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Linguistics

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Learning Reduplication With A Neural Network Without Explicit Variables, Brandon Prickett, Aaron Traylor, Joe Pater Oct 2019

Learning Reduplication With A Neural Network Without Explicit Variables, Brandon Prickett, Aaron Traylor, Joe Pater

Joe Pater

Reduplicative linguistic patterns have been used as evidence for explicit algebraic variables in models of cognition. Here we show that a variable-free neural network can model these patterns in a way that predicts observed human behavior. Specifically, we successfully simulate the three experiments presented by Marcus et al. (1999), as well as Endress et al.’s (2007) partial replication of one of those experiments. We then explore the model’s ability to generalize reduplicative mappings to different kinds of novel inputs. Using Berent’s (2013) scopes of generalization as a metric, we find that the model matches the scope of ...


Phonologically Informed Edit Distance Algorithms For Word Alignment With Low-Resource Languages, Richard T. Mccoy, Robert Frank Oct 2019

Phonologically Informed Edit Distance Algorithms For Word Alignment With Low-Resource Languages, Richard T. Mccoy, Robert Frank

Robert Frank

We present three methods for weighting edit distance algorithms based on linguistic information. These methods base their penalties on (i) phonological features, (ii) distributional character embeddings, or (iii) differences between cognate words. We also introduce a novel method for evaluating edit distance through the task of low-resource word alignment by using edit-distance neighbors in a high-resource pivot language to inform alignments from the low-resource language. At this task, the cognate-based scheme outperforms our other methods and the Levenshtein edit distance baseline, showing that NLP applications can benefit from information about cross-linguistic phonological patterns.


Jabberwocky Parsing: Dependency Parsing With Lexical Noise, Jungo Kasai, Robert Frank Oct 2019

Jabberwocky Parsing: Dependency Parsing With Lexical Noise, Jungo Kasai, Robert Frank

Robert Frank

Parsing models have long benefited from the use of lexical information, and indeed current state-of-the art neural network models for dependency parsing achieve substantial improvements by benefiting from distributed representations of lexical information. At the same time, humans can easily parse sentences with unknown or even novel words, as in Lewis Carroll’s poem Jabberwocky. In this paper, we carry out jabberwocky parsing experiments, exploring how robust a state-of-the-art neural network parser is to the absence of lexical information. We find that current parsing models, at least under usual training regimens, are in fact overly dependent on lexical information, and ...


Does Standard Chinese Mean Anything For Cantonese Vowel Variation?, Holman Tse Oct 2019

Does Standard Chinese Mean Anything For Cantonese Vowel Variation?, Holman Tse

Holman Tse, PhD

Unlike many communities studied by variationists in which SLI means convergence of spoken and written language, for Cantonese speakers, language ideology historically meant the opposite. In this presentation, I show how traces of this ideological distinction between written and spoken codes (cf. Snow 2004) remain present in both Hong Kong and in Toronto. I focus on two sets of sound correspondences found with (Standard) Mandarin cognates: Cantonese /i/ to Mandarin /ə/ and Cantonese /y/ to Mandarin /u/). Only Cantonese /y/ shows convergence, but only for second-generation Toronto speakers who are least likely to speak Mandarin. Toronto English influence, thus, better ...


Pedagogical Discourse Styles Of Native And Non-Native Language Teachers, Stacy Anne Reynolds-Case Oct 2019

Pedagogical Discourse Styles Of Native And Non-Native Language Teachers, Stacy Anne Reynolds-Case

Stacy Anne Reynolds-Case

This study seeks to uncover the characteristics of foreign language instructors’ discourse styles implemented in the classroom when teaching students the target language. Foreign language classrooms are unique to academia because the teachers of the language, depending on whether they are native or non-native speakers of the target language, learned it in different environments and for distinct purposes. Many of the previous studies examining the effect a teacher’s ability in the target language will have on his/her instruction have focused on native and non-native speakers’ teaching styles and/or methodologies. Rather than the effect on the teacher’s ...


The Walking Dead Genealogy: Unsubstantiated Criticisms Of Qualitative Data Analysis Software (Qdas) And The Failure To Put Them To Rest, Kristi Jackson, Trena Paulus, Nicholas H. Woolf Sep 2019

The Walking Dead Genealogy: Unsubstantiated Criticisms Of Qualitative Data Analysis Software (Qdas) And The Failure To Put Them To Rest, Kristi Jackson, Trena Paulus, Nicholas H. Woolf

Trena M. Paulus

The authors conduct an exposé on the deterministic denunciations of Qualitative Data Analysis Software (QDAS) and how citation errors keep these criticisms alive. They use a zombie metaphor to describe more than two decades of battling these seemingly mindless assessments of QDAS that keep coming –despite their decay – and simply will not die. Focusing exclusively on the criticism of separation/distancing, which alleges that the computer and the software interfere with the researcher’s familiarity with the data, the authors trace one current strand of this criticism through a literature genealogy. Three citation errors (half-truth, proxy, and hearsay) are identified ...


