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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Circumcision-Generated Emotions Bias Medical Literature, Gregory J. Boyle, George Hill Feb 2012

Circumcision-Generated Emotions Bias Medical Literature, Gregory J. Boyle, George Hill

Gregory J. Boyle

No abstract provided.


Contribution Of Cattellian Personality Instruments, Gregory J. Boyle, Keith Barton Jan 2008

Contribution Of Cattellian Personality Instruments, Gregory J. Boyle, Keith Barton

Gregory J. Boyle

Extract:
Raymond B. Cattell, PhD, DSc (London) was ranked among the top ten most highly cited psychologists of the twentieth century (along with Freud, Piaget, Eysenck, and Skinner), as indexed in the peer-reviewed psychological journal literature (Haggbloom et. al., 2002:142). Over the span of more than half a century, Cattell undertook an extensive programmatic series of empirical research studies into the taxonomy of psychological structure (across the domains of intellectual abilities, normal and abnormal personality traits, dynamic (motivation) traits, and transitory mood states).


Simplifying The Cattellian Psychometric Model, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 2008

Simplifying The Cattellian Psychometric Model, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

Extract:
This chapter concerns the scientific analysis of individual differences in human psychological functioning including personality structure, undertaken by the author over a 30-year period (Boyle, 2006b).


Schizotypal Personality Models, Melissa J. Green, Gregory J. Boyle, Adrian Raine Jan 2008

Schizotypal Personality Models, Melissa J. Green, Gregory J. Boyle, Adrian Raine

Gregory J. Boyle

Extract:
This chapter will provide an outline of the historical development of the schizotypy construct, highlighting subtle theoretical differences in its conceptualisation, and related issues of measurement, factor structure, and the association with other dimensions of personality. The development of schizotypal personality models and their relationship with clinical disorders will be discussed in light of several decades of research in neurocognition, psychophysiology, and psychosocial risk factors, from which the current conceptualisation of schizotypy within a biosocial neurodevelopmental framework has emerged.


Critique Of The Five-Factor Model Of Personality, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 2008

Critique Of The Five-Factor Model Of Personality, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

Extract:
Contemporary personality research generally adopts an interactionist model, whereby traits and situationally sensitive states interact in influencing behavioural outcomes. However, some support for the casual nature of the Big Five has been forthcoming (Paunonen and Ashton, 2001). For example, it has been argued that individuals vary on each of these five trait dimensions in line with a normal curve distribution and that the factors are at least partially genetically predetermined (Jang, et. al., 2002, Loehlin et. al., 1998).


Personality Measurement And Testing: An Overview, Gregory J. Boyle, Gerald Matthews, Donald H. Saklofske Jan 2008

Personality Measurement And Testing: An Overview, Gregory J. Boyle, Gerald Matthews, Donald H. Saklofske

Gregory J. Boyle

Extract:
Technically, there are very few actual 'tests' of personality- the Objective-Analytical Battery being an exception. Most so-called 'tests' of personality are in fact, self-report scales or rating scales based on reports of others. Such scales quantify subjective introspections, or subjective impressions of others' personality make-up. At the same time, it is a relevant question and one that we will continue to face in the study of personality and the application of the findings, including assessment of personality, within psychological practice areas such as clinical and school psychology, and within settings such as the military, business and sports psychology, among ...


Personality Theories And Models: An Overview, Gregory J. Boyle, Gerald Matthews, Donald H. Saklofske Jan 2008

Personality Theories And Models: An Overview, Gregory J. Boyle, Gerald Matthews, Donald H. Saklofske

Gregory J. Boyle

Extract:

The thesis of these volumes is that the study of personality traits has advanced towards 'normal science' in the sense of a Kuhnian paradigm (cf. Eysenck, 1981; Kuhn, 1962). That is, most researchers in this area share a set of common core beliefs supported by empirical evidence. These include the relative stability of traits over time, a significant genetic and biological influence on personality, and relevance of traits to many areas of everyday life.


Special Review: Evaluation Of The Exploratory Factor Analysis Programs Provided In Spssx And Spss/Pc+, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1993

Special Review: Evaluation Of The Exploratory Factor Analysis Programs Provided In Spssx And Spss/Pc+, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

Given the frequent use of SPSSX and SPSS/PC+ exploratory factor analysis in analyzing multivariate psychometric data, it is germane to examine the limitations of the Factor program as it currently exists. Over recent years, the routines in these packages generally have been developed and expanded considerably. In particular, the exploratory factor analysis procedures have been greatly extended and enhanced with inclusion of additional estimation methods such as minimum likelihood, unweighted least squares, generalized least squares, and so on. Like­ wise, availability of a Scree plot of the latent roots against factor number has facilitated determination of the appropriate factor-extraction ...


