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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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Articles 1 - 30 of 190

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Cognitive Relatives Yet Moral Strangers?, Judith Benz-Scharzberg, Andrew Knight Jul 2019

Cognitive Relatives Yet Moral Strangers?, Judith Benz-Scharzberg, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, PhD

This article provides an empirically based, interdisciplinary approach to the following two questions: Do animals possess behavioral and cognitive characteristics such as culture, language, and a theory of mind? And if so, what are the implications, when long-standing criteria used to justify differences in moral consideration between humans and animals are no longer considered indisputable? One basic implication is that the psychological needs of captive animals should be adequately catered for. However, for species such as great apes and dolphins with whom we share major characteristics of personhood, welfare considerations alone may not suffice, and consideration of basic rights may ...


People -- Marine Mammal Interactions, Andrew Butterworth, Mark P. Simmonds Jan 2019

People -- Marine Mammal Interactions, Andrew Butterworth, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

Our relationships with marine mammals are complex. We have used them as resources, and in some places this remains the case; viewed them as competitors and culled them (again ongoing in some localities); been so captivated and intrigued by them that we have taken them into captivity for our entertainment; and developed a lucrative eco-tourism activity focused on them in many nations. When we first envisaged this special topic, we had two overarching aims:

Firstly, we hoped to generate critical evaluation of some of our relationships with these animals.

Secondly, we hoped to attract knowledgeable commentators and experts who might ...


Sexual Misconduct, Religion, And Culture, Alev Dudek Jan 2019

Sexual Misconduct, Religion, And Culture, Alev Dudek

Alev Dudek

Civilization is the reflection of a constant effort to increase reproduction while suppressing pleasure. This is because civilized societies are artificial systems that are governed by rulers. They are militarized and operate through production, consumption, exchange of goods and services, and the transfer of wealth. Unlike reproduction, pleasure and release of tension do little to benefit the rulers (unless they are involved in the process themselves, of course). The higher the number of births, the better for the rulers because of the increased opportunities for economic and military exchange. Naturally, there are exceptions to this rule. However, such exceptions, too ...


Cookbooks: Preserving Jewish Tradition, Daniel E. Feinberg, Alice Crosetto May 2018

Cookbooks: Preserving Jewish Tradition, Daniel E. Feinberg, Alice Crosetto

Daniel Feinberg

Culinary traditions have played an integral role in the Jewish religion from its very beginning. Families have continually passed down these traditions from one generation to the next as a means to preserve Jewish culture as well as to maintain their Jewish identity. The authors propose that one of the methods of preserving and transmitting these culinary traditions, traditions clearly rooted in oral tradition, has been through the cookbook. While the written cookbook continues to be popular and marketable, traditional cookbook contents are becoming increasingly available online. In saving recipes for future generations, cookbooks preserve religious, cultural, and traditional elements ...


Gu 2018.Pdf, Chien-Juh Gu Feb 2018

Gu 2018.Pdf, Chien-Juh Gu

Chien-Juh Gu

This study examines major social, economic, and cultural factors that sustain in-law inequality in Taiwanese transnational families. Data are based on life-history interviews with 16 Taiwanese immigrant women and ethnographic observations in a Midwest urban area. Findings suggest that middle-class immigrants’ abilities to host in-laws for lengthy periods and parents-in-law’s financial support for immigrant couples lead to the living arrangement of three-generation households in many immigrant families. Daughters-in-law in these households experience enormous stress because their mothers-in-law demand obedience. Traditional gender norms become moralized when the women’s husbands, mothers, and fellow immigrants reinforce Confucian cultural values of filial ...


Initiating Cultural Shifts In Perceptions Of Cataloging Units Through Interaction Assessment, Andrea Payant, Becky Skeen, Liz Woolcott Feb 2018

Initiating Cultural Shifts In Perceptions Of Cataloging Units Through Interaction Assessment, Andrea Payant, Becky Skeen, Liz Woolcott

Andrea M. Payant

Points of contact formulate the culture of any organization and shape the perceptions of decision makers and colleagues alike. This research project investigated the interactions between Cataloging and Metadata Services staff and other library employees by analyzing interactions. This article summarizes the results of data gathered from interaction assessments and compares them with surveys about the current perceptions of the cataloging unit at the Utah State University Libraries. It discusses the ways these results have influenced existing unit workflows to enhance awareness of cataloging and metadata contributions to the library and posits possible ways to continue such initiatives moving forward.