The Introductory Text In The Narrative Imagination (Sonallah Ibrahim), Widad Witwit, Journal Port Science Research Aug 2019

The Introductory Text In The Narrative Imagination (Sonallah Ibrahim), Widad Witwit, Journal Port Science Research

port Science Research

The introductory text is imaginative, carried out by a fictional character assigned to the author the initiation status, which makes this study the field of operation. Because the initiation is so important as a textual threshold at which two worlds, real and imagined, are entrusted to entice the reader to the world of the text, the writers sought to enrich it by suggestive cards with concentrated interpretability. The opening of the modern narrator has become - consciously - the code for reading the text and imbibing its climates and environments. If the openings of classical novels by framing the investigative and descriptive ...


Information Literacy In The Phonology Classroom, Jonathan Howell, Catherine Baird May 2019

Information Literacy In The Phonology Classroom, Jonathan Howell, Catherine Baird

Jonathan Howell

Most of our students, particularly undergraduates, are not destined to become phonologists, or even linguists. Our primary goal, then, ought not to be instruction of any specific theory, topic or dataset. The imperative is to develop in students the literacies which inform the practice of phonology but which will also serve students in other arenas. In this talk, we discuss a collaboration between phonologist and librarian to embed information literacy into a one-semester undergraduate introduction to phonology. We want to help students to uncover the threshold concepts identified as central to information literacy by the Association of College & Research Libraries ...


Effects Of Bilingualism On Language Processing: Evidence From Monolingual (English) And Bilingual (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, And Arabic) Speakers, Stephanie Castelin, Salim A. Mouloua, Gabriella A. Fiorino, Eric T. Bell, Paola N. Luigi, Zamira Y. Feliz, Andrea A. Alfonsi, Mustapha Mouloua Apr 2019

Effects Of Bilingualism On Language Processing: Evidence From Monolingual (English) And Bilingual (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, And Arabic) Speakers, Stephanie Castelin, Salim A. Mouloua, Gabriella A. Fiorino, Eric T. Bell, Paola N. Luigi, Zamira Y. Feliz, Andrea A. Alfonsi, Mustapha Mouloua

Stephanie Castelin

The present study was designed to empirically examine the effects of bilingualism on language processing in relation to congruent and incongruent sentences. 59 monolingual and bilingual participants completed a semantic congruence decision task. Results indicated significant differences in accuracy and reaction time among monolingual and bilingual speakers.  These findings have theoretical implications and apply to both workplace and classroom settings for various learning and communication activities.  


Generative Linguistics And Neural Networks At 60: Foundation, Friction, And Fusion, Joe Pater Feb 2019

Generative Linguistics And Neural Networks At 60: Foundation, Friction, And Fusion, Joe Pater

Joe Pater

The birthdate of both generative linguistics and neural networks can be taken as 1957, the year of the publication of foundational work by both Noam Chomsky and Frank Rosenblatt. This paper traces the development of these two approaches to cognitive science, from their largely autonomous early development in their first thirty years, through their collision in the 1980s around the past tense debate (Rumelhart and McClelland 1986, Pinker and Prince 1988), and their integration in much subsequent work up to the present. Although this integration has produced a considerable body of results, the continued general gulf between these two lines ...


Teaching Language Variation In The Classroom: Strategies And Models From Teachers And Linguists, Michelle D. Devereaux, Chris C. Palmer Dec 2018

Teaching Language Variation In The Classroom: Strategies And Models From Teachers And Linguists, Michelle D. Devereaux, Chris C. Palmer

Chris C. Palmer

Bringing together the varied and multifaceted expertise of teachers and linguists in one accessible volume, this book presents practical tools, grounded in cutting-edge research, for teaching about language and language diversity in the ELA classroom. By demonstrating practical ways teachers can implement research-driven linguistic concepts in their own teaching environment, each chapter offers real-world lessons as well as clear methods for instructing students on the diversity of language. Written for pre-service and in-service teachers, this book includes easy-to-use lesson plans, pedagogical strategies and activities, as well as a wealth of resources carefully designed to optimize student comprehension of language variation.


Slurs And Register: A Case Study In Meaning Pluralism, Justina Diaz-Legaspe, Chang Liu, Robert J. Stainton Dec 2018

Slurs And Register: A Case Study In Meaning Pluralism, Justina Diaz-Legaspe, Chang Liu, Robert J. Stainton

Robert J. Stainton

Most theories of slurs fall into one of two families: those which understand slurring terms to involve special descriptive/informational content (however conveyed), and those which understand them to encode special emotive/expressive content. Our view is that both offer essential insights, but that part of what sets slurs apart is use-theoretic content. In particular, we urge that slurring words belong at the intersection of a number of categories in a sociolinguistic register taxonomy, one that usually includes [+slang] and [+vulgar] and always includes [-polite] and [+derogatory]. Thus, e.g., what distinguishes ‘Chinese’ from ‘chink’ is neither a peculiar sort ...