Lisrel Analyses Of The Riasec Model: Confirmatory And Congeneric Factor Analyses Of Holland's Self-Directed Search, Gregory J. Boyle, Sergio Fabris Jan 1992

Lisrel Analyses Of The Riasec Model: Confirmatory And Congeneric Factor Analyses Of Holland's Self-Directed Search, Gregory J. Boyle, Sergio Fabris

Gregory J. Boyle

A sample of 401 apprentice plumbers was administered the Australian version of Holland's [(1977) Self-Directed Search: A guide to educational and vocational planning. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press] Self-Directed Search (SDS), in an investigation of the construct validity of the multidimensional interest inventory. Both exploratory (iterative principal factoring with oblique simple structure rotation), as well as LISREL confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), provided only partial support for the six-factor RIASEC typological model on which the SDS instrument was structured. Indeed, only one RIASEC factor (Artistic) was supported unequivocally from the exploratory factor analysis while the CFA statistics indicated a ...


Factor Structure Of The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (Mdq): Exploratory And Lisrel Analyses, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1992

Factor Structure Of The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (Mdq): Exploratory And Lisrel Analyses, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) is the most frequently used self-report instrument for measuring menstrual cycle symptomatology. However, its internal structure has been criticized. In a review of the psychometric properties of the MDQ (covering more than 50 studies from 1968 onwards), Spalding and Oei concluded that "the MDQ appears to measure constructs unrelated to the menstrual cycle, [that] its definition of the premenstrual syndrome may be inaccurate and the factor structure of this instrument may be unreliable." In order to clarify the structural dimensionality of the MDQ, exploratory, congeneric and confirmatory factor analyses of the MDQ item intercorrelations were ...


Multidimensional Scaling Of The Eight State Questionnaire And The Differential Emotions Scale, Gregory J. Boyle, Ilana Katz Jan 1991

Multidimensional Scaling Of The Eight State Questionnaire And The Differential Emotions Scale, Gregory J. Boyle, Ilana Katz

Gregory J. Boyle

While the interrelationships between multivariate measures of mood states have been analysed using various statistical procedures including exploratory factor analysis, discriminant function analysis, multiple regression analysis, and canonical-redundancy analysis, the techniques of Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) however, have been used less extensively in psychometric research. MDS provides a readily interpretable representation of empirical relationships between different sets of data. The present study attempted to replicate Boyle's (1986a; Psychological Reports, 59, 503–510) factor analytic findings on two self-report multidimensional mood-state measures, namely the Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ), and the Differential Emotions Scale (DES-IV), to demonstrate the utility of MDS to ...


Item Analysis Of The Subscales In The Eight State Questionnaire (8sq): Exploratory And Confirmatory Factor Analyses., Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1991

Item Analysis Of The Subscales In The Eight State Questionnaire (8sq): Exploratory And Confirmatory Factor Analyses., Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

The Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ) is a comprehensive self-report inventory which has been used in numerous studies of multidimensional mood states. The 8SQ has been useful in clinical situations for evaluating the efficacy of various therapeutic interventions, as well as in other contexts. The instrument takes about 20-25 minutes to administer, thereby enhancing its usefulness as a quick measure of transitory, constantly fluctuating mood states. Nevertheless, examination of the congeneric factor structure of the 8SQ subscales suggests that a number of the items are complex, contributing significantly to more than one subscale dimension. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have ...


Interset Relationships Between The Eight State Questionnaire And The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1991

Interset Relationships Between The Eight State Questionnaire And The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

The interrelationships between emotional/mood states and related psychophysiological states was examined in terms of the measurement overlap (redundancy) across two multidimensional psychometric instruments. Subscale similarities and differences across the Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ) and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) were studied using multiple regression procedures on a sample of 370 undergraduates. In addition, canonical-redundancy analyses were employed in order to estimate the quantitative overlap across the two self-report instruments. Although the two instruments were designed to measure somewhat different entities (mood states and psychophysiological symptoms), it was hypothesised that some interset commonalities would emerge in regard to the normal ...


