places significant weight on the values of privacy and data protection and has a formal understanding of the features of the data environment, there is a significant knowledge deficit relating to the specifics of data flows ...


Datenschutzaspekte Smarter Überwachung, Michael Friedewald, Marc Langheinrich Sep 2011

Datenschutzaspekte Smarter Überwachung, Michael Friedewald, Marc Langheinrich

Michael Friedewald

Kurz&bündig Moderne «intelligente» Überwachungssysteme sollen den Bürger besser vor Terrorismus und organisierter Kriminalität schützen, greifen potentiell aber tief in die Privatsphäre des Einzelnen ein. Das EU-Forschungsprojekt SAPIENT untersucht die Risiken solcher intelligenten Überwachungstechniken und erarbeitet Verfahren, um diese im Einklang mit Menschenrechten und unter Beachtung des sozialen und gemeinschaftlichen Zusammenhalts gestalten zu können.


Minimizing Technology Risks With Pias, Precaution And Participation, Raphael Gellert, David Wright, Serge Gutwirth, Michael Friedewald Jan 2011

Minimizing Technology Risks With Pias, Precaution And Participation, Raphael Gellert, David Wright, Serge Gutwirth, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

Privacy impact assessment can be seen as a tool for responsible research and innovation (RRI). RRI can be defined as a transparent, interactive process by which societal actors and innovators become mutually responsive to each other with a view on the (ethical) acceptability, sustainability and societal desirability of the innovation process and its marketable products in order to allow a proper embedding of scientific and technological advances in our society [1]. Such a definition is close to how one could define privacy impact assessment (PIA), i.e., PIA is a process of engaging stakeholders in order to consider how privacy ...


Computersoftware Als Digitales Erbe: Probleme Aus Sicht Der Technikgeschichte, Michael Friedewald, Timo Leimbach Jan 2011

Computersoftware Als Digitales Erbe: Probleme Aus Sicht Der Technikgeschichte, Michael Friedewald, Timo Leimbach

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


Ubiquitäres Computing – Vision Einer Von Informationstechnologie Durchdrungenen Welt, Michael Friedewald Jul 2010

Ubiquitäres Computing – Vision Einer Von Informationstechnologie Durchdrungenen Welt, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

Das Ubiquitäre Computing hat seine Wurzeln in den wegweisenden Arbeiten von Mark Weiser, der bis zu seinem Tod 1999 als leitender Wissenschaftler am Xerox-Forschungszentrum im Silicon Valley tätig war. Er propagierte schon 1991 in einem visionären Artikel im »Scientific American« den allgegenwärtigen Com- puter, der unsichtbar und unaufdringlich den Menschen bei seinen Tätigkeiten unterstützt und ihn von lästigen Routineaufgaben weitestgehend befreit. Der Computer als sichtbares Gerät sollte nach Weisers Auffassung verschwinden, dessen informationsverarbeitende Funktionalität aber überall verfügbar sein. Heute scheinen wir auf dem Weg dahin schon weit vorangekommen zu ...


A New Concept For Privacy In The Light Of Emerging Sciences And Technologies, Michael Friedewald Apr 2010

A New Concept For Privacy In The Light Of Emerging Sciences And Technologies, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

Privacy is recognized as a fundamental human right. It underpins human dignity and other values such as freedom of association and freedom of speech. It has become one of the most important human rights of the modern age. However, privacy is challenged in the net- worked society. New technologies undermine the individual right because they facilitate to collect, store, process and combine personal data for the use of security agencies but also of businesses. In many cases this means that the notion of privacy is losing its value. Thus a new concept seems to be necessary.


Adaptive Foresight In The Creative Content Industries: Anticipating Value Chain Transformations And Need For Policy Action, Fabienne Abadie, Michael Friedewald, Matthias Weber Feb 2010

Adaptive Foresight In The Creative Content Industries: Anticipating Value Chain Transformations And Need For Policy Action, Fabienne Abadie, Michael Friedewald, Matthias Weber

Michael Friedewald

This paper discusses the approach adopted to carry out a techno-economic foresight on the creative content industries, within the European Perspectives on the Information Society project. The novelty of the methodology lies in the mix of tools used, the embedding in an adaptive foresight framework and the implementation of a real-time Delphi which lead to interesting methodological lessons. The project succeeded in defining scenarios for the creative content industries, offering distinct trajectories and raising different policy challenges. The impact of the foresight on policy was limited, as it did not lead to direct policy measures, nevertheless, it confirmed some issues ...