The Dark Side Of Creative Tourism: A Philosophical Dialogue With Culture, Babu P. George Dec 2017

The Dark Side Of Creative Tourism: A Philosophical Dialogue With Culture, Babu P. George

Babu George

This manuscript interrogates the epistemological limitations of creative tourism, which is framed technically within “cultural tourism”. Discussing the old prejudices and paternalist discourses of colonialism, where “science” developed an uncanny sentiment of protection and submission for aboriginals, “cultural tourism” emulates old forms of domination, in a context of extremes and economic crisis. If creativity only works in contexts of scarcity, it would be interesting to understand capitalism as a cultural project that shows some problems to understand the “ non-European other” and environmental resources. 


Deering And Kotzebue, Seward Peninsula, Alaska Summer 1950 Dec 2017

Deering And Kotzebue, Seward Peninsula, Alaska Summer 1950

Joel M. Halpern

Slide show presentation of the Eskimo culture in Deering and Kotzebue, Alaska. Slides include pictures of the people, the land and their culture. Department of Ethnology & Sila- The Greenland Research Center The National Museum of Denmark Copenhagen 2001,


Enacting A Culture Of Peace: A Peace Education Guide For Adult Learners In Myanmar Dec 2017

Enacting A Culture Of Peace: A Peace Education Guide For Adult Learners In Myanmar

Tatsushi Arai

This is a UNESCO peace education guide designed to introduce diverse approaches to experiential learning in Myanmar. Translated into Burmese and tested through several training-of-trainers workshops completed in Myanmar's western coastal region, the guide seeks to support educators working in diverse conflict-affected communities across the country to build greater inter-ethnic and inter-religious coexistence.

Burmese version available. English version forthcoming.


Social Institutions And Same-Sex Sexuality : Attitudes, Perceptions And Prospective Rights And Freedoms For Non-Heterosexuals, Padmore Adusei Amoah, Razak Mohammed Gyasi Nov 2017

Social Institutions And Same-Sex Sexuality : Attitudes, Perceptions And Prospective Rights And Freedoms For Non-Heterosexuals, Padmore Adusei Amoah, Razak Mohammed Gyasi

Dr. AMOAH Padmore Adusei

Religious and cultural values have been used as a yardstick to disregard the rights and freedoms of people in non-normative sexual relationships in many African countries. However, little is known about the extent to which this assertion is empirically buttressed by public opinion in the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana. Employing in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion, this study sought public opinion on how religious and cultural precepts informed attitudes and perception on same-sex sexuality. Twenty people who were aged 19 to 60 years participated in the study. The phenomenon of same-sex sexuality was expressively distasteful to majority of participants ...


Cross-Cultural Issues In Employee Performance And Talent Management In The Middle East, Aloma Jayasundera, Babu P. George Oct 2017

Cross-Cultural Issues In Employee Performance And Talent Management In The Middle East, Aloma Jayasundera, Babu P. George

Babu George

Organisations are moving to overseas markets at an ever-increasing pace. This research explores the linkages between culture, employee performance, and talent management in the cross-border management context of the Middle East. Senior business executives of a multinational business process outsourcing conglomerate with branches in Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Turkey and Egypt were interviewed on the cultural dimension of internationalisation. The results suggest that organisational values reflect national culture. Also, employee performance is positively influenced by the cultural factors. Cultural diversity among the staff can result in many favourable benefits to an organisation: these include lower ...


Three's The Charm In Michelin Ratings, Mike Grenby Jun 2017

Three's The Charm In Michelin Ratings, Mike Grenby

Mike Grenby

For the pleasure, you'll pay $540 for a tasting meal at one Paris restaurant.


Recognizing Moral Identity As A Cultural Construct, Fanli Jia, Tobias Krettenauer Mar 2017

Recognizing Moral Identity As A Cultural Construct, Fanli Jia, Tobias Krettenauer

Fanli Jia

Current research on moral identity shows that moral identity predicts moral action in Western cultures but not in non-Western cultures. The present paper argues that this may be due to the fact that the concept of moral identity is culturally biased. In order to remedy this situation, we argue that researchers should broaden their scopes of inquiry by adding a cultural lens to their studies of moral identity. This change is important because although some concept of moral identity likely exists in all cultures, it may function in different ways and at different levels in each place. We propose that ...


Mountain Kingdom Extraordinaire, Mike Grenby Jan 2017

Mountain Kingdom Extraordinaire, Mike Grenby

Mike Grenby

Bhutan: where marijuana grows on the roadsides and life is measured in Gross National Happiness.


Social Institutions And Same-Sex Sexuality : Attitudes, Perceptions And Prospective Rights And Freedoms For Non-Heterosexuals, Padmore Adusei Amoah, Razak Mohammed Gyasi Jan 2017

Social Institutions And Same-Sex Sexuality : Attitudes, Perceptions And Prospective Rights And Freedoms For Non-Heterosexuals, Padmore Adusei Amoah, Razak Mohammed Gyasi

Mr. GYASI Razak Mohammed

Religious and cultural values have been used as a yardstick to disregard the rights and freedoms of people in non-normative sexual relationships in many African countries. However, little is known about the extent to which this assertion is empirically buttressed by public opinion in the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana. Employing in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion, this study sought public opinion on how religious and cultural precepts informed attitudes and perception on same-sex sexuality. Twenty people who were aged 19 to 60 years participated in the study. The phenomenon of same-sex sexuality was expressively distasteful to majority of participants ...