Sex-Role Identity And Mental Ability, Gregory J. Boyle, Michael E. Bernard, Beverly F. Jackling Jan 1990

Sex-Role Identity And Mental Ability, Gregory J. Boyle, Michael E. Bernard, Beverly F. Jackling

Gregory J. Boyle

The central concern of this study was to explore the relationship between sex-role identity (measured by a bi-dimensional scale of masculinity and femininity) and field independence and scholastic intelligence. One hundred and forty Australian males and 181 females in grades 11 and 12 completed the Witkin Group Embedded Figures Test, the Otis Higher Test C of intelligence and a shortened version of the Bem Sex Role Identity Questionnaire. The correlation between performance on the Witkins and Otis was 0.53. Males performed significantly better on the Witkin and Otis than females. Males with lower masculinity scores scored better on the ...


Personality Characteristics Of Direct-Service Personnel In Community Residential Units, Gregory J. Boyle, Peter G. Comer Jan 1990

Personality Characteristics Of Direct-Service Personnel In Community Residential Units, Gregory J. Boyle, Peter G. Comer

Gregory J. Boyle

This study examined the personality profile of direct service personnel employed in community residential units for the intellectually disabled. Comprehensive assessment of both the normal and abnormal personality trait domains was carried out for a sample of 110 employees, using the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ), a psychometric instrument which provides extensive coverage of the adult personality sphere. Mean CAQ scores for the sample implied a generally satisfactory level of emotional adjustment. Overall, direct service personnel exhibited a non-aberrant profile of personality trait scores across both the normal and abnormal CAQ factors. There was a notable lack of psychopathology. Only the ...


Comparison Of Higher Stratum Motivational Factors Across Sexes Using The Children's Motivation Analysis Test, Gregory J. Boyle, K B. Start Jan 1989

Comparison Of Higher Stratum Motivational Factors Across Sexes Using The Children's Motivation Analysis Test, Gregory J. Boyle, K B. Start

Gregory J. Boyle

The Children's Motivation Analysis Test (CMAT) is a newly developed objective instrument for quantifying several important motivational dynamic traits among primary school children. The CMAT is a downward extension of the MAT and SMAT instruments, which have put motivation measurement onto a new level of sophistication. These pencil-and-paper instruments avoid the most serious handicap of self-report questionnaires, namely the obvious transparency of items, and concomitant ease of faking good or faking bad, as well as other kinds of response distortion which may result from inadequate self-insight of one's motivational attributes. The CMAT was administered to separate groups of ...


Prediction Of Academic Achievement Using The School Motivation Analysis Test., Gregory J. Boyle, Brian K. Start, John E. Hall Jan 1989

Prediction Of Academic Achievement Using The School Motivation Analysis Test., Gregory J. Boyle, Brian K. Start, John E. Hall

Gregory J. Boyle

Mathematics and English achievement was investigated among 277 Year 10 Australian students. Using the School Motivation Analysis Test (SMAT) as the measure of dynamic motivational traits, significant achievement variance (25 percent for Mathematics; 34 percent for English) was accounted for independently from that due to abilities and personality traits. Male students tended to invest a greater proportion of intellectual abilities (indexed via the SMAT General Information Intelligence score) than did females in the learning of Mathematics (accounting for 25 percent of the variance for males), whereas females demonstrated a higher investment of abilities in English. The specific motivational dynamic traits ...


Sex Differences In The Prediction Of Academic Achievement Using The Children's Motivation Analysis Test, Gregory J. Boyle, Brian K. Start Jan 1989

Sex Differences In The Prediction Of Academic Achievement Using The Children's Motivation Analysis Test, Gregory J. Boyle, Brian K. Start

Gregory J. Boyle

The Children's Motivation Analysis Test (CMAT), together with standardised achievement tests in mathematics and reading, was administered to a large sample of Australian elementary school children. Stepwise forward regression analyses were conducted on subsamples of 209 males and 179 females (cases with missing data previously excluded). Several of the CMAT dynamic traits significantly predicted achievement scores. The most useful predictors were conscientiousness (Superego) and family (Home) orientation. These results, based on objective motivation measurement, represent the beginnings of a new approach for research into children's motivation structure.