Lonergan's Rock, Rhetoric's Love: Critical Thinking, Truth, And Communication(S) Ethics.Pdf, Jon P. Radwan Dec 2018

Lonergan's Rock, Rhetoric's Love: Critical Thinking, Truth, And Communication(S) Ethics.Pdf, Jon P. Radwan

Jon P. Radwan

This essay highlights the intersubjective dimension of ethics, aligning Lonergan’s cognitive pursuit of objective truth with a Platonic and Christian understanding of communication as interpersonal love. After an introduction to Lonergan’s epistemology, Plato’s description of rhetoric as love directs attention to how meaning and our fellow subjects help constitute our subjectivity. Critical thought advances toward truth via language and symbolism, and this mediation process ontologically grounds individual subjects within tradition and community. Just as there is an inherent ethic within knowing, so is there a self-justifying communication ethic uniting objective truth with community bonding. In St. Paul ...


Context Of Learning And Second Language Development Of Spanish Vowels, Avizia Y. Long, Megan Solon, Silvina Bongiovanni Apr 2018

Context Of Learning And Second Language Development Of Spanish Vowels, Avizia Y. Long, Megan Solon, Silvina Bongiovanni

Avizia Y. Long

The present study explored development in Spanish vowel production during a short-term study abroad program. The production patterns of a group of learners studying abroad in a 4-week program in the Dominican Republic were compared in terms of overall vowel quality, tendency to diphthongize /e/ and /o/, and vowel duration to those of a similar group of learners studying in the at-home context. Results revealed no significant changes or differences between groups in vowel quality or diphthongization, but a significant improvement (i.e., reduction) in vowel duration for /a/, /o/, and /u/ for the at-home group only. Findings are discussed ...


Hand Annotation And Reliability: Corpus Linguistic Approaches To Teaching And Studying Writing, Brian Larson Mar 2018

Hand Annotation And Reliability: Corpus Linguistic Approaches To Teaching And Studying Writing, Brian Larson

Brian Larson

If I say “He’s an eligible BLANK,” you’re likely to complete the sentence with “bachelor.” The fact that “eligible” and “bachelor” often appear together--in corpus-linguistic terms, they are collocated--tells us something about the meaning of “bachelor” that is not in its dictionary definition and related social values (e.g., gendered ones, in this example). This workshop, sponsored by the Linguistics, Language, and Writing (LLW) Standing Group, used hands-on activities to introduce theories and methods of corpus-linguistic analysis for various purposes, genres, and sub-fields within writing studies. Facilitators guided attendees through examples of the use of corpus methods in ...


Reviews Of Barbara Johnstone, The Linguistic Individual, Barbara Johnstone Dec 2017

Reviews Of Barbara Johnstone, The Linguistic Individual, Barbara Johnstone

Barbara Johnstone

This pdf contains reviews by several authors


Miscellaneous Reviews Of Book Chapters By Barbara Johnstone In Edited Volumes., Barbara Johnstone Dec 2017

Miscellaneous Reviews Of Book Chapters By Barbara Johnstone In Edited Volumes., Barbara Johnstone

Barbara Johnstone

Miscellaneous reviews of book chapters by Barbara Johnstone in edited volumes.


Reviews Of Barbara Johnstone, Discourse Analysis, Barbara Johnstone Dec 2017

Reviews Of Barbara Johnstone, Discourse Analysis, Barbara Johnstone

Barbara Johnstone

This pdf contains reviews by several authors.


Reviews Of Barbara Johnstone, Qualitative Methods In Sociolinguistics, Barbara Johnstone Dec 2017

Reviews Of Barbara Johnstone, Qualitative Methods In Sociolinguistics, Barbara Johnstone

Barbara Johnstone

this pdf contains reviews by several authors


Reviews Of Barbara Johnstone, Repetition In Arabic Discourse, Barbara Johnstone Dec 2017

Reviews Of Barbara Johnstone, Repetition In Arabic Discourse, Barbara Johnstone

Barbara Johnstone

This pdf contains reviews by several authors


Reviews Of Barbara Johnstone (Ed.), Repetition In Discourse: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Barbara Johnstone Dec 2017

Reviews Of Barbara Johnstone (Ed.), Repetition In Discourse: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Barbara Johnstone

Barbara Johnstone

This pdf contains several reviews.