Warming Up To Iceland, Mike Grenby Jan 2017

Warming Up To Iceland, Mike Grenby

Mike Grenby

Harsh economic climate has made the land of ice and fire easier on the wallet.


Dainty Plates Eatery All The Rage In London, Mike Grenby Jan 2017

Dainty Plates Eatery All The Rage In London, Mike Grenby

Mike Grenby

London chef's travels inspire his innovative healthy menu.


Can Asians Be Creative?, Chua, Roy Y. J., Jerry Zremski Jan 2017

Can Asians Be Creative?, Chua, Roy Y. J., Jerry Zremski

Roy CHUA

A crotchety American named Henry Ford invented a modern, fast and efficient way to manufacture automobiles and a Japanese man named Eiji Toyoda refined and perfected it. A series of innovators across the western world developed the television - and the tech specialists at Sony, Toshiba and a host of other Asian companies found ways to make TVs better, cheaper, faster. And an idiosyncratic Californian named Steve Jobs invented a company that made a smart phone for the masses - and then outsourced the manufacturing to China. If you detect a pattern here, you are not alone. Asia may be the home ...


Race, Gender And Mentoring In Higher Education: A Metasynthesis, Deirdre Cobb-Roberts, Talia Esnard, Annie Unterreiner, Vonzell Agosto, Zorka Karanxha, Makini Beck, Ke Wu Dec 2016

Race, Gender And Mentoring In Higher Education: A Metasynthesis, Deirdre Cobb-Roberts, Talia Esnard, Annie Unterreiner, Vonzell Agosto, Zorka Karanxha, Makini Beck, Ke Wu

Deirdre Cobb-Roberts

This qualitative review presents a metasynthesis of the literature on mentoring among women faculty of color in
higher education, with specific attention to the strengths, weaknesses, and controversies in the literature; an examination that points to avenues for future research.


Race, Gender And Mentoring In Higher Education: A Metasynthesis, Deirdre Cobb-Roberts, Talia Esnard, Annie Unterreiner, Vonzell Agosto, Zorka Karanxha, Makini Beck, Ke Wu Dec 2016

Race, Gender And Mentoring In Higher Education: A Metasynthesis, Deirdre Cobb-Roberts, Talia Esnard, Annie Unterreiner, Vonzell Agosto, Zorka Karanxha, Makini Beck, Ke Wu

Vonzell Agosto

This qualitative review presents a metasynthesis of the literature on mentoring among women faculty of color in
higher education, with specific attention to the strengths, weaknesses, and controversies in the literature; an examination that points to avenues for future research.


Namesake Schools: Vulnerable Places And Cultural Narratives Of The South, Vonzell Agosto, Charles Kyobe, Donna Elam Dec 2016

Namesake Schools: Vulnerable Places And Cultural Narratives Of The South, Vonzell Agosto, Charles Kyobe, Donna Elam

Vonzell Agosto

Geographic place and socio-political space are salient in struggles for justice in education. Social geography provides a
frame for discussing the relationship between names of schools and narratives of race, place, and justice (racial and spatial) in the US South. Featured herein is an illustrative case of how a school named after an African American man is implicated in the construction and preservation of cultural memory through its namesake status and the curriculum. In the literature, commemoration policies are often ignored as little points of support that codify the processes of deliberation and decision-making that guide how school buildings are ...


El-Malik_Reading Imaginative Futures Across Historical Moments.Pdf, Shiera S. Malik Nov 2016

El-Malik_Reading Imaginative Futures Across Historical Moments.Pdf, Shiera S. Malik

Shiera S el-Malik

Léopold Sédar Senghor’s 1961 Speech at Oxford University is a provocative and critical intervention during what is generally considered to be a decolonisation period. It is a speech that en- gages across eras, and one from which we can glean insights on how to nourish ideas and modes of thinking that may be needed in this historical moment. With it, Senghor illustrates the importance of humanism for interlocutory dialogue, which is necessary to transcend delimiting and violent kinds of relations. is article deploys the idea of surreptitious speech to examine how Senghor makes these arguments in a crevice moment ...