Are Employment-Interview Skills A Correlate Of Subtypes Of Schizophrenia?, James Charisiou, Henry J. Jackson, Gregory J. Boyle, Philip Burgess, Harry I. Minas, Stephen D. Joshua Jan 1989

Are Employment-Interview Skills A Correlate Of Subtypes Of Schizophrenia?, James Charisiou, Henry J. Jackson, Gregory J. Boyle, Philip Burgess, Harry I. Minas, Stephen D. Joshua

Gregory J. Boyle

46 inpatients with a DSM-III diagnosis of schizophrenia were assessed in the week prior to discharge from hospital on measures of positive and negative symptoms and on 12 measures of employment interview skills (i.e., eye contact, facial gestures, body posture, verbal content, voice volume, length of speech, motivation, self-confidence, ability to communicate, manifest adjustment, manifest intelligence, over-all interview skill), and a global measure of employability. A cluster analysis based on the total positive and negative symptom scores produced two groups. The group with the lower mean negative symptom score exhibited better employment-interview skills and higher ratings on employability.


What Does The Neuropsychological Category Test Measure?, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1988

What Does The Neuropsychological Category Test Measure?, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

The Halstead Category Test of brain dysfunction is one of the most sensitive neuropsychological measures currently available. While the instrument has received widespread use, nevertheless, the exact nature of what it measures has been poorly delineated. The present brief report presents the results of separate factor analyses of the Category Test along with other neuropsychological measures from the Halstead-Reitan battery. Despite considerable differences in samples, as well as in the particular neuropsychological measures included in the separate analyses, the Category Test consistently lined-up with general intellectual and memory components, in each instance.


Content Similarities And Differences In Cattell’S Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, Eight State Questionnaire, And Motivation Analysis Test, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1987

Content Similarities And Differences In Cattell’S Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, Eight State Questionnaire, And Motivation Analysis Test, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

The multivariate psychometric measurement of normal personality traits, transitory emotional states, and dynamic motivational factors has been made possible through the factor analytically validated instruments devised by Cattell and his associates. Previous research by Boyle, et al. has demonstrated that in accord with theory, all three instruments are measuring essentially separate psychological domains. While this quantitative evidence suggested that the multivariate instruments exhibit little measurement overlap with each other, nevertheless, it was not possible to ascertain the content similarities and differences from the canonical-redundancy analyses reported. Hence, the present study examines these qualitative characteristics in terms of the subscale data ...


A Cross-Validation Of The Factor Structure Of The Profile Of Mood States: Were The Factors Correctly Identified In The First Instance?, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1987

A Cross-Validation Of The Factor Structure Of The Profile Of Mood States: Were The Factors Correctly Identified In The First Instance?, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

The present study investigated further the factorial structure of the Profile of Mood States in an Australian college sample of 289 undergraduate students. Responses for all 65 items were intercorrelated and subjected to an iterative principal factoring procedure together with rotation to oblique simple structure. Results indicated that the basic subscale structure of the profile is reliable, although some additional factors of emotionality could be discerned. A subsequent higher-order analysis suggested that at the typological mood-state level, the Profile of Mood States primarily indexes three state dimensions of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Arousal.


Evidence Of Typological Mood States From Change-Score (Dr) Factoring Of The Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (Caq), Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1987

Evidence Of Typological Mood States From Change-Score (Dr) Factoring Of The Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (Caq), Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

A series of studies has attempted to elucidate higher-order mood-state dimensions through factor analyses of a number of multidimensional self-report instruments. Results suggest at least five higher-order mood states (Extraversion, Neuroticism, Arousal-Fatigue, Hostility, Depression). However, the question of possible mood states in the psychopathological domain remains unresolved. The present study investigates this issue through second- and third-order dR-analyses of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ). Results indicate further abnormal typological mood-state factors in addition to those previously delineated within the (normal) mood-state sphere.


Commentary: The Role Of Intrapersonal Psychological Variables In Academic School Learning, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1987

Commentary: The Role Of Intrapersonal Psychological Variables In Academic School Learning, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

Intellectual abilities may contribute up to 25% of the variance in measures of academic school learning. However, the role of intrapersonal variables other than cognitive ability (personality traits, motivational dynamic factors, transitory emotional states) has usually been considered as fairly trivial. Past research, to the contrary, suggests that under stressful conditions, the relative contribution of such intrapersonal factors may even become predominant in influencing achievement. When analyses are based on change scores rather than single-occasion measures (which include trait contamination variance), the influence of emotional states on learning is shown to be very significant indeed.