Assessing National Policies To Support Software In Europe, Timo Leimbach, Michael Friedewald Jan 2010

Assessing National Policies To Support Software In Europe, Timo Leimbach, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

Software and Software Based Services (SSBS) are a major domain of the European ICT industry and is recognised as a key element in developing the Information Society. This article aims to shed light on the various strategies, policies and activities pursued by the EU and their member states. It is based upon a survey of national programmes that are aimed specifically or in substantial part at the software sector. This analysis and assessment usually face two challenges: (1) Unlike other technologies that have the same significance and/or the same attractiveness, the SSBS industry is a very dy- namic one ...


Sorting Out Smart Surveillance, David Wright, Michael Friedewald, Serge Gutwirth, Marc Langheinrich, Emilio Mordini, Rocco Bellanova, Paul De Hert, Kush Wadhwa, Didier Bigo Jan 2010

Sorting Out Smart Surveillance, David Wright, Michael Friedewald, Serge Gutwirth, Marc Langheinrich, Emilio Mordini, Rocco Bellanova, Paul De Hert, Kush Wadhwa, Didier Bigo

Michael Friedewald

Surveillance is becoming ubiquitous in our society. We can also see the emergence of “smart” surveillance technologies and the assemblages (or combinations) of such tech- nologies, supposedly to combat crime and terrorism, but in fact used for a variety of purposes, many of which are intrusive upon the privacy of law-abiding citizens. Following the dark days of 9/11, security and surveillance became paramount. More recently, in Europe, there has been a policy commitment to restore privacy to centre stage. This paper examines the legal tools available to ensure that privacy and personal data protection are respected in attempts to ...


Ubiquitäres Computing Im Gesundheitswesen, Michael Friedewald Jun 2009

Ubiquitäres Computing Im Gesundheitswesen, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

Der Fortschritt von Mikroelektronik, Kommunikationstechnik und Informations- technologie hält weiter an. Damit rückt auch die Vision einer umfassenden »In- formatisierung« und »Vernetzung« der Welt durch ubiquitäres Computing (Ubi- Comp) näher. Die technischen Voraussetzungen hierfür sind bereits geschaffen. Durch drahtlos kommunizierende Prozessoren und Sensoren, die – immer win- ziger, leistungsfähiger und energieeffizienter – in fast jeden Gegenstand inte- griert werden können, dringt die Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik in so gut wie jeden Bereich des gesellschaftlichen Lebens und Arbeitens vor. Com- puter werden »allgegenwärtig« und gleichzeitig doch weitgehend unsichtbar. Im Folgenden werden Anwendungsperspektiven dieser Technik im Bereich ...


Die Zukunft Der Informationstechnik Ist GrüN, Michael Friedewald, Timo Leimbach Jan 2009

Die Zukunft Der Informationstechnik Ist GrüN, Michael Friedewald, Timo Leimbach

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


Privacy, Trust And Policy-Making: Challenges And Responses, David Wright, Serge Gutwirth, Michael Friedewald, Paul De Hert, Marc Langheinrich, Anna Moscibroda Jan 2009

Privacy, Trust And Policy-Making: Challenges And Responses, David Wright, Serge Gutwirth, Michael Friedewald, Paul De Hert, Marc Langheinrich, Anna Moscibroda

Michael Friedewald

The authors contend that the emerging ubiquitous Information Society (aka ambient intelligence, pervasive computing, ubiquitous networking and so on) will raise many privacy and trust issues that are context-dependent. These issues will pose many challenges for policy- makers and stakeholders because people’s notions of privacy and trust are different and shifting. People’s attitudes towards privacy and protecting their personal data can vary significantly according to differing circumstances. In addition, notions of privacy and trust are changing over time. The authors provide numerous examples of the challenges facing policy-makers and identify some possible responses, but they see a need ...


Gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen Durch „Intelligente Umgebungen“, Michael Friedewald, Ralf Lindner May 2008

Gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen Durch „Intelligente Umgebungen“, Michael Friedewald, Ralf Lindner

Michael Friedewald

Mit der umfassenden drahtlosen Vernetzung und Computerisierung von Alltagsgegenständen und Umgebungen werden nicht nur neuartige Anwendungen möglich, sondern auch zahlreiche Risiken erzeugt. Soll Ambient Intelligence (AmI) ein Erfolg werden, ist es erforderlich, angemessene Maß- nahmen zu ergreifen, um Privatsphäre, Sicherheit oder Vertrauen in den jeweiligen Anwendungskontexten zu gewährleisten. Dabei besteht die Herausforderung darin, frühzeitig Vorkehrungen gegen Risiken zu entwickeln, die noch nicht manifest sind. Im Rahmen des EU-Projekts „Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence“ wurden Szenarien entwickelt, mit deren Hilfe poten- zielle Risiken in einer frühen Phase der Technikentwicklung identifiziert wurden. Der Beitrag ...


The Illusion Of Security, David Wright, Michael Friedewald, Wim Schreurs, Michiel Verlinden, Serge Gutwirth, Yves Punie, Ioannis Maghiros, Elena Vildjiounaite, Petteri Alahuhta Mar 2008

The Illusion Of Security, David Wright, Michael Friedewald, Wim Schreurs, Michiel Verlinden, Serge Gutwirth, Yves Punie, Ioannis Maghiros, Elena Vildjiounaite, Petteri Alahuhta

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


Ambient Intelligence 2020, Olivier Da Costa, Michael Friedewald Jan 2008

Ambient Intelligence 2020, Olivier Da Costa, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


Vom Rechenautomaten Zum Elektronischen Medium: Eine Kurze Geschichte Des Interaktiven Computers, Michael Friedewald Jan 2007

Vom Rechenautomaten Zum Elektronischen Medium: Eine Kurze Geschichte Des Interaktiven Computers, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


The Brave New World Of Ambient Intelligence: An Analysis Of Scenarios Regarding Privacy, Identity And Security Issues, Michael Friedewald, Elena Vildjiounaite, Yves Punie, David Wright Apr 2006

The Brave New World Of Ambient Intelligence: An Analysis Of Scenarios Regarding Privacy, Identity And Security Issues, Michael Friedewald, Elena Vildjiounaite, Yves Punie, David Wright

Michael Friedewald

The success of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) will depend on how secure it can be made, how privacy and other rights of individuals can be protected and how individuals can come to trust the intelligent world that surrounds them and through which they move. This contribution presents an analysis of ambient intelligence scenarios, particularly in regard to AmI's impacts on and implications for individual privacy. The analysis draws on our review of more than 70 AmI projects, principally in Europe. It notes the visions as well as the specifics of typical AmI scenarios. Several conclusions can be drawn from the ...


Safeguards In A World Of Ambient Intelligence, Ioannis Maghiros, Yves Punie, Sabine Delaitre, Paul De Hert, Serge Gutwirth, Anna Moscibroda, Wim Schreurs, Michael Friedewald, Ralf Lindner, David Wright, Elena Vildjiounaite, Petteri Alahuhta Jan 2006

Safeguards In A World Of Ambient Intelligence, Ioannis Maghiros, Yves Punie, Sabine Delaitre, Paul De Hert, Serge Gutwirth, Anna Moscibroda, Wim Schreurs, Michael Friedewald, Ralf Lindner, David Wright, Elena Vildjiounaite, Petteri Alahuhta

Michael Friedewald

Intelligent devices embedded everywhere and inter-connected with always-on capability will enable new services and applications to emerge but also greatly magnify the risk of abuse of the exchanged data. This article will present the need to develop safeguards in order to protect valuable assets if society at large is to benefit from AmI. Since the challenge lies in identifying safeguards for threats and vulnerabilities that are yet to be defined, the dark scenarios developed by the SWAMI project (Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence) , will be presented as a tool to help illustrate risks that need to be mediated ...