Semi-Wild Chimpanzees Open Hard-Shelled Fruits Differently Across Communities, Bruce Rawlings, Marina Davilla-Ross, Sarah T. Boysen Sep 2016

Semi-Wild Chimpanzees Open Hard-Shelled Fruits Differently Across Communities, Bruce Rawlings, Marina Davilla-Ross, Sarah T. Boysen

Sarah Boysen, PhD

Researchers investigating the evolutionary roots of human culture have turned to comparing behaviours across nonhuman primate communities, with tool-based foraging in particular receiving much attention. This study examined whether natural extractive foraging behaviours other than tool selection differed across nonhuman primate colonies that had the same foods available. Specifically, the behaviours applied to open the hard-shelled fruits of Strychnos spp. were examined in three socially separate, semi-wild colonies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that lived under shared ecological conditions at Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage, and were comparable in their genetic makeup. The chimpanzees (N = 56) consistently applied six techniques to open these ...


Gender In Print Advertisements: A Snapshot Of Representations From Around The World, Pamela K. Morris Jan 2016

Gender In Print Advertisements: A Snapshot Of Representations From Around The World, Pamela K. Morris

Pamela K. Morris

No abstract provided.


What Is "American" In American Religion?, Rhys H. Williams, Sylvester Johnson, Kathryn Gin Lum Jan 2016

What Is "American" In American Religion?, Rhys H. Williams, Sylvester Johnson, Kathryn Gin Lum

Rhys Williams

No abstract provided.


Conceptualizing Beauty: A Content Analysis Of U.S. And French Women's Magazine Advertisements, Pamela Morris, Katharine Nichols Jan 2016

Conceptualizing Beauty: A Content Analysis Of U.S. And French Women's Magazine Advertisements, Pamela Morris, Katharine Nichols

Pamela K. Morris

Although beauty is a major industry, it is elusive and based on culture. The purpose of this investigation is to expand the idea of female beauty beyond physical characteristics through an exploration of women’s magazine advertisements from France and the United States. Over 570 ads from ten women’s fashion magazines are content analyzed. Among the major findings is that American publications consist of more hair care and makeup products than in France, in contrast, French magazines include more ads for lotions and perfumes. In terms of tone, people in American publications show more smiles, while people in France ...


Culture And Metaphors In Advertisements: France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, And The United States, Pamela Morris, Jennifer A. Waldman Jan 2016

Culture And Metaphors In Advertisements: France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, And The United States, Pamela Morris, Jennifer A. Waldman

Pamela K. Morris

Culture and language are intertwined. Metaphors, based on culture, are ubiquitous in thinking and communication. As social artifacts reflecting culture, advertising messages provide an opportunity to compare metaphors in different nations. Goals of this article are to understand how and why advertisers use metaphors and how they differ across countries, as well as how cultural characteristics are used to create compelling ad messages. Using a content analysis of 87 French, German, Italian, Dutch, and American magazine advertisements, this study examines metaphor usage and cultural attributes from four culture-bound product groups: food and beverage, automobiles, insurance/finance, and personal care.


Gender Images In Hurricane Katrina Coverage, Pamela K. Morris Jan 2016

Gender Images In Hurricane Katrina Coverage, Pamela K. Morris

Pamela K. Morris

Media coverage of Hurricane Katrina was criticized in terms of race and class. But analyses from a gender perspective are missing. This research reviewed photographs of Katrina coverage in four prominent U.S. newspapers. Findings show that victims were all sexes and ages; but when it came to officials and heroes – men dominated. Also, women were more often shown with children than were men. These stereotypical images found in times of crises show culture’s core.


Driving Gender: An Analysis Of U.S. Auto Ad Visuals 1925-2005, Pamela K. Morris Jan 2016

Driving Gender: An Analysis Of U.S. Auto Ad Visuals 1925-2005, Pamela K. Morris

Pamela K. Morris

Advertising has been found to be not only a reflection of society, but also the basis for living amongst a group of people. The images in advertisements especially provide ideas and standards for acceptable behavior, social norms and values specific to men and women. Studying advertisement visuals can illuminate power relations in culture. This approach to feminist theory takes a look at how women and others are used to sell products and how these depictions illuminate power. A framework using cultural, communication and feminist theories is constructed to build an approach for reviewing advertising messages. Focus is on visuals of ...


Occupy Wall Street Signs: Visual Reflections Of Hidden Soical Issues, Pamela K. Morris Jan 2016

Occupy Wall Street Signs: Visual Reflections Of Hidden Soical Issues, Pamela K. Morris

Pamela K. Morris

From a social action theory perspective, Occupy Wall Street protesters’ signs are grounded examples of grass-roots forces attempting to generate cultural and political change. Using an advertising perspective and contextualizing messages in social and cultural terms, important issues raised by the protesters can be identified and analyzed. Results can enrich discourse of challenges. This paper is an exploratory investigation of 55 Occupy Wall Street signs using content analysis. It attempts to answer questions: How are the Occupy Wall Street protesters communicating their messages through signs; what are the issues; and how do the issues relate to advertising models?