Intermodality Superfactors In The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16pf), Eight State Battery (8sq), And Objective Motivation Analysis Test (Oab), Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1986

Intermodality Superfactors In The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16pf), Eight State Battery (8sq), And Objective Motivation Analysis Test (Oab), Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

The behavioural scientists Eysenck and Cattell have much in common, having investigated intrapersonal psychological structure, albeit at different levels in its hierarchical structure. Eysenck has studied the personality domain in terms of a typological model involving a small number of important superfactors. In contrast, Cattell has typically resorted to analyses of a considerably larger number of primary factors. While both approaches are complementary, nevertheless, little research has been undertaken into intermodality superfactors. The present study, therefore, examines Cattellian intermodality superfactors across the normal personality trait, mood state, and motivational dynamic domains, respectively, in the hope of elucidating broad affect dimensions ...


Application Of Factor Analysis In Psychological Research: Improvement Of Simple Structure By Computer Assisted Graphic Oblique Transformation: A Brief Note, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1986

Application Of Factor Analysis In Psychological Research: Improvement Of Simple Structure By Computer Assisted Graphic Oblique Transformation: A Brief Note, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

Several studies have suggested the efficacy of topological rotation as an adjunct to oblique analytical rotation in attaining improved approximation to maximum simple structure of the factor pattern matrix. Recently, using a higher- order scale factoring of the Objective Motivation Analysis Test (MAT), and the Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ), Boyle(1983) reported a 6.17% increase in the ±.10 hyperplane count after only five Rotoplot cycles. Four of the 11 extracted factors were simplified in line with Thurstone’s simple structure requirements. The present brief note examines the issue of topological rotation in regard to its usefulness and ease of ...


Estimation Of Measurement Redundancy Across The Eight State Questionnaire And Differential Emotions Scale, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1986

Estimation Of Measurement Redundancy Across The Eight State Questionnaire And Differential Emotions Scale, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

The present article addresses the important issue of the psychometric assessment of mood, and evaluates the measurement overlap (redundancy) between two multidimensional instruments, the Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ) and the Differential Emotions Scale (DES-IV). Both measures are purported to index some of the major emotions evident in human behaviour. While the subscale descriptions differ somewhat across the two measures, nevertheless, some apparent commonalities exist, although in general each instrument seems to be tapping significant discrete psychological variance within the mood-state sphere. In order to quantify the measurement redundancy across the two scales, and to elucidate the content similarities and differences ...


Analysis Of Typological Factors Across The Eight State Questionnaire And The Differential Emotions Scale, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1986

Analysis Of Typological Factors Across The Eight State Questionnaire And The Differential Emotions Scale, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

The use of multivariate mood-state scales has recently become quite popular. Two instruments designed to measure fundamental emotions are the Eight State Questionnaire and the Differential Emotions Scale. As it appears that each instrument taps somewhat different sectors of the mood-state sphere, elucidation of a smaller number of typological factors across both instruments seems desirable to provide the basis for an instrument which better taps the total mood-state sphere than does either one of these alone. In the present study, a combined scale-factoring of the two instruments is undertaken on a sample of 450 college students. Results suggest that six ...


Prediction Of Cognitive Learning Performance From Multivariate State‑Change Scores, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1986

Prediction Of Cognitive Learning Performance From Multivariate State‑Change Scores, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

While the role of non-ability intrapersonal variables including personality traits and motivational dynamic factors has been well documented in numerous studies, the relationship of transient states to cognitive performance has been relatively neglected. Boyle (1983b, 1986) demonstrated that emotional states powerfully influence cognitive learning outcomes under conditions of stressful activation. However, under neutral, non-emotive conditions, it remained unclear what role if any was played by mood states in cognitive learning. The failure to employ change measures in these studies may have obscured the likely influence of emotions on cognitive performance in the neutral situation. This study re-examines the relationship of ...


Higher-Order Factors In The Differential Emotions Scale (Des-Iii), Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1986

Higher-Order Factors In The Differential Emotions Scale (Des-Iii), Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

The 30-item version of Izard's Differential Emotions Scale (DES-III) was submitted to an iterative principal factoring plus oblique (direct Oblimin) rotation to simple structure, on a sample of 204 University of Delaware undergraduates. The intercorrelation matrix for the eight primary emotional-state factors derived, was subsequently subjected to a higher-order factoring. Four second-order factors accounted readily for the variance measured in the DES-III scales and this suggests that the multivariate mood-state instrument might be more profitably scored for secondary factors, in certain instances. This conclusion in no way detracts from the importance of the DES-III primaries, but adds to the ...