Review Of Katherine A Remlinger, Yooper Talk: Dialect As Identity In Michigan's Upper Peninsula, Barbara Johnstone Dec 2017

Review Of Katherine A Remlinger, Yooper Talk: Dialect As Identity In Michigan's Upper Peninsula, Barbara Johnstone

Barbara Johnstone

This is the pre-publication proof. For the final version with the correct page numbers, consult the journal.


Introduction To Discourse, Structure And Linguistic Choice By T. Price Caldwell, Robert J. Stainton Dec 2017

Introduction To Discourse, Structure And Linguistic Choice By T. Price Caldwell, Robert J. Stainton

Robert J. Stainton

No abstract provided.


Two Questions About Interpretive Effects, Robert J. Stainton, Christopher Viger Dec 2017

Two Questions About Interpretive Effects, Robert J. Stainton, Christopher Viger

Robert J. Stainton

We discuss central themes in Lepore and Stone's Imagination and Convention. We begin by laying out their view, and then pose both empirical and methodological criticisms.


Teaching To Self Assess: Developing Critical Thinking Skills For Student Interpreters, Stephen Fitzmaurice Dec 2017

Teaching To Self Assess: Developing Critical Thinking Skills For Student Interpreters, Stephen Fitzmaurice

Stephen Fitzmaurice

In an effort to teach critical thinking skills to interpreting students, our
educational interpreting program has stopped providing direct feedback
on their interpreted work. We believe that independent practitioners
need to be skilled at self-assessment rather than relying on external ratings
of performance; thus, for the last 2 years, I have taught and then
graded students on the efficacy of their self-assessment of their own
work. To assess this change, I analyzed the Educational Interpreter Performance
Assessment (EIPA) ratings of students who received direct
feedback and those who learned to self-assess. The findings indicate that
the students who were taught ...


How To Delete, John J. Mccarthy Dec 2017

How To Delete, John J. Mccarthy

John J. McCarthy

Using data from Arabic and other languages, this chapter argues that segmental deletion processes are gradual in the sense that segments are lost through attrition rather than all at once. The argument is framed within Harmonic Serialism, a derivational version of Optimality Theory that allows deletion processes to be decomposed into successive reduction steps.


The Contribution Of Lexical Diversity To College‐Level Writing, Melanie C. González Oct 2017

The Contribution Of Lexical Diversity To College‐Level Writing, Melanie C. González

Melanie González

This article reports on a study that investigated the extent to which lexical frequency and lexical diversity contribute to writing proficiency scores on monolingual English‐speaking writers’ and advanced multilingual writers’ academic compositions. The data consist of essays composed by 104 multilingual English learners enrolled in advanced second language writing courses at various intensive English programs and 68 monolingual English‐speaking university students in a first‐year composition course. Three independent raters evaluated the essays according to the TOEFL iBT independent writing rubric. Results from a binary logistic regression reveal that lexical diversity has a significantly greater impact on writing ...


Logical Form And The Vernacular Revisited, Andrew Botterell, Robert J. Stainton Aug 2017

Logical Form And The Vernacular Revisited, Andrew Botterell, Robert J. Stainton

Robert J. Stainton

We revisit a debate initiated some fifteen years ago by Ray Elugardo and Robert Stainton about the domain of arguments. Our main result is that arguments are not exclusively sets of linguistic expressions. Instead, as we put it, some non-linguistic items have ‘logical form’. The crucial examples are arguments, both deductive and inductive, made with unembedded words and phrases.


Cognitive Processing Of Time In Language By Non-Native Readers: Can Explicit Teaching Promote Interlanguage Development?, Andreas Schramm, Verena Haser, Michael Mensink, Jonas Reifenrath Jul 2017

Cognitive Processing Of Time In Language By Non-Native Readers: Can Explicit Teaching Promote Interlanguage Development?, Andreas Schramm, Verena Haser, Michael Mensink, Jonas Reifenrath

Andreas Schramm

Every English sentence requires a verb containing information about time. This in turn makes the temporal meanings that verbs carry crucial. The current study is part of a larger research interest into the nature of cognitive processing of time in language by native and non-native readers of English (Becker, Ferretti, & Madden_Lombardi, 2013; Schramm & Mensink, in press). It explores the acquisition of temporal meanings by adult non-native speakers of English.  It specifically addresses the natural progression in learners’ development of the comprehension of time concepts (not only of their production) and whether instruction can change the rate of this progression. Following ...


Welcome To Ilead: An Introduction To Intercultural Communication For Intensive English Program Students, Sharon Tjaden-Glass Jul 2017

Welcome To Ilead: An Introduction To Intercultural Communication For Intensive English Program Students, Sharon Tjaden-Glass

Sharon Tjaden-Glass

Presentation introduces participants to the rationale, curriculum, and outcomes of the iLEAD intercultural communication program.